2016 * XXVII * 1

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RESEARCH ARTICLES
Ants Bender  
  EFFECT OF THE SEEDING AND FERTILIZATION RATES OF COVER CROP AND THE SEEDING RATE OF TIMOTHY ON THE SEED YIELD OF THE CULTIVAR 'TIKA' 3-11
 
Abstract
Effect of the seeding and fertilization rates of cover crop and the seeding rate of timothy on the seed yield of the cultivar 'Tika'
Ants Bender

In the years 2012–2015, the Estonian Crop Research Institute conducted a field trial in order to investigate the effect of the seeding and fertilizer rates of the cover crop barley 'Inari', and of the seeding rate of the timothy grass 'Tika' on the seed yield. In the trial there were four variants with the cover crop's seeding rate and nitrogen fertilizer rate, and three different seeding rates of timothy grass (3, 6 and 9 kg ha-1) were tested. The trial results indicated that both the seeding rate of the cover crop (variants 333 and 500 germinating seeds per m-2) and the nitrogen fertilizer rate (variants 60 and 90 kg N ha-1) had an effect on the later seed yield of the timothy grass. Thereat the effect of the cover crop’s seeding rate was smaller; the effect of nitrogen fertilizer bigger. The effect of the cover crop on the seed yield of timothy was bigger in the first year after establishment, in the following years the effect decreased. The highest timothy seed yield was obtained in the trial variant that was seeded with 3 kg of 100% pure live seeds (PLS) per hectare under the cover crop the seeding rate and nitrogen fertilizer rate of which had been reduced by one third. Economic calculations also indicated that in total of the year of establishment and three years of seed harvest, this variant turned out to be the most profitable one for the seed producer. The studied trial variants had no effect on the quality of timothy seed.
Keywords: seeding rate of cover crop, nitrogen fertilizer level, seeding rate of timothy, seed yield, economic profitability
Source: Agraarteadus 2016 (27) 1:3-11

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Estonian Crop Research Institute Aamisepa 1, 48 309, Jõgeva, Estonia
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Marek Gaworski  
  ASSESSMENT OF DAIRY PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT ON THE EXAMPLE OF POLISH CONDITIONS AND COMPARISONS WITH CERTAIN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES 12-18
 
Abstract
Assessment of dairy production development on the example of Polish conditions and comparisons with certain European countries
Marek Gaworski
Changes observed in the European dairy sector in the last decades constitute an important example of transformation processes taking place in the global food economy. The aim of the study was to present an analytical approach to assessment of advance concerning certain technical and biological resources in the farm dairy production system. Data from the Polish dairy production system were used to show and assess some of the trends regarding the dairy system development, including some comparisons with other EU countries. As a result of undertaken studies, there are scientific premises to identify technical and biological solutions for optimizing the farm dairy production system, allowing sustainable improvement. Further effective transformation of the Polish dairy sector requires overcoming certain barriers hindering development of the sector, connected first of all with high dispersion in raw milk production and its low technology level, high dispersion of dairy processing, and others. Implementation of modern technical equipment for milking at dairy farms needs simultaneous improvement of dairy cow herds and other factors, e.g. economic profitability.
Keywords: automatic milking system, dairy production system, indices, livestock, milk yield
Source: Agraarteadus 2016 (27) 1:12-18

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Department of Production Management and Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 02-787 Warsaw, Nowoursynowska str. 164, Poland
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Helgi Kaldmäe, Andres Olt, Meelis Ots  
  MYCOTOXIN CONTAMINATION IN DRIED AND HIGH MOISTURE FERMENTED CEREALS IN ESTONIA 19-25
 
Abstract
Mycotoxin contamination in dried and high moisture fermention cereals in Estonia
Helgi Kaldmäe, Andres Olt, Meelis Ots
Cereal quality is estimated by chemical composition and fermentation parameters, but there is need to check for the presence of mycotoxins. Feed cereals are stored dried, with a dry matter of 86% or ensiled in a silo with a dry matter of 55–75%. A high moisture content in cereals is a good substrate for the growth of mould fungi of a range of genera (Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium), the availability of their metabolites and of other undesirable microorganisms, such as bacteria and yeast. The aim of this study was to determine the nutritive quality, the concentrations of zearalenone (ZEA) and deoxynivalenol (DON) and the fermentation process of ensiled high moisture cereals prepared for feeding to cows in Estonia. A total of 190 samples of dried cereals (DC): 56 wheat, 113 barley, 11 oats, 4 triticale and 4 rye, and 147 samples of high moisture cereals (HMC) collected and analysed. The mean DM content of the DC was 86.9% and of the HMC 68.1%. In this study the DC were found to contain mycotoxins, 70.5% of the samples were positive for DON and 68.4% were positive for ZEA, while in the HMC these were 85.7 and 96.6% respectively. The mean DON content in the DC was 100.4 ppb, and the mean content of ZEA in the DC was 27.6 ppb; the contents in the for these mycotoxins in the HMC were 189.6 ppb and 163.6 ppb respectively.
The concentration of mycotoxins between the different species of cereal did not differ significantly.
The of DON and ZEA contents were related the dry matter of HMC. The DON concentration in low DM (63.3%) cereal was 220.0 ppb and of ZEA 204.5 ppb while in the higher DM (75.5%) cereal the concentrations were 141.4 ppb and 94.7 ppb respectively. The fermentation quality of the HMC was good.
The threshold mycotoxin level in feed, below which there are no negative effects on health and performance in dairy cows are, for DON under 500 ppb and ZEA under 100 ppb. These are considered low levels of toxins; moderate levels are, for DON 500–2,000 ppb and for ZEA 100–250 ppb, and high levels are over 2,000 ppb and over 250 ppb respectively. Of the samples, 94.7% of DC were at the low level of DON while 89.1% were at the low level for ZEA. Of the HMC samples, 89.7% and 50.7% were at the low level for the mycotoxins, while 9.5% had levels of DON at moderate level and 33.1% had levels of ZEA at moderate levels.
Keywords: dried cereals, high moisture cereals, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone
Source: Agraarteadus 2016 (27) 1:19-25

