2015 * XXVI * 1

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RESEARCH ARTICLES
A. Bender  
  Impact of the seeding and fertilization rates of cover crop and the seeding rate of red clover on the seed yield of the cultivar 'Varte' 3
 
Abstract
Impact of the seeding and fertilization rates of cover crop and the seeding rate of red clover on the seed yield of the cultivar 'Varte'
A. Bender
In the years 2012–2014, a field trial was conducted at the Estonian Crop Research Institute in order to investigate the effects of the seeding rate and nitrogen fertilizer rate of two-row barley 'Inari' on the stand formation and seed yield of the under-sown red clover tetraploid cultivar 'Varte' (4n), in the first and second years after establishment. The trial had four basic variants, with different seeding and fertilization rates of cover crop and four different seeding rates of red clover. The trial results indicated that both the seeding rate and the nitrogen fertilizer rate of the cover crop had an impact on the development of the red clover stand and its later seed yield. The effect of fertilizer rate was greater. Of the red clover seeding rates the variant with 4 kg of 100% pure live seeds (PLS) per hectare yielded, as a total of the two years, 79–142 kg ha-1 (8–16%) more clover seed than the variant half the seeding rate. The red clover seeding rates of 6 and 8 kg ha-1 were more recommended under the conditions, where the cover crop was seeded at the rate of 500 viable seeds per m2 and nitrogen applied at a rate of 90 kg ha-1. Neither the seeding and fertilization rates of the cover crop, nor the seeding rates of red clover, had any effect on the 1,000 seed weight and germination rate. Based on the received income from the sales of the grain yield of the cover crop and the seed yields over the two years, it is recommended to establish the red clover seed field by sowing under a cover crop by reducing the seeding rate and nitrogen fertilizer rate of cover crop by one third.
Keywords: seeding rate of cover crop, nitrogen fertilizer level, seeding rate of red clover, seed yield, economic profitability
Source: Agraarteadus 2015 (26) 1:3-11

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Estonian Crop Research Institute, Aamisepa 1, 48309 Jõgeva
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M. Hovi, K. Hovi, A. Andresson  
  Case Study: The heat technical experiments with slit firebox stove and the heat accumulator's surface energy flow monitoring with resistance thermistor 12
 
Abstract
The heat technical experiments with slit firebox stove and the heat accumulator's surface energy flow monitoring with resistance thermistor
M. Hovi, K. Hovi, A. Andresson
Local heating, especially ovens and stoves that are heated with log-wood, have been one of the most important types of heating in Estonian climatic conditions. During the second half of the 20th century, alternative types of heating were developed. For example, district and electrical heating. As the consumption of energy for heating houses has decreased, it has become relevant to use local heating options. For example, heat pumps, solar heating and solid fuel ovens and stoves could work in good collaboration. Regarding strict environmental standards, it has become important to increase the efficiency of fireboxes that use wood. During the reconstruction of heating devices, it is advisable to change the parameters of the firebox and the flue, to assure a high quality of combustion and efficient energy storage. This article is about heat technical experimentations with stoves with an Umwelt-Plus fireplace. To be more precise, it concentrates on measuring the energy of this stove with a copper thermistor, which stores the surface temperature during measurement.
Keywords: firewood, stove, fire-place, carbon, thermoresistor, average
Source: Agraarteadus 2015 (26) 1:12-15

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Estonian University of Life Sciences, institute of tecnology Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
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J. Kuht, T. Tõrra, J. Kilgi  
  Effect of site based fertilization on spring oilseed rape yield and seed quality 16
 
Abstract
Effect of site based fertilization on spring oilseed rape yield and seed quality
J. Kuht, T. Tõrra, J. Kilgi
The experiments, using two fertilization methods in the spring on oilseed rape in 2012, were carried out at two sites – on the Eerika experimental field (N 58°36.6’; E 26°32.5’), near Tartu and on the Erumäe field (N 58°27.9’ ja E 26°32.5) of Pilsu farm. The aim of the study was to investigate site-based precision fertilization on the spring rape yield and oil content of rape seeds. The preceding crop was spring wheat. Five treatments were used: control treatment (K) without fertilizers, conventional fertilizing system (T), fertilization by site-specific information (MI), fertilization by site-specific information additionally with a mineral nitrogen fertilizer (MIMN), and site-specific fertilization additionally with a foliage nitrogen fertilizer (MILV). The highest grain and oil yield levels were achieved in the treatments with fertilized site-specific information additionally with foliage nitrogen fertilizer. On the production field, acceptable grain and oil yield increases were achieved in the treatment fertilized by site-specific information additionally with foliage nitrogen fertilizing. Compared to the conventional fertilization (T), the foliar fertilization (MILV) had, in the field experiment a 6.6% higher rapeseed yield, while in the production experiment this increase was 21.6%. The oil content of the spring oilseed rape seeds was higher in the control and conventional treatments. In both experiments the highest spring rapeseed oil content was obtained from the background foliar fertilizer plots (MILV) – in field experiments this was 1.3–1.7%, while in the production experiment 0.5% higher than the soil information fertilized treatments (MI) only. There was a negative correlation between the oil content and seed yield level, and between the oil content and protein content of spring oilseed rape.
Keywords: spring oilseed rape, soil nutrient content, precision fertilizing, foliar fertilizing
Source: Agraarteadus 2015 (26) 1:16-23

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Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 5, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
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R. Kõlli, U. Graefe, I. Tamm  
  Abundance and species richness of microannelids in humus cover of Estonian forest soils 24
 
