ESTABLISHMENT OF TETRAPLOID RED CLOVER SEED FIELD UNDER A COVER CROP
ESTABLISHMENT OF TETRAPLOID RED CLOVER SEED FIELD UNDER A COVER CROP Ants Bender, Sirje Tamm In 2013–2014 field trials were organised in Estonian Crop Research Institute to comply with the applied project of the Estonian Ministry of Agriculture. In the establishment of a red clover seed production field 2 cover crops (barley and spring wheat) were investigated on 4 treatments and 4 seed rates (2, 4, 6 and 8 kg ha-1). Based on the field trials it can be concluded that both two-row barley (the variety 'Maali') and spring wheat (the variety 'Mooni') are suitable cover crops for the establishment of a red clover seed production field. For early red clover barley is more suitable as a cover crop. For the late red clover barley and spring wheat are equally suitable as cover crops. According to yield results of cover crop, red clover seed yield as well as economical calculations based on expenditures, reduction of recommended seed and nitrogen rate should be decrease to up to 1/3 in spring cereals cultivation. For tetraploid varieties of red clover we recommend to use 4–6 kg ha-1 (germination 100%) in the establishment of the red clover seed production field. Keywords: cover crop, early and late tetraploid red clover, nitrogen and seeding rate, seed yield, economical calculation. Source: Agraarteadus 2017 (28) 2:63-75. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.17.08
Estonian Crop Research Institute, J. Aamisepa 1, Jõgeva 48 309, Estonia
In the experiments, it was confirmed that a seed field of tetraploid red clover can be established by seeding it under the cultivars of either two-sided barley or early spring wheat.
Planning a seed field, it is suggested to reduce the seeding rate of cover crop and nitrogen fertilizer level by one third.
When planning a tetraploid red clover seed field, a seeding rate of 4-6 kg ha-1 is sufficient.
The cover crop species, its seeding and fertilization rates and the seeding rate of undersown red clover not affect a quality of the seed.
Jõgeval aretatud tetraploidsed punase ristiku sordid 'Varte' (varane) ja 'Ilte' (hiline) on ligilähedase seemnesaagi võimega ja võivad anda seemnesaagi kuni 400 kg ha-1.
The tetraploid red clover cultivars 'Varte' and 'Ilte' bred in Jõgeva have about equal seed yielding ability and can produce up to 400 kg ha-1 seed.
Katrin Laikoja1,3, Liis Teder2, Ivi Jõudu3
ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL AND SENSORY QUALITY OF UNSALTED AND SALTED SWEET CREAM BUTTER DURING STORAGE AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES AND TIME
ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL AND SENSORY QUALITY OF UNSALTED AND SALTED SWEET CREAM BUTTER DURING STORAGE AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES AND TIME Katrin Laikoja, Liis Teder, Ivi Jõudu Quality of butter depends on many factors such as quality of raw material, production method, ingredients used, type of packaging. Chemical changes taking place during storage of final product are also important. Extent of oxidation and the amount of free fatty acids in Estonian butter have not been investigated recently in experimental studies and have been evaluated at national level only with regard to intervention buying-in. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the quality of salted and unsalted sweet cream butter produced in continuous butter machine and stored at different storage temperatures and time periods. Three batches of salted and unsalted sweet cream butter were prepared and were stored at three different temperatures: at –20 °C for 24 weeks, at +5 °C for 12 weeks, at +20 °C for 8 weeks. Dry matter and salt content, peroxide value, acid value and organoleptic properties were evaluated. No major differences were found when comparing acid values and peroxide values at different storage temperatures. There were no significant differences between salted and unsalted butter samples and no age trends for the values. At all storage temperatures, the level of acid value (maximum value 0.81 mmol 100 g-1 fat) was lower than the upper limit established for high-quality butter (1.2 mmol 100 g-1 fat). The peroxide value (maximum value 0.050 meq per kg fat) was also lower than the upper limit established for high-quality butter (0.3 meq kg-1 fat) at all storage temperatures. After eight weeks of storage the sensory characteristics of butter – appearance, taste and flavour – scored at least 4 points or higher on 5 point scale that corresponds to high-quality butter. Keywords: sweet cream butter, salted butter, free fatty acids, peroxide value, sensory analysis. Source: Agraarteadus 2017 (28) 2:13-18. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.17.09
1Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Chair of Food Hygiene and Veterinary Public Health, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56/3, Tartu 51014, Estonia 2Maris Gilden AS, Vasara 50b, Tartu 50113, Estonia 3Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Chair of Food Science and Technology, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56/5, Tartu 51014, Estonia
Storage temperature and salt content did not affect significantly the content of free fatty acids or the level of oxidation of sweet cream butter produced in continuous butter machine.
