2002 * XIII * 4

A. Kaasik, R. Leming, T. Remmel.  
  Toitainete (N, P, K) kadu veise- ja seakasvatuses 201
Nutrient losses (N, P, K) in dairy- and pig production. Losses of excreta and manure nutrients (N, P, K) ex animal, ex building and ex storage were studied in different animal categories and keeping systems. Dairy cows with milk yield 5000 and 7000 kg milk per year, heifers 12–24 months and calves 0–6 months were kept in tying system where manure was scraped out twice a day. Bullocks 12–24 months were grouped in loose housing system with solid floor where manure was removed out by tractor once a week. Fattening pigs, weaners and dry and pregnant sows were kept in group pens and lactating sows were kept individually (manure was scraped out twice a day). Sawdust was used as bedding material in all animal categories except bullocks where a mixture of straw and peat was used. The nutrient content and amount of excreta per year (dairy cows, heifers and bullocks) or per period (calves and pigs) depending on the amount and composition of feed was investi-gated. The effect of feed nitrogen content and amount of bedding material on the dynamics of nitrogen (ammonia) emission in the building was studied. Quantitative and qualitative changes of cattle manure were studied in uncovered and none-leaking manure storage.

Keywords: excreta, manure, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, losses, ex animal, ex building, ex storage, cattle, pigs.

U. Kaasiku, O. Saveli.  
  Hinnatud aretuspullide kasutamine 212
Utilization of estimated the breeding bulls. This study was focused on utilization of A.I. bulls of the Estonian Red and the Estonian Holstein breed for breeding Estonian cattle. 213 Estonian Red and 278 Estonian Holstein bulls, whose estimated results of relative breeding value (RBV) on the basis of BLUP-Animal Model were published in the 3rd quarter of 1998, were involved in the analysis.

The duration of using intensity of the breeding bulls was analyzed on the basis of birth year, the duration of using period, gene proportion and breeding value. In the result of the study it was ascertained, that the breeding bulls were used during too long time.

From 1991 till 1998 the inseminations with the semen of the bulls born in 1983–84 constituted 41.2% in the Estonian Red breed and 31.2% in the Estonian Holstein breed. This year the bulls of high breeding value (RBV>110) are used mostly (41.2%) in the Estonian Holstein breed and to the lesser extent (15.1%) in the Estonian Red breed. The turnover of the generations was too slow and semen of the bulls from younger genera-tion of relatively higher breeding value has not been much used for breeding.

Semen of the bulls of low breeding value should be more strictly rejected.

Keywords: BLUP, breed, breeding, bull, breeding value, insemination, sire.

K. Kadarik, O. Kärt, E. Rihma, K. Soidra.  
  Toorproteiini ja metaboliseeruva energia ning piimavalgu päevatoodangu seostest lüpsilehmade happe-leelisseisundiga 221
About the connections of crude protein, metabolic energy and the daily yield of milk protein with the acid-base state of lactating cows. An experiment was carried out with four Estonian Holstein breed cows supplied with rumen fistulas using the principle of the 4×4 Latin square. The animal researchers investigated the intake of silage when 25, 40, 55 or 70% of the test cows’ metabolic energy was covered with concentrated feed and Lucerne silage was fed ad libitum.

We investigated the influence of the rations in the same experiment on the blood’s acid-base state of lactating cows acid-base state (ABS). In the rations when the importance of the concentrated feed grew from 25% to 70% (R 25%… R 70%), the average amount of crude protein grew from 1490 g to 1725 g and the average metabolic energy from 81.7 to 118.5 MJ (P<0.05). At the same time the average ratio between crude protein and metabolic energy decreased from 18.2 to 14.5 (P<0.05).

Metabolic load is also reflected by the excreted acid and base residues of metabolism. In the case of the rations R 40%, R 55% and R 70% the excretion of bases remained in the limits of 1100–1200 mmol/8h. At the same time, the excretion of acids began to increase and in the case of the last ratio – R70% – exceeded the initial value and the ratio of bases and acids in urine was the lowest. When consuming R 55%, in urine the content of bases was the lowest and in blood the content of the carbonic acid’s anion (HCO3) was the highest, i. e. in the kidneys intensive regeneration of the carbon acid’s anion was taking place.

When feeding according to the fourth – R 70% – ration, the blood’s bicarbonate buffer system is not sufficient to neutralize the acid metabolic residues and the blood’s pH begins to fall and reaches μ–1σ level. The excretion of acids with urine is the highest at the same time: Polynomial regressions were found between the acids content in urine and the blood’s pH, between the content of carbon acid’s anion and the excess of buffer bases. From this prognosis model it became evident that the blood’s pH values varied in narrow limits (μ±1σ) which speaks about the strong regulation of the given indicator. In the case of the first three rations the average acid contents in urine in different rations reached 71–86 mmol/l and the growth of the blood’s pH, HCO3 and BE was taking place parallelly, which means that in the ABS an alkaline shift appeared – in blood the concentration of H+ ions decreased and the content of carbon acid’s anion and buffer base excess increased.

As the significant changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in blood were not seen, the above-mentioned alkaline shift is of metabolic appearance mechanism. In feeding according to the fourth ration (R 70%), the acids content in urine grew more radically and the average reached 115 mmol/l. The individual values of carbon acid’s anion in blood fell lower the μ–1σ level. It is possible to conclude that here the compensated alkalosis ends and in feeding the fourth ration metabolic acidosis begins to appear. The daily production of milk protein, being a factor characterizing the metabolic load of lactating cows, also correlated with the increase renal excretion of acid metabolic resides. When the daily yield production of milk protein increased, the ratio of acids and bases excreted by urine decreased significantly.

