2001 * XII * 4

A. Lember.  
  Correlation of feeding in pregnancy and lactation with reproductive performance traits of sows 199
Correlation of feeding in pregnancy and lactation with reproductive performance traits of sows. Four trials on 145 sows were carried out to study the influence of metabolizable energy and protein intake in pregnancy and lactation on sows reproduction performance traits. The following questions of nutrition strategy of sows were investigated:
  1. In pregnancy:
  • influence of energy and protein intake on the live-weight gain, backfat depth dynamics and their reproduction performance traits (number piglets born and litter weight at birth).
  1. In lactation:
    • influence of energy and protein intake on sows reproduction performance traits (piglets number and their weight at 21 days and weaning).
  2. Pregnancy + lactation:
  • integration between reproduction performance traits in pregnancy and lactation and dependence of these on the metabolizable energy and crude protein intake.

Influence of metabolizable energy and crude protein intake in pregnancy and lactation on sow’s reproduction performance traits, also integration between items investigated were as follows:

  1. Number of piglets born and litter weight.
    Metabolizable energy and crude protein intake in pregnancy had no influence on the litter size and litter weight (P>0.05). An average number of piglets born was dependent on parity number.
  2. Litter size and weight at the age of 21 days.
    Number of piglets at the age of 21 days was dependent on the number piglets born (r=0.84, P<0.001) and their weight at birth (r=0.67, P<0.001). Litter weight at 21 days was influenced by number of piglets born (r=0.48, P<0.05), sow extrauterine gain (r=0.65, P<0.01) and backfat depth increase (r=0.73, P<0.001) in pregnancy. Larger after farrowing sows had a heavier litter (r=0.54, P<0.01).
  3. The number of piglets weaned was dependent on the number of piglets born (r=0.65, P < 0.01) and their weight at birth (r=0.70, P<0.001). The number of piglets weaned was related to the number of piglets at the age of 21 days (r=0.89, P<0.001) and litter weight at 21 days (r=0.72, P < 0.01). Number of piglets weaned was related to the sow live weight gain (r=0.63, P<0.01) and backfat depth increase (r=0.56, P<0.01) in pregnancy. Litter weight at weaning was dependent on the number of piglets at the age of 21 days (r=0.53, P<0.01) and at weaning (r=0.62, P<0.01). Weaned litter weight was also related to sow backfat depth increase in pregnancy (r=0.51, P<0.01) and sow live weight after farrowing.

Regression equations of prediction of sows’ extrauterine weight gain and backfat depth increase in pregnancy, weight loss, backfat depth decrease in lactation, also litter weight at the age of 21 days were calculated via feeding level and production performance data of sows.

Keywords: sow energy intake, sow protein intake, sow live-weight, sow backfat depth, sow reproduction performance traits.

R. Leming, J. E. Lindberg.  
  Digestion of carbohydrates in fibre-rich diets for pigs 210
Digestion of carbohydrates in fibre-rich diets for pigs. The experiment was carried out on four crossbred (Landrace × Yorkshire) castrated male pigs with an average live weight of 28 kg at the start and 67 kg at the end of the experiment. All pigs were fitted with postvalvular t-caecal (PVTC) cannulas at the terminal ileum for determination of ileal digestibility. Four experimental diets with increasing level of lucerne leaf meal (LLM) were fed according to a 4×4 Latin Square design. The diets were based on barley, which was substituted by 0, 5, 10 or 20% LLM. For ileal digestibility determination, chromium oxide (Cr2O3) was included in the diet. The experiment lasted 15 days, which included a pre-experimental period of 10 days and a collection period of 5 days. With increasing inclusion of LLM there was a significant increase in the intake of dietary fibre (DF), Klason lignin, mannose, galactose, glucose and uronic acid residues. In contrast the daily intake of starch, arabinose and xylose residues decreased significantly (P<0.05). Increased LLM inclusion in the diets reduced apparent ileal and total tract digestibility of DM, OM, CP and EE compared with the barley-based diet. The ileal digestibility of total dietary fibre decreased with increasing LLM inclusion, while total tract digestibility of DF was affected only at 20% inclusion of LLM. The ileal and total tract digestibility of neutral sugars (NS) followed the same pattern as the digestion of DF. There was a significant increase in the total tract digestibility of uronic acid (UA) when inclusion of LLM was increasing in the diets. The proportion (% of total tract digestibility) of total DF digested in the hindgut was 33% in the barley-based diet and increased to 46%, 48% and 62% with dietary inclusions of 5, 10 and 20% LLM, respectively. Also, the proportion of all NS components digested in the hindgut increased with LLM inclusion, which shows that microbial breakdown of fibrous components increased in the hindgut.

Keywords: lucerne leaf meal, dietary fibre, ileal digestibility, total tract digestibility.

H. Peuša, T. Enno, K. Järve, O. Priilinn.  
  Genetic control of wheat disease resistance 219
Genetic control of wheat disease resistance. Interaction between the host plant and the obligate pathogen can lead to a differential selection in either the host or the pathogen. A very high level of virulence can prevent the reproduction of the plant while a very high level of resistance can prevent the survival of the pathogen.

For wheat breeders, following the basic principles of resistance genetics is essential. Resistance breeding without precise knowledge of the genes carried by the initial breeding material involved may be dangerous. Selection may favour one particularly effective gene so that many cultivars end up carrying it. As a result, wheat production in an area will be particularly vulnerable to the development of a new race of the pathogen that is virulent on the gene.

