2005 * XVI * 2

M. Alaru,Ü. Laur.  
  About winter triticale cultivation in Estonia 80
The experiment was carried out in 2001/02–2003/04 at the Department of Field Crop Husbandry of the Estonian Agricultural University near Tartu (580 23´N, 260 44´E) on Stagnic Luvisol (WRB classification) soil (sandy loam, organic matter 2.1%, pHKCL 6.0). Ten winter triticale cultivars were used: Modus, Lupus, Tewo, Lasko, Dagro, Prego, Lamberto, Ulrika, Vision and Fidelio. Winter rye Vambo and winter wheat Kosack were used as control. The post-hibernation growth period of 2002 was dry and warm, the same periods of 2003 and 2004 were wet and quite cold. This study was conducted to investigate (i) winter triticale grain yield potential and yield stability in changeable climatic conditions of Estonia; and (ii) evaluation of winter tiritcale cultivar Tewo for feeding to pigs. Grain yield as an average of three years was higher than 6000 kg/ha in triticale cultivars Lamberto, Tewo, Vision, Lupus and Modus. It was 14–21% higher than for rye and 22–28% higher than for wheat. Lower grain yield level has been gained from cultivars Lasko (because of winter cold sensitivity), Ulrika and Lupus (because of inconsistent maturing of ear-bearing tillers). Grain yield was mostly affected by cultivar and then by climatic conditions (coefficient of determination were 52 and 19%, respectively). Grain yield stability was determined by coefficient of variation. Between winter triticale cultivars the most stable grain yield was in cultivar Fidelio (which was statistically comparable with wheat and rye), because of very stable wintering. Triticale kernels’ sensitivity to pre-harvest sprouting gets frequently lower level of falling number data of triticale cultivars. The minimum falling number requirement effective in Estonia for rye as food (100 s) was exceeded of the triticale cultivars only by Lupus, Lamberto and Prego (136, 124 and 109s, respectively). Falling number values were significantly affected by climatic conditions and cultivar (coefficients of determination were 38 and 34%, respectively). Substitution of barley with triticale up to 25% was not suitable for piglets, but the growth rate of fattening pigs compared with young pigs increased significantly (P<0.05) 9.3%. Differences between feed intake in young and fattening pigs were not significant. As triticale grain yield level is higher than barley’s one, then it is possible to produce more meet per ha by substitution of barley with triticale up to 25% in pig diets.

Keywords: triticale, grain yield potential, yield stability, falling number, triticale as pig feed.

H. Kiiman, E. Pärna, A. Leola, T. Kaart.  
  Effect of milking procedures on milk somatic cell count 90
Data were collected from five dairy farms, where cows were milked with pipeline milking system. These agricultural enterprises were interested in monitoring and analysis of milkers' working time consumption, to make sure they follow all the machine milking regulations. On three farms the cows were milked using De Laval and on two farms with Rezekne pipeline milking equipment. The De Laval milking system was supplied with automatic cluster remover (ACR). This type of milking equipment enables the milkers to more properly milk the cows. On all dairy farms the cows were milked twice daily.

Monitoring of the work activities of 24 machine milking operators, who milked the cows selected for our trials, was carried out immediately after control-milking. The duration of each element of the working process was recorded. Data on milk, fat and protein yields, and somatic cell count were collected. The mean duration of pre-milking udder preparation was 30 sec/cow, which did not meet physiological demands of cows during machine milking. Some cows were prepared only for 11 seconds, whereas the udder preparation comprised merely inadequate cleaning of teats, and foremilk was not stripped out. The maximum duration of over-milking was 103 seconds. A significant positive correlation (r=0.356***) was observed between the unit attachment to the cow and machine stripping. The milking operators, who were late in unit attachment, spent considerably more time on machine stripping. All the basic milking procedures had an impact on milk somatic cell count. A significant correlation was observed between over-milking time and somatic cell count as well as between premilking udder preparation and milk SCC (P<0.001).

Keywords: somatic cell count (SCC), procedures in machine milking.

R. Leming, A. Lember.  
  Chemical composition of expeller-extracted and coldpressed rapeseed cake 103
Chemical composition of locally produced expeller extracted and cold-pressed rapeseed cake was evaluated. Cold-pressed rapeseed cake was produced at 60 °C and the temperature during processing of expeller extracted cake varied between 98–112 °C.

It was concluded that cold-pressed rapeseed cake contained less crude protein (30.6 vs. 36.1%), N-free extractives (28.2 and 30.7%, resp.) and crude fibre (11.2 and 12.4%, resp.) but more crude fat (17.8 and 11.6%, resp.) and had higher metabolizable energy content (14.5 and 14.2 MJ/kg). Higher energy content in coldpressed cake is directly related to its high oil content. There were no big differences in crude ash, calcium and phosphorus content in different cake types. Chemical composition of rapeseed cake is influenced by pressing technology and conditions that are used in particular oil plant. Pressing conditions influence the effectiveness of oil removal and thereby also the nutrient content and nutritional value of produced rapeseed cake. Keywords: rapeseed cake, cold-pressed rapeseed cake, nutrients, chemical composition.

