2015 * XXVI * 2

SISUKORD
 
OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/2015_2_sisukord.pdf
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TEADUSARTIKLID
R. Kõlli, I. Tamm  
  Muld paekivil – Eesti aasta 2015 muld 51
 
Abstract
Soil on limestone – year 2015 soil of Estonia
R. Kõlli, I. Tamm
By Estonian Soil Sciences Society for the year 2015 soil of Estonia the limestone rendzina was elected. After WRB these soils embrace different kind of Rendzic Lithic Leptosols. The area of limestone rendzina forms only 1.2% from whole Estonian soil cover. In overview on Estonian year 2015 soils' morphology, genesis, classification, humus status and different properties (chemical, physical, hydro-physical) are treated in detail. The functioning and properties of limestone rendzinas are treated by Estonian Soil Classification on soil species (identified by soil genesis) and soil varieties (divided on the basis of soil texture) levels. Besides that the limestone rendzinas' productivity, environment protection ability in dependence upon soil functioning and properties, usage in agriculture and forestry, and distribution in Estonia are analysed as well.
Keywords: limestone rendzina, Estonian year 2015 soil, Rendzic Lithic Leptosol, soil properties
Source: Agraarteadus 2015 (26) 2:51-61

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OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/2015_2_kolli.pdf
AUTORIKONTAKT
Eesti Maaülikool, Põllumajandus- ja keskkonnainstituut, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 5, 51014 Tartu
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V. Loide  
  Talirukki 'Vambo' saagikusest ja saagistabiilsusest pikaajalises NPK väetuskatses rähkmullal 62
 
Abstract
The productivity and yield stability of winter rye variety 'Vambo' in long term NPK fertilization trial on calcaric cambisol
V. Loide
The productivity and yield stability of winter rye has been investigated in long term fertilization trial on Calcaric Cambisol. The diploid rye variety 'Vambo' was one of the cultures used in the trial in years 1975 till 2014. The trial was established as six-year crop rotation (potato-late maturing spring barley-undersown early maturing spring barley-first year grass clover mixture-second year grass clover mixture-rye). In the trial the traditional agrotechnical measures were applied: ploughing, using of herbicides and plant protection measures. The trial consisted of 21 combined variants of NPK mineral fertilisers and farmyard manure variants of 30 and 60 t ha-1. NPK-fertilizers (kg ha-1 as element) levels are as follow: 000 = N0P0K0; 111 = N45P13K30; 222 = N90P26K60; 333 = N135P39K90; 433 = N180P39K90. Weather conditions of trial are given in figures 1–2. Averagely of 19 years the rye yield from unfertilized plot (Figure 3) was 1.9 t ha-1, by using of mineral fertilizers in level 3 (N135P39K90) the yield was 4.1 t ha-1. The effect of farmyard manure combined with mineral fertilizers was modest (Table 1) because the organic fertilizer was applied to the first culture in crop rotation (potato) and the last culture rye didn’t get any benefit from that. The weather conditions had bigger impact on yield than fertilization. Different fertilizing levels (Figure 4) have had positive effect on rye productivity, but the variability was remarkable. The increasing of productivity is most probably connected to the good weather conditions in September. But in the same time the variability in productivity was increased due to unfavourable conditions in September like the increasing of temperatures and decreasing of precipitation (dry periods in the beginning of rye growth). The best stability of yields was recorded in fertilization level 333 (N135P39K90) where the average yield levels of 3–5 t ha-1 was 84%. In the same time the fertilization levels 222 and 221 gave the same productivity 74 and 53% accordingly. Compared to the smaller rates of fertilization the plots with higher fertilization rates (NPK 222 and higher) resulted in smaller variability in yields (Figure 6).
Keywords: rye productivity, effectiv¬ness of fertilizers, weather condi¬tions, stability of yields
Source: Agraarteadus 2015 (26) 2:62-67

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OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/2015_2_loide.pdf
AUTORIKONTAKT
Eesti Taimekasvatuse Instituuts, J. Aamisepa 1, Jõgeva, Jõgeva vald 48309
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K. Meremäe, M. Mäesaar, T. Kramanenko, L. Häkkinen, M. Roasto  
  Termofiilsete kampülobakterite levimus, arvukus ja ravimtundlikkus värskes kanalihas Eesti jaemüügi tasandil 68
 
Abstract
The prevalence, counts and antimicrobial suspectibility of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in fresh chicken meat at Estonian retail level
K. Meremäe, M. Mäesaar, T. Kramanenko, L. Häkkinen, M. Roasto
Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. are one of the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in European Union and the illness is frequently associated with the consumption of chicken meat. The aim of the present study is to give an overview about the prevalence, counts and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. in fresh chicken meat at the Estonian retail level. Campylobacter spp. was isolated in 77 (35%) of 220 meat samples. Altogether, 24 (20.3%) of Estonian origin, 41 (50%) of Lithuanian origin and 12 (60%) of Latvian origin chicken fresh meat samples were positive for Campylobacter at Estonian retail level. The highest counts of Campylobacter spp., on average 2600 CFU g-1, were detected in the chicken meat of Lithuanian origin followed by on average 1600 CFU g-1 and 660 CFU g 1 in samples of Latvian and Estonian origin, respectively. The seasonal peak of Campylobacter contamination was between June and September. A total of 36 isolates (36.7%) of 98 were susceptible to all the tested antimicrobials. The highest proportion of isolates (41 isolates, 41.8%) was resistant to fluoroquinolones. Multiresistance was detected in 5 (5.1%) isolates. In conclusion, compared to fresh chicken meat products of Lithuanian and Latvian origin, the prevalence, counts and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. in fresh chicken meat of Estonian origin were lower. Therefore we suppose that the risk of occurrence of Campylobacter human infection by consuming domestic chicken meat is lower than by consuming imported chicken meat.
KeywordsCampylobacter, chicken meat, prevalence, counts, seasonality, antimicrobial resistance
Source: Agraarteadus 2015 (26) 2:68-75

