2003 * XIV * 1

H. Kübar, M. Jalakas.  
  Pathological Changes in Ovary, Oviduct, Uterine Horns and Vagina of Cows Culled because of Infertility 3
Pathological Changes in Ovary, Oviduct, Uterine Horns and Vagina of Cows Culled because of lnfertility. The aim of the study was to find out the pathological changes in the reproductive organs of cows and heifers that were culled from high-production herds because of infertility. The study covered 39 cows and 4 heifers culled because of infertility. Of 39 cows 23 were repeat breeders (inseminated 2-9 times), 9 cows had been inseminated once, and 7 cows had not been inseminated at all. One cow out of the latter group had nymphomania, one had mucometra, one had vaginal prolapse, one had failed to become estrous, one had failed to become estrous and had metabolic disorders, and two cows failed to become estrous and had mastitis. The reproductive organs of all the animals underwent transrectal palpation and ultrasonography on the farm. One week later the animals were taken to the slaughterhouse, where before slaughtering a milk sample was taken for the purpose of determining the level of progesterone. Also, the reproductive organs underwent the second ultrasonography. After the slaughter the female reproductive organs were studied pathoanatomically, organ samples were taken and placed in the Rossman fixator. Also, a sample from a uterine horn was taken in order to study microbiologically the uterine secretion. After fixing the material paraffin slides were prepared that were stained by the periodic acid-Shiff method (PAS).

The pathohistological study enabled to divide the cows into two groups. One cow and three heifers represented sporadic cases. Infertile cows, who revealed concurrent changes both in the uterus and the ovaries, formed the largest group - 29 animals. The uterus often revealed changes in the blood vessels of the endometrium and uterine glands. Chronic endometritis was not common. The latter was caused by microbes only in two cows. The same animals revealed some changes - mostly cysts - in the ovaries as well. Two cows of this group had tumours - one had vascular malformations of uterine blood vessels, and the other had an adenoma of the oviduct. To the second group belonged 10 cows who revealed pathological changes only in the ovaries. Nine animals out of ten had ovarian cysts. Most ovarian cysts were follicular cysts, and only one third of the animals had also luteal cysts or cysts that revealed at the same time signs of follicular and luteal cysts. Three cows and one heifer had tumours. The latter included the ovarian sex cord tumour, Leydig cell hyperplasia, endovascular angioendothelioma of the ovarian blood vessels, and granulosa cell tumour. fn two animals infertility was caused by vaginal pathology - one cow had vaginal prolapse and one heifer had vaginal abscesses. Changes in both oviducts had caused infertility in one heifer. To the naked eye these changes reminded of a papilloma, but the histological study indicated that it was a myolipoma. In one heifer infertility was caused by uterine pathology (chronic endometritis).

Keywords: culled cows, ovaries, oviducts, uterine horns, vagina, pathohistological changes, cysts, tumours.

M. Lillenberg, M. Roasto, T. Püssa.  
  Drug Residues in Environment. Estimation of Fluoroquinolones in Soil and Food Plants 13
Drug Residues in Environment. Estimation of Fluoroquinolones in Soil and Food Plants. All drugs approved by the authorities have undergone pharmacokinetic and animal toxicological studies. But there is still lack of knowledge about their fate and effects on the environment. After excretion, these drugs and their metabolites can contaminate the environment. Fluoroquinolones are broad spectrum synthetic antibiotics used both in human and veterinary medicine. There exists a couple of structurally very closely related fluoroquinolones - enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The last one is the main metabolite of the first. Enrofloxacin with its metabolites enters the manure and further the soil. ft has been shown that both fluoroquinolones are strongly adsorbed to soil and resistant to physical, chemical and microbiological attacks. The fluoroquinolones can be uptaken by plants growing in soil fertilised with manure and in such way finally reach human as well as animal food. Very small amounts of broad spectrum antibiotics in everyday food may generate the strains of resistant microorganisms in human and animal organism. There is scarce data available concerning the actual fate and effect of the drug residues in the environment and in food plants. Methods of quantitative assay of these compounds are needed.

The aim of the research was to study the uptake and accumulation of fluoroquinolones by plants cultivated in soil amended with drugs. For that purpose microbiological agar-diffusion method for estimation of content of antibiotics residues in plants and soil was put up. fn the role of testorganism Bacillus subtilis was used. The results were controlled by chromatography (HPLC) after fO months.

Keywords: contamination, environment, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, residues, manure, soil, food plants, microbiological agar-diffusion method, Bacillus subtilis, HPLC method.

K. Maidre, L. Lilover.  
  The development of Estonian agriculture in 1995-2001 (regional aspect) 27
The development of Estonian agriculture in 1995-1999 (regional aspect). This research deals with the development of agricultural sector against the background of regional development and policy problems. The aims of this research are to make conscious the issues occurring in the agricultural sector during nineties from regional aspects and to give further appropriate methodology for economic-statistical researches.

This research deals with trends in agricultural production indicators and financial statistics of enterprises. The data published by Statistical Office of Estonia were used to explain development tendencies.

It was possible to use the financial statistics of enterprises with 20 and more employees aggregated by economic activities and counties. The number of such enterprises was 3673 including 308 enterprises of agricultural and forestry sector in 1999.

Various economical indicators were used to estimate the financial statistics of enterprises aggregated by economic activities and regions. The key indicator was coefficient of profitability.

The principle of comparative and relative analyses was used to describe the development stage of economic activities. In contrast this principle sets double the economic indicators.

