2013 * XXIV * 2

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H. Kiiman1,2, A. Tänavots1,2, T. Kaart1,2  
  Lehmade piimatoodang ja kvaliteet kahekordsel platsilüpsil võrreldes kolmekordse platsilüpsi ning automaatlüpsiga 55
The yield and quality of milk on the farms using twice a day conventional milking in comparison with the farms using three times a day conventional and automatic milking systems. Heli Kiiman, Alo Tänavots, Tanel Kaart. The objective of this study was to compare milk parameters during lactation months on farms using automatic (ALS) and conventional milking systems (PLS). The highest milk yield per cow (30.1 kg) was obtained on 3x PLS farms, whereas cows on 2x PLS farms produced 7.7 kg less milk. Milk yield of the cows on ALS farms (24.8 to 26.3 kg) was between that of 2x PLS 2 and 3x PLS farms. On Robot 1 ALS farms the milk yield of cows was by 1.5 kg higher compared to Robot 3 ALS farms (24.8 kg). Milk yield increased until the second month of lactation on all the farms, and decreased subsequently. The difference in milk yield between 2x and 3x PLS farms increased until the third month of lactation, whereas it was by 8.8 to 9.9 kg higher in 3x PLS until the ninth month of lactation, and decreased subsequently (8.6 to 9.4 kg). All ALS farms showed more uniform results. Higher milk yield resulted in lower milk fat (r = –0.36) and milk protein (r = –0.42) content. The highest somatic cell score (SRS) (3.81) was found in the milk obtained from 2x PLS, whereas increased milking frequency decreased SRS by 0.48. Milk SRS was the lowest (2.88) on Robot 1 ALS farms, and the highest on Robot 2 (3.66) ALS farms. Irregular milking on ALS farms did not cause higher SRS of milk, compared to PLS. Increase in milking frequency resulted in higher milk yield and lower SRS, milk fat and milk protein content, whereas ALS and PLS farms showed similar trends. Decrease in milk yield was linear during lactation.
Keywords: automatic milking system, conventional milking system, dairy cattle, milk yield, milk fat content, milk protein content, somatic cell score.
Source: Agraarteadus 2013 (24) 2:55-64


1 Eesti Maaülikool, veterinaarmeditsiini ja loomakasvatuse instituut, Kreutzwaldi 62, 51014 Tartu,
2 OÜ Tervisliku Piima Biotehnoloogiate Arenduskeskus, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu
E-post: alo.tanavots@emu.ee
J. Kuht, T. Tõrra, J. Kilgi, A. Makke  
  Suvinisu terasaak ja kvaliteet olenevalt kasvukohapõhisest väetamisest 65
Spring wheat grain yield and quality depending on site-based fertilizing. Jaan Kuht, Toomas Tõrra, Jaanus Kilgi, Arvo Makke. In 2011 the experiment with spring wheat 'Manu' was carried out on the experimental field of the Estonian University of Life Sciences. The experiment was carried out in the soils with different content of organic carbon (Corg): background A with higher Corg content > 1.7% and background B with lower Corg content ≤ 1.7%. Four fertilizing treatment were used: 1) unfertilized, control (K); 2) conventional fertilizing (T), where all amounts of mineral fertilizers (N120P52K100) were applied before sowing; the amount of fertilizer was supposed to ensure the grain yield level of 4 t ha-1; 3) application of fertilizers according to the soil information (MI) – all amounts of mineral fertilizers (NPK) were applied before sowing; the amounts of mineral fertilizers were adjusted according to the nutrient content of the soil; 4) application of fertilizers according to the soil and plant information (MILV) – mineral fertilizers applied firstly as in MI treatment and additionally at plant development stage BBCH4 the foliar fertilizer added according to the plant nutrition level (determined by chlorophyll meter). Grain yield levels of different backgrounds (A and B) differed in site based fertilization treatments (MI and MILV) less than in control and conventional treatments (26.7 and 19.4% versus 47.4 and 45.5%, respectively). Despite the fact that the amounts of fertilizers were in MI treatment up to one third smaller than of conventional treatment T, the majority values of grains quality of these treatments were statistically the same.
Keywords: spring wheat, grain quality, soil agrochemical properties, fertilizing
Source: Agraarteadus 2013 (24) 2:65-70