As the blood’s ABS indicators varied during the experiment in the limits of μ±1σ, it is more correct to use this interval for the indicators of the reference interval of ABS than the classical μ±2σ.

Keywords: crude protein, metabolic energy, ratio between protein and energy ,the blood’s acid-base state, pH, pCO2, HCO3-, the blood’s buffer bases excess, reference interval, milk protein, the content of acids in urine and excretion, the bases of urine and excretion, metabolic alkalosis, metabolic acidosis.

H. Kärblane, E. Hannolainen, J. Kanger, L. Kevvai.  
  Taimetoitainete bilansist Eesti maaviljeluses 230
Balance of plant nutrients in Estonian agriculture. Total and active balance of plant nutrients (on the average of 1996–2000) was calculated for Estonian agriculture. It was compared with plant nutrient balance of 1960, 1965, 1970 and 1975. The calculations of the balance of plant nutrients based on the input and output of main plant nutrients. The sources of input are plant nutrients from fertilizers, seeds, precipitation, symbiotically and non-symbiotically fixed nitrogen. The sources of output are removing of plant nutrients with the yield, leaching, runoff, volatilization of N.

Keywords: plant nutrients, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, balance, input, output.

V. Loide.  
  Põllukultuuride magneesiumivajadusest Eesti muldadel 237
Magnesium requirement of field crops on Estonian soils. Comparison of the methods of determi-nation of magnesium requirement revealed that different extractions work differently in calcium rich soils. Compared with 0.025N CaCl2 solution, the amount of magnesium extracted by ammonium lactate solution is larger than the amount assimilated by plants on calcium rich soils, which may yield a determination result indicating magnesium deficit

In order to obtain an objective estimate of the magnesium requirement of field soils, the magnesium con-tents of plants originating from different growing areas was studied. The magnesium content of cereals (winter wheat, summer wheat, barley) in the sprouting phase was to a lesser of greater extent lower than optimum level on soils with both low and high magnesium requirements as established by ammonium lactate method.

Keywords: soil, plant, magnesium, calcium, 0.025N CaCl2 extraction, ammonium lactate extraction.

P. Padrik, Ü. Jaakma.  
  Eesti holsteini tõugu sugupullide spermide morfoloogia, seda mõjutavad tegurid ja seos emasloomade tiinestumisega 243
Sperm morphology in Estonian Holstein Dairy Bulls, factors affecting it and relation to fertility. Effective milk production does not depend only on valuable genetics of dairy cows but also on many other factors including optimal calving interval. Conception of cows after calving is significantly influenced by the quality of frozen bull semen.

The aim of the current study was to evaluate sperm morphology of Estonian Holstein bulls, the factors influencing it and the correlation between the percentage of normal spermatozoa in fresh semen and bulls' in vivo fertility expressed as non-return rate (NRR) of dairy cows and heifers.

The results of the study showed that increase in bulls' age was accompanied by the significant increase in the incidence of sperm abnormalities. The highest incidence of sperm abnormalities was detected in the semen of 6–7 years old bulls. Frequency of sperm abnormalities in fresh semen varied also between the seasons. The incidence of abnormal spermatozoa was the highest in the ejaculates collected in summer, from June to August. The bulls with the CVM-carriers in their pedigree during previous three generations had more abnormal spermatozoa in the fresh semen that control bulls.

The study of sperm morphology dynamics in young dairy bulls revealed that the frequency of sperm abnormalities was high in the first ejaculates. The improvement in sperm morphology was observed after 6–8 semen collections and the percentage of sperm abnormalities stabilised after 10–12 collections.

A weak positive correlation was detected between the incidence of morphologically normal spermatozoa in the fresh semen and results of the hypo-osmotic test of frozen/thawed semen but not between the morphology and motility of spermatozoa in fresh or frozen/thawed semen.

The positive correlation was obtained between the percentage of normal spermatozoa in the fresh semen and 60-days NRR of cows and heifers both on ejaculate and bull level (r=0.51 and r=0.49, respectively, P<0.01).

Key words: dairy bull, sperm morphology, age, season, fertility.

R. Kask.  
  50 aastat esimesest mullateaduslikust ekskursioonist Balti vabariikides 257
  Agraarteaduse käesoleva aasta 4. numbris ilmunud K. Kadariku jt artiklis on lk 226 artikli tehnilisel vormistamisel tekkinud viga. Joonis 3 õige allkiri on:

Joonis 3. Uriini hapete ja aluste ekskretsioon erineva jõusöödasisaldusega ratsioonide tarbimisel
Figure 3. Excretin of urine acid and base when intaking the ration with a different content of concentrates



Märksõnade pilv
abnormalities acid acids acid’s ammonium amount animal anion average balance base bases between blood blood’s breed breeding buffer building bull bullocks bulls calcium carbon case cattle content correlation cows crude daily dairy decreased during eesti energy excess excreta excretion experiment factors feed feeding fertility fourth fresh frozen grew hco3 heifers high highest holstein incidence increase input interval kept lactate lactating level limits losses magnesium manure metabolic milk mmol months morphology nitrogen normal nutrient nutrients output p< percentage pigs plant production protein ratio ration rations requirement semen soils sperm spermatozoa state storage studied study urine value varied year yield




Akadeemiline Põllumajanduse Selts


Alo Tänavots


Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 1,
51014 Tartu,







Veebis alates
1997 * VIII * 4



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