2009 * XX * 2

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A. Bender.  
  Seed colour index of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) cultivars ‘Varte’ and ‘Ilte’ 7
Seed colour index of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) cultivars ‘Varte’ and ‘Ilte’. Tetraploid cultivars of red clover ‘Varte’ (early) and ‘Ilte’ (late), that are cultivated also in Finland, Sweden and Norway by now, have been released by Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute. Single plant nurseries for maintenance breeding with these cultivars have been continuously established for a number of years. Seed yield and 1000 seed weight are determined for individually harvested plants, the colour of the seed coat is assessed visually on a 1–5 scale. Mean seed colour indices of 10 seed harvests were calculated using these scores, the dependence of the index on yearly pecularities and age of the stand is explained. Seed colour index was calculated in two ways: 1) the plants within a population were divided into classes according to the colour of the harvested seeds, the number of plants per class was considered by calculation – an equation [Σ(no. of plants per class x number of seed colour class)]/total no. of scored plants); 2) the seed yields of plants divided into seed colour classes were determined and used in the calculation – an equation [ Σ(sum of seed weights per class x number of seed colour class)]/total weight of scored seeds. The results were compared with the seed colour indices determined in the USA by Bortnem and Boe for red clover cultivars originating from several regions of Europe.
Keywords: red clover, cultivar, seeds, colour index
M. Järvan, L. Edesi, A. Adamson.  
  The effect of sulphur fertilization on yield, qualituy of protein and baking properties of winter wheat 15
The effect of sulphur fertilization on yield, quality of protein and baking properties of winter wheat. The present study is based on the data of field and production trials conducted in the years 2004 – 2008. The trials were carried out in North-Estonia (59° 18 ’ N, 24° 39 ’ E) on break-stony soil and in South- Estonia (58° 27 ’ N, 25° 36 ’ E) on pseudopodzolic soil. The aim was to identify the effect of sulphur fertilization on the yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), on some of the quality indices of yield and protein quality, including the content of non-replaceable amino acids, and on the baking properties of flour. In the field trials the effect of N and NS fertilization was compared on the nitrogen background of N 60 + N 40 kg ha –1 or N 50 + N 50 kg ha –1 . Due to sulphur (in two top dressings in total S 10 or S 14 kg ha –1 ) the yield of winter wheat ‘Lars’ increased, depending on the weather and soil conditions, in field trials 0.47 –1.66 t ha –1 , i.e. 7.7 –43.0% and in production trials 1.35 –2.44 t ha –1 , i.e. 39.8 –45.5%. The effect of sulphur on the protein and wet gluten contents of wheat grain was not always one-directional, but in all trials the gluten index increased and the quality of protein improved under the influence of sulphur. Sulphur fertilization increased the content of amino acids in the protein of winter wheat in field trials on the average as following: cysteine – 20.0%, methionine – 28.1%, threonine – 11.2% and lysine – 8.4%. In production conditions the fertilization with sulphur increased both the contents of protein and wet gluten and that of major amino acids. Due to sulphur fertilization all major parameters of winter wheat’s baking quality improved: stability and quality number of dough, loaf volume and specific volume and round loaf’s height to diameter ratio.
Keywords: winter wheat, sulphur fertilization, protein, amino acids, baking quality.
L. Käis.  
  Bilberry cultivating technology in plantations established on milled peat fields 21
The lowbush bilberry growing technology on the beds in exhausted milled peatfields. Application a modern machine cultivation technology in founded plantations. A given characteristics of technology to forming relief of plantation surfaces to beds and technotracks. Development of machine cultivation technology in established and used bilberry plantations. Analyze bases to the comparative method of appraisement for manually and with berry harvester. Applied plant cultivation technology in use on the rejuvenation plants, pruning, fertilization, crop protection and harvesting berries. To determine operating costs of machines are use solution methods by authors (Linnas, Möller etc.) and a personal, and berry farmstead farmer experiences.
Keywords: bilberry machine cultivation technology, bed of bilberry, technotrack, rejuvenation, fertilization, plant protection, berry harvester.
