2016 * XXVII * 2

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RESEARCH ARTICLES
Malle Järvan, Raivo Vettik  
  DYNAMICS OF PLANT NUTRIENTS IN ORGANICALLY AND CONVENTIONALLY MANAGED SOILS EXTRACTED BY DIFFERENT ANALYZE METHODS (69) 55-64
 
Abstract
DYNAMICS OF PLANT NUTRIENTS IN ORGANICALLY AND CONVENTIONALLY MANAGED SOILS EXTRACTED BY DIFFERENT ANALYZE METHODS
Malle Järvan, Raivo Vettik

The goal of this work was to research what kind changes in the soil agrichemical parameters occur depending on different farming methods. The field experiment was established on sandy loamy soil at Olustvere (58º 33΄ N, 25º 34΄ E) during 2008–2014. The following treat­ments were carried out: organic (ORG), organic with farmyard cattle manure (ORGFYM) and conventional with farmyard cattle manure and mineral fertilizers (CONFYM). Every year in September the soil samples (0–20 cm) on the crop rotation fields were collected and analysed for P, K, Mg and Ca by the Mehlich 3 (Me3) method. In parallel, ammonium lactate extractable P and K (AL-method), and ammonium acetate extractable Mg and Ca (NH4OAc-method) were determined. In all the treatments, no significant changes in soil Corg content were established over seven years. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in soil pH was shown for the CONFYM treatment. For the ORG treatment there revealed considerable decrease of the available K content in the soil. The application of manure in the both organic and conventional treatments sustained the status of available nutrients in the soil. The Pearson correlation coefficients (at the significance p < 0.01) between the Mehlich 3 method and alternative methods were the following: for P – 0.770, for K – 0.922, for Mg – 0.951 and for Ca – 0.841. The PMe3/PAL quotient was inversely proportional with the CaMe3 values.
Keywords: phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, Mehlich 3 extraction, ammonium lactate extration
Source: Agraarteadus 2016 (27) 2:55-64

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http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/2016_2_jarvan.pdf
AUTHOR CONTACT
Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Agrotechnology, Teaduse 4/6, 75501 Saku, Estonia
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Aleksander Lember, Triin Visamaa, Mirjam Vallas, Irje Nutt  
  ABOUT CORRELATIONS BETWEEN EGG PRODUCTION TRAITS IN ESTONIAN QUAIL (27) 65-75
 
Abstract
ABOUT CORRELATIONS BETWEEN EGG PRODUCTION TRAITS IN ESTONIAN QUAIL
Aleksander Lember, Triin Visamaa, Mirjam Vallas, Irje Nutt
Estonian Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) is the only poultry breed developed in Estonia. The aim of this research was to investigate Estonian Quail production performance traits – annual egg production, live weight and its’ dynamics, egg weight, laying onset and correlations between these characteristics. Performance recording data of 108 female and 108 male quails were used. Correlations between production performance traits were calculated on the basis of 74 female quails. 77 females survived up to the end of the trial (13 laying months, 364 days). Both, females and males were divided into two groups – light and heavy – according to their live weight at the age of 30 days. The mean first egg laying age (laying onset) of Estonian quail was 47.0 days, females of lighter group started laying earlier, at the age of 45.9 days and heavier quails’ average laying onset was 47.9 days. The average egg weight was 13.85 g, lighter quails laid slightly lighter eggs than heavier quails, 13.76 g and 13.93 g, in light and heavy females, respectively. The average annual egg production was 260.3 in the light female group and 238.0 in the heavy group. The average live weight of adult (at the age of 92 days) female quails was 267 g (variability 176–354 g) and 216 g in males (variability 168–287 g). There were no significant correlations between live weight at 30 days and laying onset, also between egg laying rate and live weight at 30 days. The results showed a negative correlation between the age at laying first egg and annual egg production (r = –0.268, p < 0.05). Selection of quails according to their egg production in first three laying months would increase the annual egg production as eggs number laid in first 3 months positively correlated with the annual egg production (r = 0.472, p < 0.001).
Keywords: Estonian Quail, quail live weight, quail egg weight, laying onset, egg laying rate
Source: Agraarteadus 2016 (27) 2:65-75

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http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/2016_2_lember.pdf
AUTHOR CONTACT
Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 62, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
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Imbi Nurmoja1,2, Maarja Kristian3, Arvo Viltrop1  
  Review: AFRICAN SWINE FEVER (Pestis Africana Suum) (28) 76-82
 
Abstract
Review: AFRICAN SWINE FEVER (Pestis Africana Suum)
Imbi Nurmoja, Maarja Kristian, Arvo Viltrop
African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most devastating diseases that affect domestic pig and wild boar. The causative agent of ASF is African swine fever virus (ASFV) that is the sole member of the genus Asfivirus and the family Asfarviridae. The virus is a large icosahedral double-stranded DNA virus in length 170–193 kb depending on the isolate. Both clinical signs and pathological changes may vary considerably depending on strain virulence, virus dose and host factors. Epidemiology of ASF is very complex especially in Africa and Southern Europe, where soft tick and wild pig species are involved to the transmission cycles. In Eastern Europe ASF was first diagnosed in Georgia in April 2007, after what it spread fast to several neighbouring countries in Transcaucasia region and the Russian Federation, where it is still circulating and is now endemic. In 2012, ASFV was reported in Ukraine, in 2013 in Belarus and in 2014, in European Union countries, including Poland, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. The spread of the virus among wild boar in Estonia in period from September 2014 to March 2016 has been comprehensive including 12 counties out of 15. During the same period in total 18 outbreaks has been occurred in domestic pigs. For ASF no vaccine or treatment is available, therefore control of the disease based on early warning, early detection, effective control surveillance programs and stamping out in case of the outbreak. Currently is ASF a major threat to the pig industry in Europe.
Keywords: African swine fever, spread, epidemiology, virus, diagnosis
Source: Agraarteadus 2016 (27) 2:76-82

