2011 * XXII * 2

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V. Andrianov, A. Arend, M. Aunapuu.  
  Uudse kombineeritud fiksaatori kasutamine pikkade toruluude murdumise ravis 3
In orthopaedic surgery for the treatment of fractures of long bones of small animals mostly operative methods are used. Precise reposition of fragments, stable fixation of the fracture and mobilisation of the affected limb as early as possible are important factors for the fast consolidation of the bone fracture. At the same time the operation for installation of fixator has to cause minimal traumatization of surrounding soft tissues and maintain as much as possible bone trophic and blood supply. Also, the fixator has to be compact but give maximal strength. Because of these high demands for fixators in veterinary practice there is continious search for new more efficient devices.
In our experimental study for the treatment of long bone fractures effect of a new fixator combining extramedullary and intramedullary elements of osteosynthesis was evaluated. This rod-through-plate fixator has relatively simple construction and its installation causes minimal traumatization of soft tissue during the operation. The experiments were performed on 4 male Estonian Blackhead sheep. Experimantal bone fractures were performed as transverse osteotomies in the central third of the diaphysis of the femur. Radiographic images showed that the fractures had well repaired and all elements of the fixator staid in the initial position throughout the duration of the whole experiment (10 weeks). Histological study revealed that all parts of the callus had a typical structure during the experimant.
In conclusion, the application of a new combined fixator expands the treatment possibilities for diaphyseal fractures of long bones of small animals as it has a simple construction, is inexpensive and its use does not require special training for the surgeon.
experimental study, rod-through-plate fixator, long bone, sheep, histology.
O. Balodis, Z. Gaile.  
  Fungicide as growth regulator application effect on winter oil seed rape (Brassica napus L) autumn growth 7
Plant growth regulation during autumn is one of the instruments for oilseed rape growers to improve plant readiness for winter. Influence on plant biometrical parameters by fungicide as growth regulator application allows affect one of the significant risk factors for successful growing of winter oilseed rape – winterhardiness. The aim of our research, started in autumn 2007 and continued up to autumn 2010 in Research and Study farm ʻVecauceʼ of Latvia University of Agriculture, was to investigate the influence of fungicide (Juventus 90 s.c. – metconazole, 90 g L–1; dose: 0.5 L ha–1) as growth regulator application depending on sowing date (five dates) and sowing rate (four rates) in autumn on two type winter rape cultivarsʼ (line ʻCaliforniumʼ and hybrid ʻExcaliburʼ) autumn plant development. Results showed that fungicide application affected oilseed rape plant biometric parameters during autumn, but effect depended on conditions in research year, as well as used cultivar. Sowing time also had influence on increase or decrease of some plant biometrical parameters. Parameters affected significantly (P < 0.05) on average by fungicide application were: total plant mass significantly increased in year 2009 for ʻCaliforniumʼ, decreased in years 2007 and 2010 for ʻExcaliburʼ; height of growth point decreased for ʻCaliforniumʼ in year 2007 and 2010, but increased in 2008, but that of ʻExcaliburʼ decreased in years 2007, 2009 and 2010; root neck diameter decreased only in years 2007 and 2010 for ʻExcaliburʼ; number of leaves increased in all trial years except year 2010 for both varieties; root length increased in years 2008 and 2009 for ʻExcaliburʼ. Root mass changes in result of fungicide application were insignificant in all trial years. Fungicide application effect depended also on sowing date, but in majority cases were not related to sowing rate.
winter oilseed rape, sowing date and rate, growth regulator, plant biometric indices.
