2012 * XXIII * 1

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A. Bender.  
  Fertilization value of early red clover (Trifolium pratense L.),Washington lupin (Lupinus polyphyllus Lind) and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) as green manure crops 3
In 2008–2011, field trials were carried out at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute in order to identify the possibilities of using the early red clover cultivar ‘Jõgeva 433’, Washington lupin with Jõgeva breeding number 4 and crimson clover of Italian origin as green manure. The fertilization value of the above species was studied after autumn ploughing in the year of sowing and on the second year from sowing, based on the yield and grain quality of spring wheat ‘Vinjett’ and barley ‘Inari’. The in-ploughed biomass as well as its composition were recorded. By the time of ploughing Washington lupin has produced the most abundant biomass. Of the studied species crimson clover had the lowest fertilization value, the stubble and roots of seed plants that were ploughed in resulted only in 6–7% of extra yield of spring wheat in the following year. Crimson clover had no fertilizing aftereffect in the second year. The fertilization values of red clover and Washington lupin were more or less equal. Their statistically significant positive effect on the increase of yield of spring wheat and barley lasted for 3 years, on the quality of grain for 2 years. Red clover that was ploughed into the ground in the year of sowing gave the maximum extra yield of 27% in spring wheat comparedwith o N 0 variant, and Washington lupin 23%, respectively. In the second year of aftereffect Washington lupin gave in barley an extra yield of 26.8%, red clover 10.1%, and in the third year 10.4 and 12.1%, respectively. Green manure increased the contents of crude protein and gluten in spring wheat and that of crude protein in barley.
The fertilization value of all studied species was higher in the case they were sown without a cover crop.

Keywords: Trifolium pratense L., Lupinus polyphyllus Lind., Trifolium incarnatum L., green manure, spring wheat, barley, yield, quality.

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M. Järvan, L. Lukme, A. Akk, L. Edesi, A. Adamson.  
  Effect of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization on yield, crop quality and baking properties of winter wheat 12
The present study is based on the field trials conducted on break-stony soil during 2004–2008.The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of sulphur fertilization on the grain yield, quality and baking properties of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum).
Sulphur was applied with NS-fertilizer Axan at the rate of S 10–13.6 kg ha–1 accompanied with nitrogen background of N 100 kg ha–1, which effect was compared to effect of ammonium nitrate at the same rate of N. The rates of N- and NS-fertilizers were divided into two portions and applied at the beginning and at the end of tillering. Sulphur application increased the grain yield as the average of four years by 21.7%. But, with the increasing yields under influence of sulphur, the protein and wet gluten concentrations in grains decreased. However, sulphur supply increased significantly the quality of wet gluten because the gluten index – a measure of gluten strength – rose by 27.6% as the average of four years. Although sulphur application in many cases decreased protein and wet gluten content in wheat grain significantly, it improved the biological quality of protein because the amino acids concentration in protein increased as the average of four years as follows: methionine – 28%, cysteine – 20%, threonine – 11% and lysine – 8%. Due to sulphur fertilization all major parameters of winter wheat’s baking quality improved: stability and quality number of dough, loaf volume and specific volume, round loaf’s height to diameter ratio, and porosity of bread.

Keywords: sulphur fertilization, winter wheat, yield, protein, wet gluten, amino acids, baking properties.

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M. Järvan.  
  Effect of foliar applied sulphur on yield, quality and baking properties of winter wheat 21
This study with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum, var. Lars) was carried out in 2004 and 2005 on two different soil lacking in available sulphur. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of foliar applied sulphur on the grain yield, quality and baking properties. As sources of sulphur the dissolved ammonium sulphate (S 24%), liquid fertilizer Sulfur F3000 (S 340 g l–1) and fungicide Thiovit Jet (S 800 g kg–1) were applied at the tillering and shooting stages. In the trial No. 1, ammonium sulphate and Sulfur at the different rates were added into Silmet’s liquid Nfertilizer which contained N 170 g l–1, and were sprayed on wheat plants at the rate of N 60 + 60 kg ha–1(2004) or N 40 + 40 kg ha–1(2005). In the trial No. 2, the effect of Thiovit sprayed at the tillering and shooting stages with the rates of 3 and 6 kg ha–1 on the background of N 60 + 60 kg ha–1as solid ammonium nitrate was investigated.
On the calcareous soil, the foliar application of sulphur increased the grain yield by 11–55%, depending on the growth stage, sulphur source and application rate. Under the influence of sulphur, the contents of protein and wet gluten decreased but the gluten index value increased which indicated the better quality of gluten. The foliar applied sulphur improved the baking quality of wheat. On the weakly acid soil, foliar applied sulphur, as a rule, had an insignificant effect on the grain yield and quality.