No certain temporal trends were observed in acid and peroxide values;
All butter samples received at least 4 points or higher score for appearance, taste and aroma.
Butter producers have no need to add salt for achieving better quality during storage.
Storage temperature did not have significant impact on chemical characteristics of buttern.
THE EFFECT OF SILICON ON THE ORGANICALLY GROWN ICEBERG LETTUCE GROWTH AND QUALITY
THE EFFECT OF SILICON ON THE ORGANICALLY GROWN ICEBERG LETTUCE GROWTH AND QUALITY Margit Olle Si helps plants to mitigate with abiotic and biotic stresses because of Si-treated plants become stronger, sturdier and naturally more tolerant. The purpose of the investigations was to look the effect of Silicon on the iceberg lettuce growth and quality. There were two treatments: 1. stabilized silicic acid treatment; 2. control. The first spray, when 1 real leaf was present; the second spray was 2 weeks after spray 1; the third spray was 2 weeks after spray 2. First spray: 1 ml silicic acid was solved in 0.5 litre distilled water; second spray: 2 ml silicic acid was solved in 1 litre distilled water; third spray: 2 ml silicic acid was solved in 1 litre distilled water. pH of spray solution was 5,5. Control plants were untreated. Iceberg lettuce plants were taller and more bread in Si treatment compared to control. The content of NO3, N, P, and Ca was higher in Si-treated plants. Keywords: growth, iceberg lettuce, nutrients, Silicon. Source: Agraarteadus 2017 (28) 2:82-86 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.17.06
Estonian Crop Research Institute, J. Aamissepa 1, 48309, Jõgeva, Estonia
Iceberg lettuce was taller and more breadth in silicic acid treatment compared to control.
The content of NO3, N, P, Ca was higher in Si-treated plants.
Silicon could be used in iceberg lettuce production.
One solution how to decrease the content of nitrates should be found in future.
Review: FOOD SUPPLEMENTS – USEFUL, USELESS OR HAZARDOUS?
Review: FOOD SUPPLEMENTS – USEFUL, USELESS OR HAZARDOUS? Tõnu Püssa The world market of food (dietary) supplements is very broad and diverse, orientating in which is quite difficult even for experts. One part of the supplements are useful, another part potentially dangerous, and third part simply useless. In case of versatile diet a healthy human generally doesn't need to consume food additives, their use as concentrates of physiologically active substances must be careful and only according to recommendations of a physician. This paper is not an ordinary literature review. Due to very high number of different food supplements and respective literature, it is very difficult to write such an article. Our task was to provide, with the help of more pronounced examples, a review of the basic health hazards connected with consumption of food supplements. Keywords: food supplements, vitamins, health hazards. Source: Agraarteadus 2017 (28) 2:87-93. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.17.10
1Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Chair of Food Hygiene and Veterinary Public Health, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56/3, Tartu 51014, Estonia 2Bio CC OÜ, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 1, Tartu 51014, Estonia
Food supplement is not a medicine, it is prohibited to use claims of properties of the supplement in its marking, such as disease preventing, impeding, curing, alleviating, etc. as well as give incorrect information about the chemical consistence, production methods, origin etc of a supplement.
Consumption rate of food supplements considerably depends on the country.
US National Institutes of Health recommends to avoid use of most food supplements, and if ever use, then according to the recommendation of a medical doctor.
Food supplements may exert beneficial but also adverse effects on human health.