The relative advantage of development of one economic activity has been disposed in relation to other economic activities in the same county.

This research could give an important informational and methodical contribution to intensified investigations of rural economy considering the shortages of regional investigations.

Keywords: coefficient of profitability, agricultural development, regional disparities.

A. Pajumägi, I. Veermäe, J. Miljan, J. Praks, V. Poikalainen.  
  Microclimate of the Uninsulated Loose Housing Cowshed 35
The Microclimate of the uninsulated loose housing cowshed. The paper deals with the microclimate (temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, lighting, ammonia concentration and air movement) patterns within a cold cubicle cowshed for 300 dairy cows. In this cowshed doors and openings in the ridge and sides (eaves and walls) were opened in summer and autumn (I version). In winter the openings in the sides were closed step by step, and only the openings in the ridge and eaves were opened (II…III versions). In extremely cold weather the openings in the ridge and eaves were closed with plastic (IV version).

Experiments were carried out from August 2002 to February 2003. Temperature, relative humidity, air velocity and lighting parameters were measured at 30 points throughout the cowshed at outdoor temperatures of 26.4, 1.1, -9.6 and -23 °C. Temperature and relative humidity monitoring was carried out in November (versions II and III) and January (version IV). Outside temperature varied between 13.2 and 5.7 °C in November and between -36.9 and 3.5 °C in January, whereas inside temperature fluctuated from -6.1 to 7.3 and -14.5 to 5.5 °C respectively. The facilities and cows had a stabilizing effect on temperature.

The following conclusions were drawn:

  • The more openings were opened, the more homogeneous the indoor temperature and relative humidity, and the smaller the difference between outdoor and indoor temperatures.
  • With traditional ventilation (versions I to III), the movement of fresh air extended to all parts of the building, and the parameters of indoors microclimate met the recommendations for cattle housing.
  • When the weather was extremely cold, openings in the roof and eaves were closed with plastic (version IV), the air movement scheme was complicated, and microclimate parameters varied to a remarkable extent throughout the cowshed. However, the parameters of inside microclimate still comply with the recommendations for cattle housing.

Keywords: loose housing, dairy cows, uninsulated cow-shed, microclimate.

D. Sabre, H. Viinalass, S. Värv.  
  Molecular Diagnostics of Porcine Stress Syndrome and Occurrence of Porcine Stress Syndrome in Estonian Pig Breeding Enterprises 48
Molecular diagnostics of porcine stress syndrome and occurrence of porcine stress syndrome in Estonian pig breeding enterprises. A total of 477 pigs from eight Estonian pig breeding enterprises were genotyped for porcine stress syndrome and the occurrence of porcine stress syndrome was investigated. The DNA extraction method from hair roots by using 200 mM NaOH was developed.

According to the results of PCR-RFLP analysis 91.0% of pigs were stress-negative (genotype NN), 8.6% heterozygous carriers (genotype Nn) and 0.4% stress-positive (genotype nn). All genotyped pigs were stress-negative in three out of eight investigated pig breeding enterprises. The occurrence of heterozygous pigs for PSS was up to 22.9%. The stress-positive pigs were found only in one pig breeding enterprise. The frequency of porcine stress syndrome varied from 0 to 0.115, on average 0.047. The relative low occurrence of PSS can be explained by selection of boars for implementing breeding programmes.

Keywords: pig, porcine stress syndrome, PCR-RFLP.

M. Vadi, H. Kaldmäe, R. Kirsel.  
  On the effect of growth stage on the nutritive value of silage 54
On the effect of growth stage on the nutritive value of silage. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of the stage of maturity of plants, cut for ensiling, on nutritive value and digestibility of silages. For that reason, the chemical composition and the in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibility of 173 silage samples were determined. The silages were prepared from grasses, red clover mixed with grasses (50% red clover), and red clover rich (75% red clover) grasses at the stage of ear formation, early flowering and full flowering.

Delayed ensiling had a significant effect on the chemical composition and nutritive value of grass silages. From the ear formation to the early flowering, the crude fibre content increased by 4.8% and NDF by 9.3%, whereas the crude protein content decreased by 2.9% and the in vitro organic matter digestibility by 12.9% (P<0.001), respectively.

The nutritive value of silages, prepared from red clover mixed with grasses, decreased more slowly. In red clover rich (75% red clover) grass silages the organic matter digestibility decreased by 12.3% (P<0.001) from the bud formation to the full flowering.

Keywords: silage, chemical composition, digestibility, nutritive value, grasses, legumes.


Cloud of Keywords
activities agricultural animal animals antibiotics become between blood breeding caused changes chemical closed clover cold composition content cows cowshed culled cysts deals decreased development digestibility drug drugs eaves economic effect enrofloxacin enterprises environment estimation estrous failed financial flowering fluoroquinolones food formation genotype grasses group heifer heifers horns housing human humidity indicators infertility inseminated latter loose manure matter method microbiological microclimate movement nutritive occurrence opened openings organic organs ovarian ovaries oviduct parameters pathological pigs plants porcine prepared regional relative reproductive research residues revealed ridge sector silage silages soil stage statistics stress study syndrome taken temperature three tumours uninsulated uterine vagina vaginal value varied version versions vessels




Estonian Academic Agricultural Society

Editor in Chief

Alo Tänavots


Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 1,
51014 Tartu,






Agraarteadus : Journal of Agricultural Science 1990

Online since 
1997 * VIII * 4



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