Keywords: sulphur, foliar fertilization, Thiovit, winter wheat, yield components, protein, baking properties.

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T. Järvis, E. Mägi, B. Lassen.  
  Pig parasites and factors, influencing their occurrence in Estonian farms 28
In last time more attention has been directed to elaboration of parasite control measures based on use of possible small quantities of antiparasitic drugs with application of animal treatments in optimal time, considering used management conditions, age of animals and season of the years. To work out and apply into practice parasite control measures, knowledge of parasite population dynamics and epidemiology is necessary.
In this article the study results on pig parasites and factors, influencing their occurrence in Estonian farms are presented and discussed. The data of technical profile on each farm had been described: farm type, veterinary- sanitary conditions, age groups of pigs, the use of antiparasitic drugs. Analysis of prevalence and intensity of infection in four main parasite groups were carried out: Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum spp., coccidian and other parasites.
The logistic model was used to compare parasite prevalence in different breeding systems and Wilcoxon test was used to determine the differences in parasite infection between farm types and pig age groups.

Keywords: pig parasites, prevalence, infection intensity, farm type, age group.

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H. Kaldmäe, C. Rebase, A. Olt, M. Ots. 38
  Nutritive value and quality of silages for horses  
The basic feeds for the horse are pasture grass, hay and silage. In the Nordic countries horses are predominantly fed hay in winter. Developments in silage bailing technology have made it possible to prepare smaller portions of silage of ideal composition for the horse. While hay is usually prepared from only the first cut of grass, silage can be made from two cuts. Therefore, the preparation of silage as feed for the horse is becoming widely accepted. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition, nutritive value and quality of both hay and silage that horses ( n = 263 ) received. A total of ten typical silage and eight typical hay samples were collected for analysis. The nutrient content of the silage was higher compared to the hay (P < 0.05). The silage prepared for the horse contained 7.9 MJ/kg metabolizable energy (0.6 MJ/kg more than hay), and 50 g/kg of digestible protein (twice as much as the hay (P < 0.01)). The silage with a dry matter content of 40–50% fermented well, but ensiling at >60% DM restricted fermentation. The dry matter content of the silage prepared from the second cut was lower compared to that of the first cut.
The zearalenon concentration in the silage was a mean of 71.6 ppb, and the deoxinivalenol concentration was 35.1 ppb while in hay these were at concentrations of 90.0 ppb and 168.5 ppb respectively. Silage contained fewer analysed toxins compared to hay (P < 0.05).

Keywords: silage, hay, nutritive value, fermentation, mycotoxins.

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P.Lättemäe, B. Osmane, I.-H. Konosonoka, S. Wigley, J.M. Wilkinson.
  Effect of silo sealing system based on an oxygen barrier film on composition and losses from the upper layer of grass/clover crops ensiled in farmscale silos 43
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the extent to which a silo sealing system based on the oxygen barrier film ‘Silostop’ (S; 45 μm thickness) influenced the preservation quality of silage in the upper layer of the silo compared to a conventional sealing system comprising white-on-black polyethylene film (C; 150 μm thickness). Primary growth grass/clover crops were ensiled for 120 days in bunker silos split lengthways and covered with either S or C. Losses were estimated by burying bags beneath the top surface (Experiment 1) or by weighing inedible material (Experiment 2). Yeast counts were similar for the two crops at harvest, but the mould count was numerically higher in the crop at harvest in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1, possibly reflecting wet weather. Silage in the upper 30 cm layer under S had higher concentrations of lactic acid than material stored under C (P < 0.05). In both experiments, counts of yeasts, moulds and clostridial spores were numerically lower for silage under S than for silage under C. Mycotoxins were not detected in silage samples. Losses of DM from the upper 30 cm layer in Experiment 1 averaged 5.0% and 2.5% for C and S, respectively. In Experiment 2, inedible silage fresh weight discarded from the top 30 cm layer was 1.7 tonnes (0.1%) and 100 tonnes (5.9% of total fresh weight ensiled) for S and C, respectively. Oxygen barrier film has the potential to reduce top spoilage and improve the microbiological quality of grass/clover silage.1

Keywords: Silage, silos, polyethylene film, oxygen barrier film, losses.

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V. Põder, A. Annuk.
  Compatibility of energy consumption with the capacity of wind generators 49
This is an overview paper about thesis for applying for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Energy Use; defended on 2011 in Estonian University of Life Sciences.
The aim of this thesis was to describe efficient autonomous wind energy system (with maximum power utilization and reliable energy supply). The autonomous system consists of wind generator and storage device. Data from a group of small-power wind generators was obtained and their power curves analyzed. A second order polynomial was created to describe the normalized power curve of wind generator. The concept of an energy lull was introduced to describe periods without energy production due to periods without wind. The annual mean capacity of a small wind turbine generator was calculated by using a normalized power curve for six different locations in Estonia. The length of energy lulls was found from wind data and method for calculation of energy lull probability was proposed.