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Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 46, 51006 Tartu
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Raimo Kõlli  
  Review: BOG SOIL – YEAR 2016 SOIL OF ESTONIA 26-37
 
Abstract
Review: Bog soil – Year 2016 Soil of Estonia
Raimo Kõlli
By Estonian Soil Sciences Society for the year 2016 soil of Estonia the bog soil was elected. After WRB these soils are known as Fibric Histosols. The area of bog soils forms 5.1% from whole Estonian soil cover and 21.7% from peat soils’ (or Histosols) area. In overview their classification in Estonia, conversion of local soil names into WRB system, ecological conditions of their forming and functioning, hydro-physical and chemical properties, and distribution are treated. Besides that the bog soils’ productivity, peculiarities of their bogging processes, importance for society, and their influence on local economy and environmental status are analysed as well. In second part of the overview the estimations on organic carbon stocks and assessments on annual organic carbon fluxes in peaty soil cover are discussed. In the final part and in conclusions the problems connected with environmentally sustainable use and protection of bog soils are treated.
Keywords: bog soil, ecological services, environmental protection, Fibric Histosol, soil properties, year 2016 soil
Source: Agraarteadus 2016 (27) 1:26-37

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Estonian University of Life Sciences, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 5D-111, 51014 Tartu
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Margit Olle  
  Short communication: THE EFFECT OF VERMICOMPOST BASED GROWTH SUBSTRATES ON TOMATO GROWTH 38-41
 
Abstract
The effect of vermicompost based growth substrates on tomato growth
Margit Olle
Vermicomposting is a decomposition process involving the joint action of earthworms and microorganisms. Although microorganisms are re-sponsible for the biochemical degradation of organic matter, earthworms are crucial drivers of the process, by fragmenting and conditioning the substrate and significantly altering its biological activity. The purpose of the work was to assess the influence of vermicompost based growth substrates on tomato transplant growth. Treatments were followed (supplier K. Compos): A) 30% vermicompost, peat, sand and dolomite stone; B) 25% vermicompost, peat, gravel, perlite; C) 25% vermicompost, peat, gravel, concrete block; D) commercially produced growth substrate bought from retail centre, as a control. Substrates containing vermicom-post had increased stem diameter compared to control treatment. The tomato plant height was increased in substrates containing 25% vermicompost compared to other treatments. The number of leaves was highest in treatment C compared to other treatments. The number of flowers was increased in treatment A and lowest in treatment D. It can be summarized that for tomato the best growth substrate, regarding growth parameters is 25% vermicompost, peat, gravel, concrete block (treatment C).
Keywords: tomato, growth, vermicompost, substrate
Source: Agraarteadus 2016 (27) 1:38-41

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Estonian Crop Research Institute, J. Aamissepa 1, 48309, Jõgeva alevik, Estonia
Phone: +372 671 1554
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Mohammad Ramin1, Merko Vaga1, Edward Hernando Cabezas-Garcia1, Edenio Detmann2
  COMPARISON OF METHANE PRODUCTION FROM INDIVIDUAL FEEDS AND TOTAL DIETS – AN IN VITRO EVALUATION 42-47
 
Abstract
Comparison of methane production from individual feeds and total diets an in vitro evaluation
M. Ramin, M. Vaga, E.H. Cabezas-Garcia, E. Detmann
The objective of the current study was to compare methane (CH4) production from the in vitro gas production system by incubating feeds either individually or as mixed total diet. Eleven diets varying in the forage to concentrate ratio were tested. The forages were tropical grass or corn silages and the concentrate mixtures consisted of soybean grain, soybean meal, corn grain, wheat bran, urea and minerals in different proportions. There were three replicates for each diet. Methane production was reported as weighted mean for individual feeds and total diet separately. The mean of CH4 production from total diet was 30.1 mL g-1 dry matter (DM) and 30.8 mL g-1 DM from the weighted mean of individual feeds. There was a poor correlation between weighted CH4 production from individual feeds and complete diet (r = 0.15). It can be concluded that individual feeds cannot be used as a proxy to estimate CH4 production from total mixed diets.
Keywords: feed interaction, greenhouse gases, gas production
Source: Agraarteadus 2016 (27) 1:42-47

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1 Department of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83, Umeå, Sweden

2 Departamento de Zootecnia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil, 36570-900.
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Cloud of Keywords
assessment based biological cereal cereals certain compared comparisons conditions contact content contents countries cover crop dairy development diet diets dried economic effect email enable european feed feeds fermentation fertilizer grass gravel growth high increased individual level levels matter mean methane microorganisms moderate moisture mycotoxin mycotoxins nitrogen organic peat please polish process production protected quality rate rates research respectively samples sector seed seeding soil soils source study substrate substrates technical three tika timothy tomato total treatment treatments trial under variants vermicompost vitro weighted year years yield 2016


Published 06-20-2016

 

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APS

Estonian Academic Agricultural Society

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Dr. sc. agr. Alo Tänavots

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1024-0845
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Agronomy 
1921-1944

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Agraarteadus : Journal of Agricultural Science 1990

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1997 * VIII * 4

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