J. Olt, M. Heinloo.  
  On the formula for computation of flying distance of fertilizer’s particle under air resistance 25
The article expands upon analytic modelling of a fertilizer particle flying distance from centrifugal mineral fertilizer spreader dispersing disc under air resistance. The known formula for individual fertilizer particle flying distance has been adapted for the case. It is shown that the flying distance and time of reaching the landing spot on the field significantly depend on the aerodynamic resistance coefficient (floating speed) of the fertilizer particle.
Keywords: agricultural machinery, fertilizer spreader, flying distance, fertilizer particle.
J. Olt, V, Mikita, T. Sõõro, A. Küüt, R. Tamm, E. Raidla, R. Ilves, K. Ristlaid, V. Raudsepp, U. Viitkar.  
  Bioethanol as a fuel in spark-ignition engine 34
Bioethanol as a Fuel in Spark-ignition Engine. Due to the limited oil resources and growing environmental pollution mainly, using bioethanol as an alternative fuel in spark-ignition engines is becoming more and more topical. Insufficient information about the power and economy characteristics of biofuel or biofuel additive engines has given an impact to test these qualities. In the present research it has been studied how bioethanol as engine fuel and fuel additive influences a spark-ignition engine power, torque, fuel consumption and composition of exhaust gas. The main results of the study have been outlined in the article.
Keywords: biofuels, bioethanol, spark-ignition engine, power, torque, specific fuel consumption.
J. Olt, R. Värnik, Ü. Traat, M. Nikopensius.
  Monetary indicators of tractor maintenance costs 46
The object of this paper is to find out the direction of development of the tractor maintenance practices in Estonia from the point of view of the provider of the service. The question is if the necessary works are done in the service centers or by the buyers/ users themselves. We investigated what were the factors that influenced most the working reliability and the resource of the tractors and how could we use this knowledge in the most optimal way thus increasing the competitive edge of the farmers. Coming from the objective of the paper a goal was set to find out the problems that tractors users (farmers) encounter while doing maintenance works in their tractor park (diagnostics, maintenance and repairs). We looked into the practical real costs depending on the organizational and technical circumstances.
Keywords: agricultural machinery, tractor, maintenance, diagnostics, repair, costs.
H. Tikk, A. Lember, A. Karus, V. Tikk, M. Piirsalu.
  Meat performance and meat chemical composition of quail broilers in Estonia 59
Meat performance and meat chemical composition of quail broilers in Estonia. In the poultry world, production of the quail meat is yet quite negligible and not regularly consumed product compared to broiler chickens. Quail eggs are more widely known and popular. China, Spain, France, Italy and the US are the largest producers of quail meat in the world. In Estonia quails have been raised since 1976. In 1987 the first egg-meat type quail breed – Estonian Quail was recognised. At the present the main production performance data of Estonian Quail broilers at the age of 42 days are: live weight 230 g and 180 g, feed conversion 3.51 and 3.59 kg/kg, slaughter yield 71 and 72%, for females and males, respectively. The meat performance data and meat chemical composition of three different quail populations raised in Estonia are presented in this paper. The mineral content in meat of Estonian Quails was estimated and compared with the literature data.
Keywords: Estonian Quail, quail meat, quails' meat performance, quail meat chemical composition.
J. Olt.
  90 years teaching and studying agricultural machinery at university level in Estonia 60
In 2009 Estonia is celebrating 90 years teaching and studying agricultural machinery at university level. The present article is a continuation of an article “80 years of university education in agricultural implements in Estonia” composed by Aimu Reintam in 1999. Developmental issues of the units of academic and administrative structure (institute, working group, department) involved with teaching agricultural machinery in the period of 1999–2009 are more in detail addressed herewith. These were the years when four large groups of subjects (mechanics, agricultural machinery, automobiles and tractors, technology of materials and machinery repair merged into the activities of one structural unit, i.e. the department of agricultural and production engineering.
Keywords: agricultural machinery, product development, mechanical engineering, education, history.
A. Leola.
  40 aastat loomakasvatuse mehhaniseeerimise kateedri loomisest Eesti Põllumajanduse Akadeemias 66