Keywords: wind energy systems, energy lulls, power curves of wind generators.

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P. Sooväli.  
  Integrated plant disease management in spring barley and oat production 55
Efficacy of the fungicide tebuconazole was tested in two treatment regimes in three spring barley and four oat varieties belonging to different resistance categories in years 2003–2005, the effect of fungicide on fungal contamination of harvested barley grain was tested in 2004–2005 and the effects of four fertilizer doses and two variants of chemical treatments on fungal disease infection and yield of two oat varieties was tested in 2006–2008. All experiments were carried out at Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute. The impact of the fungicide on the control of major barley pathogens Pyrenophora teres and Cochliobolus sativus and oat pathogens Pyrenophora avenae and Puccinia coronata, as well as kernel yield was studied in the field trials. The fungicide treatment had a strong impact on the control of infection of P. teres and increase grain yield. For the more resistant barley genotype, fungicide application had relatively low returns because of the much higher level of biological resistance and small disease-related yield reductions. There were no single solutions for timing of the fungicide application on oat. Depending on the weather conditions, better efficacy in disease control or higher economic return was achieved from fungicide use at flag leaf stage or at heading stage. The significant differences in levels of disease infection and grain yields between fertilizer and chemical inputs and oat varieties were observed. The infection level of oat diseases and yield increase resulting from intensive fertilizers with pesticides were mostly influenced by the yearly weather conditions. It was found that the fungicide and genotype factors contributed to the variance seen in fungal contamination. The time of fungicide application had clear effect on the incidence of phytopathogenic fungal species. The results illustrate the possibility of use of fungicide and variety resistance based disease control strategy for reduction of seed contamination by fungal spores.

Keywords: spring barley, oat, resistance, fungicide, application time, fertilizer, yield, profitable.

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M. Särekanno, K. Kotkas, V. Roosenberg, J. Kadaja.  
  Analysis of productivity indicators of field-grown potato meristem plants multiplied by different methods 63
The experiments carried out in 2005–2007 had two objectives: 1) to compare productivity indicators of plants regenerated from tip- and stem cuttings and truncated plants to that of plants propagated by the in vitro micro-plants method; and 2) to analyse the effect of multiplication method, experimental year, and variety on productivity indicators of potato meristem plants. The dynamics of the productivity indicators, like leaf area index; tuber number per plant; average tuber fresh mass and total tuber fresh mass; tuber size distribution; accumulation of total plant dry mass and tuber dry mass were investigated. From our experiments, it can be concluded that all investigated productivity indicators of field-grown potato meristem plants are dependent on the particular multiplication method, and on the experimental year. Variety was observed to have a significant effect on leaf area index, tuber number, and average tuber fresh mass. Plants multiplied by the in vitro micro-plants method had a smaller leaf area index, and more tubers per plant were formed, the average tuber fresh mass was smaller. A larger tuber number did not compensate for the relatively lower average tuber fresh mass; therefore, total tuber fresh mass, total plant dry mass, and tuber dry mass remained lower for in vitro micro-plants when compared with the other three multiplication methods. Our experiments demonstrated also that fieldgrown potato plants cultivated by tip-,and stem cuttings and truncated plants methods develop a size suitable for seed production (Ø 30–60 mm) two to three weeks earlier than plants multiplied by the MP method.

Keywords: Solanum tuberosum L., potato meristem plants, pre-basic seed, rapid multiplication method, plastic roll, the dynamics of the productivity indicators.

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E. Kalde.  
  About weather, yield and us 72
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Cloud of Keywords
ammonium analysis application applied average baking barley barrier based breeding carried chemical clover compared composition concentration concentrations conditions contained contamination content contents crimson crop crops data decreased describe disease dynamics effect energy ensiled experiment experiments extra factors farm fertilization fertilizer field film foliar four fresh fungal fungicide generator generators gluten grain grass green groups higher horse horses improved increase increased index indicators infection investigate investigated jõgeva layer leaf losses lower lupin manure mass meristem method methods micro multiplication multiplied nutritive oxygen parasite parasites plant plants ploughed potato power prepared prevalence production productivity properties protein quality rate rates resistance respectively sealing second seed significant silage silo silos smaller soil sowing species spring stage studied study sulphur tested thiovit three tillering total trials trifolium tuber under upper value varieties variety vitro washington weather wheat wind winter without work year years yield




Estonian Academic Agricultural Society

Editor in Chief

Alo Tänavots


Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 1,
51014 Tartu,






Agraarteadus : Journal of Agricultural Science 1990

Online since 
1997 * VIII * 4



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