I. Gutmane, A. Adamovics.  
  Influence of nitrogen fertilization rates on Festulolium and Lolium x boucheanum forage and seed yield and quality 13
The objective of this research was to study the influence of fertilization rate on dry matter yield structure and sward persistency of Festulolium and Lolium x boucheanum varieties under agro-ecological conditions of Latvia. Field trials were established on the sod-podzolic soil and fertilized with N 120 (60+60), N 180 (60+60+60), P 78 and K 90 kg ha–1. Forages were harvested three times during the growing season. Festulolium hybrids are among the most persistent and productive genotypes of the grasses used in many Europe countries, especially in adverse environments. The productivity of grasslands mostly depends on cultivated grass cultivars. The results of the experiments in the years 2003−2007 highlight the significant DM yield dependence on used variety and the N fertilizer dose increase. On the average the N fertilizer dose increase from 120 to 180 kg ha–1 contributed to DM yield increase by 1.6 t ha–1or 17 percent. In the first year of yielding the positive effect of increased nitrogen rates was better expressed on loloid Festulolium cultivars DM yield, and was less expressed on festucoid Festulolium cultivars. On second and third year of the yielding difference in increased nitrogen rates positive effect between loloid and festucoid Festulolium cultivars were not observed. Increasing amount of nitrogen fertiliser provided significant increase in seed yields for all trial varieties. The influence of nitrogen fertiliser rates on seed yield formative elements was different in trial years.
Festulolium, Lolium x boucheanum, nitrogen fertilization, grassland productivity.
R. Kõlli, A. Astover, E. Reintam.  
  Ülevaade mullateaduse-alastest uurimustest 21
In review the most important scientific researches conducted during 2001−2010 at the Department of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of Estonian University of Life Sciences are analyzed. The review enfolds researches on Estonian soilsʼ properties, functioning, status, protection and sustainable management. The list of concerned to treated topics references enables to become more profoundly acquainted with presented research problems.
carbon sequestration, humus forms, soil degradation, management and protection.
D. Lapins, J. Kopmanis, A. Berzins, G. Dinaburga. 28
  Effect of differences in unregulated factors on yield of winter oil seed rape and winter wheat  
The objective of this study: to determine the basis for the view that developing of cartograms for differentiation of growing technologies for winter oil seed rape and winter wheat needs also analyses from subsoil layer. Field characterized with wavy land form morainic hill. Growing of winter oil seed rape in season 2008/2009 followed by winter wheat in 2009/2010. 48 observation points were set to determine following parameters in both soil arable and subsoil layers: organic matter content, soil texture classes, yield of winter oil seed rape and of winter wheat. Obtained data of organic matter content and soil texture classes were used to calculate index of soil density. Crop roots mass and the length of the main root were determined in autumn after crop germination and in spring after renewal of vegetation. Found that root length and total root mass in a spring of winter oil seed rape and winter wheat is the most significant parameter what determines formation of yield. Positive effect of soil density index in both soil arable layer and in subsoil layer on winter wheat yield was explicit with a very high probability. Soil density index in subsoil layer has significant positive effect on the mass of oil seed rape roots in a spring. Significant negative effect of soil moisture in subsoil layer in hill lower slope point was established for oil seed rape and winter wheat yield.
winter oilseed rape, winter wheat, precision agriculture.
J. Olt, V. Mikita, R. Ilves, A. Küüt.
  Kvalitatiiv- ja kvantitatiivmeetodil valmistatud küttesegu hindamine mootormeetod 33
In the article the research results concerning the possible uses of alternative fuels and their feeding methods in diesel engines are presented. The alternative fuel-air mixture under study comprises diesel fuel, liquid fuel made of lignocellulose raw materials, and fuel additive improving the cetane number of the mixture. The quantitative correlation of fuel components and their methods of use in a diesel engine are determined by optimizing different fuelmixing methods. In order to evaluate the composition of the fuel-air mixture, qualitative and quantitative mixing methods are used. In the research paper different mixing methods of fuel components and the influence of created fuel-mixtures on the combustion process are analyzed. The possible methods of use of the fuelmixture under study in a diesel engine are analyzed. The composition of a local alternative fuel-air mixture is developed and motor method is used to test its methods of use. The physical-chemical properties of the alternative fuel-air mixture are evaluated by measuring the indicator factors and output parameters of the engine. In the article a recommended practice is presented as for how to create an alternative fuel-air mixture and how to use it in diesel engines. The author also evaluates the perspective of developing this kind of an alternative air-fuel mixture.
qualitative and quantitative fuel mixing methods, indicator index of combustion process, adjustment characteristic of the injection pumps and diesel engines.