Tanel Vahter1, Märt Nõges2
COMPARING A SIMPLE ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGAL INOCULUM WITH COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS FOR ENHANCING PLANT GROWTH
COMPARING A SIMPLE ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGAL INOCULUM WITH COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS FOR ENHANCING PLANT GROWTH Tanel Vahter, Märt Nõges Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate symbionts forming mutualistic relationships with most land-plants. In AM symbiosis, the plant supplies the fungal partner with products of photosynthesis and in return recieves various mineral nutrients from the soil. Because of complex interactions with both soil and plants, distur­bance can dramatically decrease AMF activity in soils and in these circumstances, it could be useful to restore AMF communities using inoculations. The use of AMF inoculants has so far been minimal due to the high cost and low availability of these products. In this study, the production of simple crude inocula was tested in trap cultures and the most suitable growth substrate nutrient content determined. The effectiveness of the produced inocula was compared with two commercially available inoculants. The results of this study indicate that the best substrate for inocula production in pot-cultures is pure sand with 5% natural soil. When using roots of plants grown in this manner as inoculants, the largest biomass and root-colonisation was achieved. As one of the commercial inoculants did not contain any mycorrhizal propagules at all, the need for quality control and establishment of industry standards is paramount. This study highlights the basics of using AM inoculations in home gardens and small-scale agriculture. The inoculation of large areas is still problematic because of low-yielding inoculant production, but could become highly perspective as methodology improves. Keywords: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, agriculture, inoculation, ecological restoration, plant growth. Source: Agraarteadus 2017 (28) 2: 94-105 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.17.07
1University of Tartu, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, department of botany, Lai tn 40, 51008, Tartu, Estonia 2Estonian Agricultural Research Center, Teaduse 4/6, 75001, Saku, Estonia
Natural arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community is effective in enhancing growth of maize.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculum for small-scale use can easily be produced by the farmer.
Commercial fungal inoculants may be less effective and problematic.
Karim Jan1, Muhammad Waseem1, Dost Mohammad Baloch1, Abdul Hameed Baloch1, Mustajab A. Khan2, Taimoor Khan1, Muhammad Rashid1, and Qurban Ali3
MORPHOLOGICAL LODGE OF DESI COTTON (GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM L.) GENOTYPES AND STAGE-MANAGE BY PLANTING LOG UNDER DRY TROPICAL PROSPECT
MORPHOLOGICAL LODGE OF DESI COTTON (GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM L.) GENOTYPES AND STAGE-MANAGE BY PLANTING LOG UNDER DRY TROPICAL PROSPECT Karim Jan, Muhammad Waseem, Dost Mohammad Baloch, Abdul Hameed Baloch, Mustajab A. Khan, Taimoor Khan, Muhammad Rashid, Qurban Ali Planting log is the most considerable factor which directly manipulates the plant traits under naturally prevailing environment. The aim of the trial was to ensure the influence of planting hiatus on the morphological cabin of Desi cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.) varieties under dry tropical coast. The research was carried out during 2016 on three desi cotton genotypes C1 (FDH-512), C2 (FDH-502), C3 (FDH-170) under three-fortnightsowing regimes (S1 = 15. March, S2 = 1. April and S3 = 15. April) at agronomy research area in the Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Science, Uthal, Lasbela, Pakistan. Momentous results were originated for different morphological traits according to the arid environments. Significant results were observed for traits i.e.; number of monopodial branches, number of sympodial branches, number of capsule per plant, number of seeds per capsule, number of locules per capsule, number of seeds per locules, weight of seed per capsule, seed colour, seed yield per plant, lint percentage, root shoot ratio (%), root depth (cm) for various sowing dates and desi cotton varieties. Results of the traits like i.e. the number of locules and per capsule, a number of seeds per locules was yielded completely non-significant outcomes both for the diverse sowing period and desi cotton genotypes. The interaction between the both factors was found to be non-significant in all traits. The correlation amongst cotton individual characteristics was observed, it was found that capsules per plant and lint percentage, monopodial branches per plant, root shoot ratio, root depth, seed weight per capsule and seed yield per plant were significantly and positively correlated. The seed yield and lint percentage was also significantly correlated, which showed that selection may be positive responsive in sense of lint percentage, monopodial branches, seed yield per plant, capsules per plant and seed weight per capsule to get a superior yield of cotton. Under the existing dry climatic condition, it was found that the finest planting window of 15. April for the desi cotton FDH-170 is most suitable for its cultivation. Keywords: coastal climate, desi cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.), growth, yield components. Source: Agraarteadus 2017 (28) 2:106-113. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.17.11
1Faculty of Agriculture, Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Science, Uthal, Lasbela, Pakistan 2Department of Soil Science, Balochistan Agriculture College, Quetta, Pakistan 3Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
All the genotypes were influenced by planting time under the dry coastal tropical environments.
The best sowing time for the cultivation of desi cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.) is 15. April.
Growth traits and yield components of desi cotton (FDH-170) were boosted highly in a crate of planting at 15. April.
Two planting dates of desi cotton such as 15. March and 1. April showed no significant results compared to the 15. April sowing.
THESIS DEFENDERS ESTONIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES IN 2017