Relatives of cultivated wheat provide a rich reservoir of genes of potential value in wheat breeding, including genes for rust and mildew resistance. Using tetraploid wheat species Triticum timopheevii and T. militinae in wide crosses with common wheat cultivars, several sets of introgressive lines showing improved resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust in the seedling stage have been developed in the Plant Genetics Department of the Institute of Experimental Biology at the Estonian Agricultural University.

Using the method of monosomic analysis, genes Pm22, Pm27 and Pm28 conferring resistance in the introgressive line 146-155-T and wheat cultivars Virest and Meri were localized and identified. In the progenies of crosses between cultivars Tähti, Fagott, Laari and Triticum timopheevii/Triticum militinae, several introgres-sive lines with different types of powdery mildew resistance have been selected. Using methods of molecular analyses we plan to determine the chromosomal location of genes conferring disease resistance throughout different stages of ontogeny in these lines.

O. Saveli, T. Bulitko, T. Kaart, U. Kaasiku, K. Kalamees, A. Kureoja, E. Orgmets, H. Pulk, E. Siiber, M. Uba.  
  Comparative estimation of breeding components of Estonian cattle breeds and their use in breeding programmes 224
Comparative estimation of breeding components of Estonian cattle breeds and their use in breeding programmes. Major part of the initial data were obtained from the Agricultural Registers and Information Centre, where breeding value of the bulls of the Estonian Holstein breed (n=278) and the Estonian Red breed (n=213) were estimated by means of BLUP Animal model in the 3rd quarter of 1998. Measurements of Estonian Holstein and Estonian Native cows were taken for registration in Herdbook.

The bulls born abroad exceeded the Estonian contemporaries in breeding value for milk, milk fat and milk protein yield. Higher dry matter content of milk, however, was observed in the daughters of local sires. The productivity of Holstein cows, imported from the Netherlands, exceeded the yield of Estonian Holsteins in the same cowshed by 619…1480 kg milk, 37…96 kg milk fat and protein as an average per lactation.

In breeding of Estonian Red cattle, the bulls with 100% Finnish Ayrshire, Swedish Red-and-White or Swiss breed genotype as well as the combinations of Swiss breed with Red Holstein, Estonian Red, Angeln or Danish Red breed occurred to be the best on the basis of milk productivity and exterior. As for the Estonian Holstein breed, the bulls with more than 75% Holstein genes were preferred. The Holstein gene proportion of Estonian Holstein cows was positively correlated with chine height, and negatively with chest girth and body weight. In breeding of Estonian Native cattle, the combination of three breeds (50 Swedish Red Polled + 25 Jersey + 25 Estonian Native) was considered the best.

Keywords: breed, breeding value, breeding program, body measurements, exterior.

S. Vabrit.  
  The effects of top-dressing and Trichoderma viride on the growth and development of bedding plants in open field 248
The effects of top-dressing and Trichoderma viride on the growth and development of bedding plants in open field. For bedding plants in urban landscape mostly top-dressing with nutrient solutions are used. At the same time due to a small number of the same plant species and heterogeneous soils it is not possible to determine the right need of plant nutrients. Thus the top-dressing while maintain plants is usually based on general principles and visual diagnostics.

The objective of this research was to find out the effect of top-dressing in the growing period and T. viride strain T13-RC during one vegetation period. The bedding plants with different weather tolerance and nutrient needs such as Bassia scoparia, Consolida ajacis, Godetia grandiflora and Matthiola annua were observed in the open field. Plants were fertilized using the usual amounts and solution concentrations for bedding plants, not considering the special species needs. All the plants from all variants except control and T. viride were top-dressed with Ca(NO3)2 (N 15.5%, NO3-N 14.5%, NH4-N 1.0%, Ca 19%) after rooting. During the flower bud forming K2SO4 (K 42%, S 18%) was added to one variant and Kemira Horti 6-11-24 (N 6.0%, NO3-N 1.3%, NH4-N 4.7%, P 4.8%, K 20%, S 10.0%, Mg 3.0%) to another one in addition. In T. viride variant plant roots before planting were treated with T. viride peat-spore preparation. As the results have shown the positive effect of top-dressing on the development of growth parameters was obvious in case of high nutrient- need M. incana, especially in the variant when potassium was added. Measurements of growth parameters during growth period with a decade interval showed that the top-dressing and T. viride positive or negative effect on the plant growth depended on the amount of precipitation. Thus the weather conditions, species needs depending of phase in growth and soil properties complicate the top-dressing as well as T. viride positive effect on the plant growth and development in green area.

M. Karelson.  
  Estonian agricultural exhibitions - 125 256
M. Karelson.  
  Estonian co-operative dairy (until 1944) 260
  Annual meeting of the Academical Agricultural Society 270
  New members of the Academical Agricultural Society 272

Cloud of Keywords
2001_4_kroonika agricultural average backfat barley based bedding between birth born breed breeding breeds bulls carried cattle components cows crude cultivars days dependent depth development diet dietary diets digestibility digestion disease dressing during effect energy experiment experimental feeding fibre field four gain gene genes growth high hindgut holstein ileal inclusion increase increased increasing influence intake lactation leaf level lines litter live measurements metabolizable mildew milk native needs nutrient open p< pathogen performance period piglets pigs plant plants positive pregnancy proportion protein related reproduction resistance rich sows species total tract traits triticum value variant viride weaned weaning weight wheat




Estonian Academic Agricultural Society

Editor in Chief

Alo Tänavots


Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 1,
51014 Tartu,






Agraarteadus : Journal of Agricultural Science 1990

Online since 
1997 * VIII * 4



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