Eesti Maaülikool, F.R. Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu
E-post: jaan.kuht@emu.ee
P. Piirsalu, J. Samarütel, S. Tölp, I. Nutt, T. Kaart  
  Uttede toitumushinde seosed söötmise ja jõudlusega mahetootmisega lambafarmides 71
Relationships between ewe body condition score, production traits and nutrition, on organic sheep farms. Peep Piirsalu, Jaak Samarütel, Silvi Tölp, Irje Nutt, Tanel Kaart. Sheep have different nutritional requirements over the production cycle depending, on their life stage. Needs for energy are high at the end of gestation (especially for ewes carrying multiple lambs) and at the beginning of lactation. Ewe body condition score (BCS), production traits and feeding were monitored on three organic sheep farms (Farm A, B and C) during a three year period (2010–2012) throughout the year. On each farm rations were prepared and samples of feeds were analysed to ensure nutritional requirements were met. Each ewe's BCS, on a scale from 1 (emaciated) to 5 (obese), was assessed before mating, at lambing and at weaning. Lambing dates, lamb birth weights and 100-day lamb body weights were recorded. Production data (ewe litter size, lamb birth weight and lamb 100-day weight) were obtained from the Estonian sheep record-ing database "Pässu". Statistical data analyses was performed to evaluate the influence of the ewe body condition scores on lambing rates, lamb birth weights and lamb 100-day bodyweights.
The number of lambs born per ewe was highest (1.78; NS) in ewes whose BCS at mating was 3.0.
The most critical time, from the aspect of ewe nutrition, was the gestation period, when mean ewe BCS loss on all three farms was greatest in both the first (–0.39 ± 0.57) and second (–0.20 ± 0.65 points) study years. In the second study year the ewes were fed hay and silage during the last two months of the gestation period on farms A and B, which enabled them to better cover the energy demand, and the BCS change was minimal (farm A –0.04 ± 0.52; farm B –0.04 ± 0.62 points). In the second study year on farm C the ewes were fed only hay in the gestation period, and the BCS loss was –0.61 ± 0.7 point. In the first year the ewes were fed hay and 0.35 kg oats per day and the BCS loss was only –0.35 ± 0.62 points. Maintaining the BCS in the gestation period is important, as lamb birth weights and 100-day weights were related to ewe body condition change during the gestation period; the birth weight of single lambs was significantly different depending on the ewe BCS change during the gestation (p = 0.006). In addition, the 100-day body weights differed in multiple lambs born to ewes whose BCS changed during gestation (p < 0.001). The ewe BCS at lambing was also related to the 100-day body weights of both single (p = 0.004) and multiple lambs (p < 0.004); the 100-day body weights of lambs were greater in those ewes whose body condition was higher at lambing. However, it is also important to avoid large BCS loss during lactation, otherwise ewes cannot restore body energy reserves BCS during the free period by the time of the next mating period. Body condition scoring appears to be a useful tool for monitoring herd nutritional status of organically farmed sheep.
Keywords: ewe body condition scores, ewe feeding, lamb birth weight, lamb 100 day weight, ewe litter size
Source: Agraarteadus 2013 (24) 2:71-78


Eesti Maaülikool, veterinaarmeditsiini ja loomakasvatuse instituut, F.R. Kreutzwaldi 62, 51014 Tartu
E-post: peep.piirsalu@emu.ee
A. Semjonov, V. Andrianov  
  Tehistingimustes peetavate ulukkaslaste keemiline immobiliseerimine 79
Chemical immobilasation of wild feline species in captive conditions. Aleksandr Semjonov, Vladimir Andrianov. The majority of the wild feline species are classified as dangerous or particularly dangerous, and that is why, in captivity conditions, performing routine manipulations is impossible without immobilisation. The choice of the immobilization method is made taking into consideration specific conditions, human resources, technology and the equipment available for registering vital physiologic parameters during anaesthesia. The aim of the present study was to test Ketamine-Medetomidine and Tiletamine-Zolazepam-Medetomidine combinations for immobilisation of 4 wild feline species in captive conditions, as well as comparative analysis of the two methods, based on monitoring data acquired during chemical immobilisation. Study is based on European lynx, Amur tiger, Amur leopard and African lion immobilization in captivity.
Keywords: lynx, tiger, leopard, lion, immobilization, monitoring
Source: Agraarteadus 2013 (24) 2:79-85


Eesti Maaülikool
E-post: vladimir.andrianov@emu.ee
A. Tänavots1, A. Põldvere1,2, L. Lepasalu1, R. Soidla1
  Pikaajalise laagerdamise mõju aberdiini-anguse veisetõu lihakvaliteedile 86
Effect of long ageing time on beef quality of Aberdeen Angus. Alo Tänavots, Aarne Põldvere, Lembit Lepasalu, Riina Soidla. Beef cattle farming have expanded rapidly over the last decade in Estonia. The objective of this work was to study the effect of long ageing time on the quality of meat of the Aberdeen Angus cattle. Technological traits were analysed at 14, 28, 35 and 60 days, and chemical parameters at 14 days of ageing. No differences were found between the moisture, ash and protein contents of the muscles, while intramuscular fat concentration ranged from 0.15 to 2.62% in MTM and 0.87 to 1.62% in MLD. Decline in pH was observed, whereas electroconductivity, ageing and boiling loss increased during ageing. The shear force energy at the cutting point of MTM fibres was 221.1–271.1 mJ. Breaking point of MTM muscle fibres was highest (38.5 N) at 35 days of storing. Significantly lower shear force (29.6 N) was at 60 days. No differences were found between 14 and 28 days of ageing. The MLD muscle showed a clear trend towards tenderizing during ageing (139.1–80.4 mJ). The energy consumption value decreased at 35 days, while the shear force was significantly lower already at 28 days compared to 14 days of ageing (27.8 vs. 22.5 N). At 60 days, the shear force was 16.6 N. It can be concluded that ageing did not affect MTM muscle tenderness during 14 to 35 days of storing, and had only a modest effect at 60 days. However, ageing time had a significant effect on the tenderness of MLD.
Keywords: beef, tenderness, ageing, Aberdeen Angus breed, Warner Bratzler sheare force test
Source: Agraarteadus 2013 (24) 2:86-94


1 Eesti Maaülikool, veterinaarmeditsiini loomakasvatuse instituut, F.R. Kreutzwaldi 62, 51014 Tartu
2 Eesti Tõusigade Aretusühistu, Aretuse 2, 61411 Märja, Tartumaa
E-post: alo.tanavots@emu.ee
K. Kalling  
  Prof. Elmar Leppiku tööst paguluses 95
A. Lüpsik  
  Olev Saveli 75 99
I. Nutt  
  Viive Tikk – in memoriam 101
Märksõnade pilv
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Avaldatud 20-12-2013




Akadeemiline Põllumajanduse Selts


Alo Tänavots


Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 1,
51014 Tartu,







Veebis alates
1997 * VIII * 4



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