A. Olt, O. Kärt, H. Kaldmäe, M. Ots, E. Songisepp, I. Smidt.  
  The effect of additive and dry matter content on silage protein degradability and biogenic amine content 117
Legumes are widely used ensiling material as they are rich in protein. Ensiling of legumes arises several problems due to their low content of sugars, high buffering capacity and high moisture content. Attention should be paid to silage protein degradability. Objective of the study was to explain the effect of additives and wilting on the fermentation quality and nutritive value of red clover-timothy silage, protein degradability and content of amines included.

Test silages from fresh material, either unwilted or wilted for 24 hours, were conserved into 3-litre jars and opened for analysis in 90 days. Biological (L. plantarum + L. fermentum) and chemical (AIV 2000) additives were used for treatment. Silage protein degradability was studied by using in sacco method with ruminally fistulated cows.

As the buffering capacity of red clover-timothy mixture (50:50) is low (27.5), increasing up to 39.6 at wilting, treatment with additive is necessary to improve fermentation. The use of biological or chemical additives decreased silage dry matter losses by 1.9 to 3.7 times, significantly improving the quality of fermentation – content of butyric acid was 47 g/kg DM for test silage and 1–2 g/kg DM or 0 for silage without additive.

In vitro organic matter digestibility for the silage with chemical additive increased by 4%, compared to that for the test silage (P<0.0001).

Ruminal degradability of silage nitrogen was approximately 90%.

Protein solubility and ruminal degradability were lower for silage with chemical additive. Ruminal degradability of silage protein after 8 h was 77.2% for the test silage, 76% for the silage with biological additive and 68% for the silage with chemical additive.

All biogenic amines under investigation were present in low dry matter (140g/kg) silages, prepared without an additive. The content of histamine was the highest (5.24 g/kg DM), followed by putrescine (0.86 g/kg DM). Wilting and treatment with additive significantly decreased the formation of biogenic amines in silages.

Keywords: red clover, silage, protein, degradability, amines.

V. Viljasoo, I. Tomson, N. Bajeva, A. Bajeva.  
  Heat Pump EKO CLASSIC 155 working parameters for providing indoor climate of a cattle farm 132
Heat Pump EKO CLASSIC 155 working parameters for providing indoor climate of a cattle farm. According to the World Energetic Committe prognoses the share of heat pumps will constitute 75% of total heat supply by 2020. The first heat pump manufactory in Estonia was started in August 2004, scheming to capture 25–30% of the Estonian and 10–15% of the Baltic market as a whole. Heat pumps have found application in many sectors of national economy, including milk farms. The present research work presents data about the work parameters of the heat pump Thermia ECO Classic 155 refrigerator, about the temperature of heating water and about farm indoor climate parameters.

In cattle farm the ground heat pump with underground circuit is used year-round (in winter for heating, in summer for cooling and at both seasons for heating water). In Estonian agriculture the particular heat pump is the first heat pump in cattle farm. Research of usage enables to investigate device’s function reliability, its suitability for providing indoor climate and satisfying technological needs.

The analysis of air climate parameters (temperature ϑ, relative humidity Ws, absolute humidity Wa, dew point ϑ t, velocity v, temperature of floor ϑ p, oxygen content O2, carbon dioxide content CO2, ammonia content NH3, radioactivity R, positive light air ions n+, negative light air ions n–, factor of unipolarity q, relative freshness of air V) measuring of the milk waiting area of the cattle farm and outdoor climate, are presented in the article.

Special and effective indices of the heat pump cooling system (boiling temperature of agent ϑ 0 , condensing temperature of agent ϑ k, compressor suction pressure P0, compressor compressive pressure Pk, weighty special cold productivity q0′ , compressor specific work l, condensator specific heat productivity q', refrigerant factor of cycle εi, heating factor of cycle εs, specific cubage of steam sucked in v1, bulk specific cold productivity qv, agent usage Ga, actual bulk capacity of compressor Vt, cold capacity of heat pump cooling device Q) are determined and calculated in the article. Circular processes of heat pump cooling system are shown in i-lgP diagram and specific and effective indices of heat pump EKO CLASSIC 155 are presented in.

Keywords: heat pump, indoor climate, functional-technical parameters, climate parameters, outdoor climate, heat pump cooling system, special and effective indices of cooling system.


Cloud of Keywords
additive additives agent agricultural amines analysis between biogenic biological cake capacity cattle cell chemical classic climate climatic clover cold composition compressor conditions content cooling count cows crude cultivar cultivars data degradability duration effect effective expeller extracted factor falling farm farms fermentation grain heat heating high higher indices indoor lamberto level lower lupus machine matter milk milked milking p< parameters pigs preparation pressed procedures produced productivity protein providing pump rapeseed resp respectively ruminal significant significantly silage silages somatic specific stability temperature test tewo treatment triticale udder wheat wilting winter work working yield




Estonian Academic Agricultural Society

Editor in Chief

Alo Tänavots


Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 1,
51014 Tartu,






Agraarteadus : Journal of Agricultural Science 1990

Online since 
1997 * VIII * 4



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