A. Ruza, D. Kreita, M. Katamadze.
  Mineral fertilizer use efficiency in spring barley sowings 40
Optimum rates of the nitrogen (N) fertilizer in spring barley Tocada sowings were studied in field trials established at the Research and Study Farm „Pēterlauki” of the Latvia University of Agriculture (LLU) over the period 2008–2010. Field trials were conducted on a silt loam brown lessive soil (sod calcareous) with medium high phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) sufficiency levels. Fertilizer treatments: N0P0K0 – control (unfertilized); PK fertilizer was equal in all N treatments: N0, N30, N60, N90, N120, N150, N180, N210.
Plant nutrient removal with yield is dependent on crop yield level and nutrient content in basic products (grain) and by-products (straw). Nitrogen removal is associated with yield increase as affected by N fertilizer and with the increase of N content in grain and straw. N removal with yield within treatments studied increased from 80 to 145 kg ha–1. The increase in P2O5 removal with yield between minimum and maximum value was only 15 kg ha–1 and was associated almost only with the increase in grain yield. Difference between minimum and maximum value of K2O removed was more than two times greater – from 45.5 to 98.1 kg ha–1.
Utilization coefficients of plant nutrients are, to a great extent, dependent on meteorological situation in the growing season. On the average for three years, mineral N utilization coefficient was the highest with nitrogen fertilizer rate N60 – 0.44, retaining constant relationship that utilization coefficient gradually decreases with each succeeding N fertilizer rate.
Utilization indices of P2O5, averaged over 3 years, are comparatively small however the increase in N fertilizer rate resulted in the increase of P2O5 removal. Similar tendencies were observed when analyzing potassium utilization coefficients.
Calculating optimum fertilizer rates, predicted crop yield level and peculiarities of meteorological situation in specific year should be taken into account when quantifying additional fertilizer rates.
spring barley, N uptake, Nitrogen use efficiency.
O. Sada.
  Sigalate sisekliima ja loomapidamistehnoloogiate hinnang töökeskkonna tegurite alusel 45
This is an overview paper about thesis for applying for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Agricultural Machinery; defended on 2010 in Estonian University of Life Sciences.
In the eighties the number of pigs reared in Estonia reached one million. The number of pigs began to decrease rapidly in 1989 (Lember et al., 1999) and according to the Estonian Animal Recording Centre the number of pigs in performance testing is 14,475 (as of 31.12.2008), but the total number of pigs is around 369,700 (ETL 2006). Such decrease was mainly due to economic reasons. In order to maintain our position on European market, we have to find cheaper ways to produce meat. One of the opportunities is to enlarge farms and introduce rational animal keeping technologies.
There is a tendency towards building bigger pig farms, both those with deep-litter and those without litter, i.e. pigsties with liquid manure removal. Enlargement of pigsties is accompanied by problems regarding achievement of required indoor climate of the working environment.
In order to ensure efficient production of quality pork in a safe working environment that ensures competitiveness on the European market, it is crucial to develop optimal meat production technologies to be applied in Estonia.
Today it is obvious that such evaluation of technologies cannot be perfect, as it does not take into account the impact of animal-keeping technologies on the indoor climate of the production premises and the level of physical effort for work. Therefore this study focused on the technologies used in pigsties not only in view of the determination of the amount of working time, but also in consideration of their impact on the indoor climate of the working environment and human work load.
Working environment, keeping technology, pig tender, working time expense, degree of difficulty of work, indoor climate.
M. Sepp.
  Toiduhindade analüüsid Balti riikides AGMEMOD 2020 mudeli raamistikus 53
Article examines the price dispersion in the Baltic States before and after accession. The Law of One Price (LOOP) states that, regardless of the location, at a given moment of time prices of the same products should be equal when converted to a common currency. Using the AGMEMOD model which allows analysing the economic impact of prices by providing for the generation of both no policy change (baseline) and scenario analyses, will be of more general applicability and relevance to policy makers. Prices projections are provided over a medium term time horizon, so that by the time of the projectʼs completion it will be possible to make forecasts up to the year 2020. The modelling results analysis based on the high prices model version elaborated at the second half of 2008.
Law of One Price, Common Agricultural Policy, Baltic States, AGMEMOD 2020 model, price dispersion, price convergence, price divergence.