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OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/2015_2_meremae.pdf
AUTORIKONTAKT
Eesti Maaülikool, Veterinaarmeditsiini ja loomakasvatuse instituut, Toiduhügieeni osakond, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56/3, Tartu 51014
Veterinaar- ja toidulaboratoorium, Kreutzwaldi 30, Tartu 51006
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P. Põllumäe  
  Ülevaade metsaomanike klassifitseerimisest Ida-Euroopa riikides: metodoloogilisi ning metsapoliitilisi aspekte 76
 
Abstract
A review on forest owner classifications in Eastern-Europe methodological and policy-related aspects
P. Põllumäe
Forest owners are an important group of people as they own and use a significant amount of our land resources. Their choices, decisions and behaviour are closely related to the benefits that forests provide to everyone. It is for this that information is needed about forest owners and their behaviour. Private forest ownership in Central and Eastern European countries is relatively new and there is not much knowledge about the new forest owners. Therefore, several owners’ classification studies have been made in different countries. The aim of this paper is to give an overview about some forest owners' classification cases in this region. Observed typologies and the methodological aspects are compared between the country cases and their policy importance is discussed. In almost all such studies, quite universal forest owner groups are found – the economically and ecologically oriented, the multiple users or producers and indifferent or passive owners. Depending on the data and specific clustering methods some variations of course exist. The similarity and the broad description of groups rises a question if such larger-scale classifications are in fact depleted. Also, there are several methodological downsides in the used clustering processes. Nevertheless, such classi¬fications are useful for designing large-scale and long-term objectives for management of forest resources. This is due to the high level of generalization of these owner types. However, using such classifications for designing more specific tools for particular groups, might not be appropriate. Instead, qualitative research in describing particular owner groups might give new and more in-depth information about the characteristics of private forest owners. Also, these results might help more in developing forest and environmental policy tools.
Keywords: Estonia, values and objectives, forest policy, transition, forest management, cluster analysis
Source: Agraarteadus 2015 (26) 2:76-83

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OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/2015_2_pollumae.pdf
AUTORIKONTAKT
Eesti Maaülikool, metsandus- ja maaehitusinstituut, metsakorralduse osakond, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 5, 51014 Tartu
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A.-H. Viira, R. Omel, R. Värnik, H. Luik, B. Maasing, R. Põldaru
  Competitiveness of the Estonian dairy sector, 1994–2014 84
 
Abstract
Competitiveness of the Estonian dairy sector, 1994–2014
A.-H. Viira, R. Omel, R. Värnik, H. Luik, B. Maasing, R. Põldaru
Historically, the dairy sector has been one of the most important and competitive branches of the Estonian agriculture and food industry. Since the beginning of the transitional period 25 years ago, Estonian society and its economy have gone through significant institutional, political and societal changes, which have also affected the dairy sector. This paper provides a review of the competitiveness of the Estonian dairy sector. The competitiveness of dairy farms, the dairy processing industry and dairy exports are discussed from several perspectives applied in the studies of competitiveness. Also, the context of the transition to a market economy and institutional, policy and market changes are considered. In the past 20 years, the Estonian dairy sector has maintained its competitiveness in export markets. However, there are several aspects that need to be addressed in order to maintain competitiveness in the long term. Estonian dairy farms need to increase their total factor productivity. The negative trends in the declining lifespan of dairy cows and declining content of milk components should be stopped. The Estonian dairy processing industry needs to increase labour productivity and value per kg of processed milk. To avoid the negative effects of specialisation on certain products and markets, the portfolio of export markets and products should be expanded. The EU dairy market is going through deregulation, and farm payments in Estonia fell in 2014. This is not the first time in 20 years that agricultural policy has not been overly protective of the dairy sector. Therefore, the future competitiveness of the Estonian dairy sector depends mainly on its adaptive capacity in the light of changing markets, policies and institutions.
Keywords:
competitiveness, dairy sector, productivity, revealed compa¬rative advantage, export, Estonia
Source: Agraarteadus 2015 (26) 2:84-104

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OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/2015_2_viira.pdf
AUTORIKONTAKT
Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 1, Tartu 51014, Estonia
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KROONIKA
J. Kivistik  
  Ahvenamaa aedades 106
 
OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/2015_2_kivistik.pdf
     
 
M. Kass  
  APSi presidendi tervitus juubeli puhul 108
 
OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/2015_2_kass.pdf
     
 
JUUBELID
R. Kõlli  
  Enn Leedu 70 – mõnda tema akadeemilisest karjäärist 109
 
OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/2015_2_kolli_2.pdf
     
 
TEATED
  Doktorikraadi kaitsjad Eesti Maaülikoolis 2015. aastal 111
 
OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/2015_2_teated.pdf
     
 
Märksõnade pilv
antimicrobial applied aspects average campylobacter chicken classification classifications compared competitiveness conditions counts dairy eesti export fertilization fertilizers figure forest fresh give groups industry isolates kõlli latvian level levels limestone lithuanian maaülikool market markets meat methodological mineral n135p39k90 origin overview owner owners policy prevalence productivity products properties rendzina retail samples sector september soil source stability studies term therefore trial vambo variability weather year years yield yields 2015


Avaldatud 20-12-2015