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http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/2016_2_nurmoja.pdf
AUTHOR CONTACT
1 Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 62, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; 
2
Veterinary and Food Laboratory, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 30, 51006 Tartu, Estonia; 
3
Veterinary and Food Board, Väike-Paala 3, 11415 Tallinn, Estonia
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Odjuvwuederhie E. Inoni1, Francis O. Tobih2, David E. Idoge1  
  BINARY PROBIT ESTIMATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING PESTICIDE ADOPTION FOR THE CONTROL OF YAM TUBER BEETLES IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA (41) 83-91
 
Abstract
BINARY PROBIT ESTIMATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING PESTICIDE ADOPTION FOR THE CONTROL OF YAM TUBER BEETLES IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA
Odjuvwuederhie E. Inoni, Francis O. Tobih, David E. Idoge
Yam is a major staple food crop with significant impact on the food security, income generation and employment creation for the various participants in the yam value-chain in Nigeria. However, pest infestation by yam beetles poses serious production constraint to farmers resulting in over 50% of yield losses. Many farmers have adopted the use of pesticides such as chlorpyriphos. pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin to control yam beetles and boost output. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine factors that affect pesticide adoption for control of yam beetles in Oshimili Area of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from a cross-section of 159 yam farmers including 79 adopters and 80 non-adopters of pesticides, drawn from 6 communities with the aid of questionnaire. t-test and binary probit were employed to analyse the data. The choice of the probit model is due to the qualitative nature of the dependent variable (pesticide adoption). Results of t-test revealed that significant (p < 0.01) differences existed in age, years of formal education, number of adults per household, farm income and farm size between adopters and non-adopters. The probit model had a good fit with significant LR ratio, 106.67 (p < 0.001); a McFadden R2 of 0.48 with 84.9% of cases correctly predicted. The results also showed that age, years of education, adults per household, farming experience, farm income, access to credit, extension contact as well as training on pesticide application all had significant influence on adoption decision. While the impact of  age on the probability of technology adoption was negative, all other variables exerted positive effects. The authors recommended that improved access to farm credit, efficient and effective extension service delivery system and on-farm training on pesticide handling and application be intensified to reduce beetles attack, boost yam yield and improve food security of farming households.
Keywords: yam tuber beetles, pesticide technology adoption, socio-eco-nomic factors, smallholder farmers, Delta State, Nigeria
Source: Agraarteadus 2016 (27) 2:83-91

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AUTHOR CONTACT
1 Department of Agricultural Economics & Extension, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria
2 Department of Agronomy, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria
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Luik, Helis, Viira, Ants-Hannes  
  FEEDING, MILKING AND MANURE SYSTEMS IN ESTONIAN DAIRY BARNS (33) 92-107
 
Abstract
FEEDING, MILKING AND MANURE SYSTEMS IN ESTONIAN DAIRY BARNS
Helis Luik, Ants-Hannes Viira
In 2012, a farm survey was carried out by the Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of the Estonian University of Life Sciences that aimed to gather the information about the technologies that Estonian dairy farms use. Studying the technological solutions used in dairy farms is relevant, because dairy farms contribute significantly to the Estonian agricultural output, and utilise remarkable amount of resources. Modern technology is one of the key drivers of productivity growth in a sustainable way. Therefore, understanding the current technological level of the dairy farms, and seeking for the needs for technological improve-ment, contributes to developing the policies that address the sustainability of the dairy sector. The paper surveys the technologies used in specialised Estonian dairy farms in 2012, therefore contributing the first overview of the technologies used in Estonian dairy farms since the EU accession. The paper reviews the following technological indicators: the number and type of dairy barns in the farm; the number of places for dairy cows in the barn; the year of construction or reconstruction of the barns and technological systems; milking technology; milking frequency; feeding systems; manure systems. The survey revealed that the significant technological change in dairy farms started in 2001. Since then, most of the barns that are built are uninsulated, feeding and milking technologies are upgraded, and manure systems are changed to liquid systems. At the same time, there is still a remarkable technological gap between smaller and larger dairy farms.
Keywords: technological change, dairy barns, dairy farms, Estonia
Source:Agraarteadus 2016 (27) 2:92-107

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DIRECT LINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/2016_2_luik.pdf
AUTHOR CONTACT
Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 1, Tartu 51014, Estonia
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ANNOUNCEMENTS
  THESIS DEFENDERS ESTONIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES IN 2016 118-119
 
OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/2016_2_teated.pdf
 
Cloud of Keywords
adopters adoption african ammonium annual application average barns beetles between binary changes content correlations crop dairy data days delta department depending dynamics economics europe extension factors farm farmers farming farms feeding female females fever following food group heavy including income laying light lighter live manure mehlich method methods milking months nigeria nutrients onset organic performance pesticide probit production quail quails research revealed significant soil source spread state swine systems technological technologies technology therefore traits treatment tuber veterinary virus weight wild years 2012 2016


Published 20-12-2016

 

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APS

Estonian Academic Agricultural Society

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Alo Tänavots

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p-ISSN
1024-0845
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Agronomy 
1921-1944

Re-established 
Agraarteadus : Journal of Agricultural Science 1990

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1997 * VIII * 4

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