A. Slepetiene, J. Slepetys, I. Liaudanskiene, Z. Kadziuliene, A. Velykis, A. Adamovics.
  Changes of soil organic carbon and mobile humic acids in response to different agricultural management 64
Field and laboratory investigations were done at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture (LIA) and Joniskelis Research Station of LIA, Lithuania. The aim of the study was to compare the soil organic carbon (SOC) as well as carbon of mobile humic acids (MHA) contents in the differently used agricultural soils. The data of SOC and MHA investigated in four different field experiments are discussed in this article. In the Experiment 1 the study investigated two soil tillage systems: conventional and sustainable (factor A) and crop rotations with different structure of winter crops (0−100%) (factor B) on a Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol at the Joniskelis Research Station of LIA. The field Experiment 2 compared the influence of long-term legume swards on SOC and MHA in an Epicalcari- Endohypogleic Cambisol. In the Experiment 3 the treatments of factor A involved 7 different swards and the treatments of factor B of this experiment involved frequent and less frequent grazing. Five pasture fertilisation treatments P0K0; P60K0; P60K30; P60K60; P60K90 were investigated in the Experiment 4 in an Epicalcari- Endohypogleic Cambisol in a long term field experiment. SOC content was determined by Tyurin method. MHA was determined according to the Ponomariova– Plotnikova method. Different agricultural management affected changes in SOC and MHA. MHA fraction in Cambisol can be considered as one of the sensitive indicators of SOM changes in the agricultural environment.
Keywords: soil organic carbon, mobile humic acids, agriculture, management, sustainable tillage, grassland, pasture, Cambisol, fertilization.
H. Tikk, A. Lember, V.Tikk, M. Piirsalu.
  Eesti vutitõu munajõudlusnäitajate dünaamika aastatel 1987–2010 71
Estonian Quail as a breed was recognized in 1987 and since this time wellknown as hardy, suitable for factory farming and disease free quailʼs population. The dynamics of egg performance traits of Estonian Quails kept in two largest Estonian quail farms – Järveotsa and Äksi – during over than twenty years are presented and discussed. In 2000 a new breeding programme to improve the main egg performance traits of quails was initiated and during the 16 generations two different quail families were formed: egg-type and meat-type. In 2009 an average 322 and 318.5 eggs a year were produced per egg-type and meat-type quails, respectively. An average egg weight of egg-type quails was 14.2 g and eggs of meat-type quails were a little lighter – 13.7 g. It was concluded from the trials that keeping female quails in pairs with males did not reduce the number of eggs laid during a year. Live weight of quails considerably increased during the laying period, at the end of laying period egg-type quails weighed 254 g and meat-type quailsʼ weight was an average 260 g, which was about 30% bigger in comparison with initial weight at the first egg onset. The correlation between eggs laid in the first laying month and 6 months was high (r = 0.78, P < 0.001), which gives opportunity to predict the egg production of quails in early stages of laying period.
Estonian Quail, quail egg production, quail egg weight, quail live weight.
A. Joandi.  
  Vormsi – kultuurisaar!  
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acids affected agmemod agricultural agriculture alternative analyzed animal application article autumn average barley between bone boucheanum cambisol carbon changes climate content crop cultivars date decrease decreased density determined diesel dose during effect eggs elements engine engines environment established experiment experiments factor factors farms fertilization fertilizer festulolium field fixator fractures fuel fungicide grain growing growth high humic impact increase increased index indoor influence investigated keeping latvia layer laying length level lolium management mass matter meat method methods mixing mixture mobile model nitrogen oilseed order organic p2o5 parameters performance period pigs pigsties plant policy positive possible presented price prices production products quail quails quantitative rape rate rates regulator removal research root season seed significant soil sowing spring states structure study subsoil sustainable technologies term total treatment treatments trial trials type under utilization varieties weight wheat winter work working year years yield ʻcaliforniumʼ ʻexcaliburʼ 2007 2008 2009 2010 2020




Akadeemiline Põllumajanduse Selts


Alo Tänavots


Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 1,
51014 Tartu,







Veebis alates
1997 * VIII * 4



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