Abstract
Abundance and species richness of microannelids in humus cover of Estonian forest soils
R. Kõlli, U. Graefe, I. Tamm
The formation of humus profiles in forest ecosystems depends on the soil and plant cover types, and on the flux of falling debris into the soil. The transformation of "fresh organic matter" into humus is mainly performed by soil organisms. Therefore the species composition and abundance of living organisms in humus covers are good indicators in the evaluation of ecosystems functional efficiency and in understanding humus profile forming mechanisms. The abundance, species richness and vertical distribution of microannelids in the humus covers of forest ecosystems were studied in the pedo-ecological conditions of Estonia. The first research area (UA-I, Koorvere) is located in the pine forest of a Rhodococcum site type on a typical podzol with a sandy texture and fresh mor humus cover. UA-II (Kaagvere) is located in a mixed pine-spruce forest of Oxalis site type on a pseudopodzolic soil with a loamy sand on sandy loam texture and fresh moder humus cover. UA-III (Reola) – is in a spruce forest of an Oxalis drained swamp site type on a shallow fen soil with well decomposed peat and a eutrophic peaty humus cover. The mean abundance and species richness of microannelids in the humus covers of these three forest ecosystems (UA I-III) were respectively 17.0, 23.4 and 54.5 (in 103 individuals per m2), while the observed numbers of microannelids species were 1, 7 and 12. The highest number of one species per unit volume (319 individuals per one litre of soil) is characteristic of a moor type forest floor (UA-I) where, of the microannelids, only those in a strong acidity indicator group species Cognettia sphagnetorum were found. In the well decomposed eutrophic peat (UA-III) with the highest volume density (250 individuals L-1) the species found was Hemifridericia parva, which is an indicator of slight acidity, while in the moder type forest floor (UA-II) Enchytronia parva (177 individuals L-1) were found, which are an indicator of moderate acidity.
Keywords: microannelids, humus cover (humus forms), forest soils, abundance, vertical distribution
Source: Agraarteadus 2015 (26) 1:24-29

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Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Science, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 5, 51014 Tartu, Estonia



 
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S. Värv
  The results of a survey on the genetic diversity of Estonian dairy cattle breeds 30
 
Abstract
The results of a survey on the genetic diversity of Estonian dairy cattle breeds
S. Värv
The Estonian dairy cattle breeds: Estonian Holstein, Estonian Red and Estonian Native, have been characterized using different types of genetic markers in order to measure genetic diversity within and between the breeds. In addition to the routine markers commonly used in the genotyping of cattle in Estonia, ISAG/FAO recommended markers were also included and therefore the data could be used to compare Estonian cattle populations in a wider context, and exploring their current status and uniqueness in the European context. The results showed that the Estonian dairy cattle breeds are genetically variable and the level of variation within the Estonian Red, Estonian Native and Estonian Holstein breeds is relatively similar. It can be concluded that inbreeding, causing loss of heterozygosity in a small population, was not found to be at a high level in these breeds. The within-breed diversity estimates, based on the DNA microsatellite data, were at the same level as those reported for other modern dairy breeds. It was demonstrated, by constructing a tree and net-work based on genetic relationships between the Baltic and Nordic cattle breeds, that the Estonian dairy cattle breeds are distinct from each other, and fall into different genetic clusters – the Estonian Holstein is in the Black-and-White breed group, the Estonian Red is in the European/Baltic Red group, and the Estonian Native Cattle is in the group of wider Nordic breeds, clustering closely with Western Finncattle.
Keywords:
genetic diversity, micro-satellites, blood groups, milk proteins
Source: Agraarteadus 2015 (26) 1:30-39

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Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 62, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
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ANNOUNCEMENTS
  Editorial Announcement
48
 
Abstract
Editorial Announcement
The annual meeting of the Estonian Academic Agricultural Society elected Dr. Agr. Alo Tänavots as the new Editor-in-Chief of the Society’s journal, Agraarteadus / Journal of Agricultural Science. Prior to this post Alo Tänavots has been the web editor (since 2004) and a member of the editorial board since 2013. He is a lecturer at the Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences of the Estonian University of Life Sciences. Alo Tänavots is also a member of the Board of the Estonian Academic Agricultural Society and a member of the Terminology Committee of the Society. The President of the Society, Associate Professor Arvo Leola, thanked the former Editor-in-Chief Maarika Alaru at the annual meeting for her productive and successful work for the journal. We wish the best of success to the new Editor-in-Chief!

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Cloud of Keywords
abundance acidity additionally agricultural based between breeds cattle clover conditions content conventional cover covers crop cultivar dairy diversity during ecosystems editor editorial effect energy environmental experiment experiments fertilization fertilized fertilizer fertilizing field firebox foliage foliar forest fresh genetic grain group heat heating higher highest holstein hovi humus impact indicator individuals information journal level markers member microannelids milv native nitrogen oilseed production quality rape rate rates recommended research richness seed seeding seeds site society soil soils source species specific spring stove stoves surface technical thermistor treatments trial type types tänavots under varte within work years yield 2015


Published 06-20-2015

 

PUBLISHER

APS

Estonian Academic Agricultural Society

Editor in Chief

Dr. sc. agr. Alo Tänavots

Address

Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 1,
51014 Tartu,
Estonia

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INFO

p-ISSN
1024-0845
e-ISSN
2228-4893

Agronomy 
1921-1944

Re-established 
Agraarteadus : Journal of Agricultural Science 1990

Online since 
1997 * VIII * 4

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AGRIS, AGRICOLA, CABI, CABI Full Text, DOAJ, EBSCO

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