2002 * XIII * 2

E. Ilumäe.  
  Kasvuregulaatori Moddus 250 EC mõju erinevatele teraviljaliikidele 73
The influence of growth regulator Moddus 250 EC on different cereal species. In 2000–2001 in the trial fields of Saku-Üksnurme of Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, the field trials with spring and winter wheat, barely and winter rye were arranged in order to explore the effect of growth regulator Moddus 250 EC. The influence of growth regulator Moddus 250 EC on plants length, lodging and yield of different cereals has been compared with Cycocel 750 and Cerone.

Moddus 250 EC at an application rate of 0.4 l ha-1 avoided lodging of spring barley completely and nearly of spring wheat. The strong wild wind and rain during growing period resulted in some short lodging of cereals (Moddus 250 EC, application rate 0.3 l ha-1).

Moddus 250 EC completely avoided the lodging of winter rye and winter wheat at an application rate of 0.4 l ha-1, the stalks were inclined 30°, the harvesting of crop was normal.

When Moddus 250 EC was used at dose of 0.4 l ha-1, the stalk of spring barley ‘Anni’ shortened by 7.7% of spring barley ‘Thuringia’ by 21.5%, of spring wheat ‘Mahti’ by 13.7%, of winter wheat ‘Shirvinta’ by 24.0%, of winter rye ‘Vambo’ by 9.2%, respectively.

Moddus 250 EC did not affect the crop yield of spring barley ‘Thuringia’ and spring wheat ‘Mahti’ significantly. Moddus 250 EC at an application rate of 0.4 l ha-1 increased reliably the yield of spring barley ‘Anni’ (7.4%) and of winter wheat ‘Shirvinta’ (9.5%). Application rate of 0.4 l ha-1 increased reliably the yield of winter rye ‘Vambo’ (6.3%).

Keywords: growth regulators, spring wheat, winter wheat, winter rye, spring barley, lodging.

H. Jaakson, K. Ling.  
  Lipiidsete metaboliitide referentsväärtused eesti holsteini tõugu lehmade vereseerumis 79
Blood reference values of some lipid metabolites in Estonian Holstein cows. The objective of the study was to work out reference values of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglycerides, total lipids and total cholesterol. The following five stages of gestation or/and lactation of 109 clinically healthy cows from 3 different farms were under investigation: last two weeks of gestation (≤2 NEP), first two weeks of lactation (≤2 NPP); 4…6 (4–6 NPP), 9…11 (9–11 NPP) and 15…18 (15–18 NPP) weeks after parturition. T-test was used to evaluate the differences in metabolites concentrations between the stages. Normal or lognormal distribution of the metabolites was decided on lesser skewness of the distribution curve. Average concentrations of the compounds as well as their reference values were calculated separately for each stage. Observed dynamics of the blood parameters characterized the mobilization of body reserves in periparturient period. The shapes of the dynamics curves illustrating differences in the parameters concentrations between the stages as well as the actual concentrations of the compounds were in line with the data of other researchers. The established reference values indicate that in laboratory investigations stage of gestation or/and lactation as a factor affecting the physiological state of the cows must be considered.

Keywords: reference values, blood metabolites, lipid metabolism, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, total lipids, cholesterol, Estonian Holstein cow.

B. Reppo, A. Pals.  
  Lehmalauda sisekliima talvel 87
Inner climate of a cowshed in winter. The temperature, relative humidity, ammonia, carbon dioxide and oxygen content of indoor air were measured in cowsheds. The measurements of these parameters were conducted before, during and after the manure disposal in three cowsheds with different manure disposal technologies. The measuring points were set in different places (cow’s place, resting area, manure passages) at the heights of 0.1, 0.8, 1.5 and 2.0 m. At the height of 1.5 m the parameters of the inner climate were measured for twenty-four hours in succession. During the investigation Data Logger, respective sensors and the PC AMR WinControl software were made the use of. The measurements were performed 2000. and 2001. year in winter. The average results of the measurements of working environment temperature, air moisture, oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia content in the cowshed, and measured at different heights on a cow place and in the manure gutter are presented.

Keywords: animal keeping technology, cow place, manure passage, the height of the animal’s room, temperature, relative humidity, oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, Data Logger, AMR WinControl.

E. Runno, M. Koppel.  
  NEGFRY – kartuli-lehemädaniku tõrjeprogramm 96
NEGFRY – a program for control of potato late blight. One of the most serious diseases of the potato crop worldwide is late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. Most growers control the disease by applying fungicides at regular intervals of 8–10 days from the time of row closing until the end of the growing season. The NEGFRY model used for timing the chemical control of potato late blight. The NEGFRY model is based on two existing models, the ‘negative prognosis’, for forecasting the risk of primary attacks, and a model for timing subsequent fungicide applications during the season. The main objective of NEGFRY is to get high yield and quality with minimum use of fungicides.
Present work underlies the experiments that were arranged in 2000 and 2001 at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute. Two potato varieties with different constancy to late blight were taken to the experiment in both years: susceptible ‘Adora’ and modarately resistant ‘Anti’ in the year 2000 and suceptible ‘Berber’ and ‘Anti’ in 2001. NEGFRY gave highest economical effect among six tested treatment regimes.

Keywords: Phytophthora infestans, Potato late blight, NEGFRY, weather data, fungicides.

U. Tamm, M. Järvan, S. Tamm.  
  Silmeti vedelväetise mõju rohumaal 101
Effect of Silmet’s liquid fertilizer in grassland. Several trial results were used in the research including spraying Silmet’s liquid fertilizer on meadow foxtail sward in spring and summer, planting annual ryegrass before sowing and spraying it in summer. Amounts of liquid fertilizer in tests were 300, 450 and 600 l ha-1 (N60, N90, N120). Test results showed that Silmet’s liquid fertilizer supports growth of grasses but causes damages while spraying herbage during growth period. Edges of leaves turned brown during spraying in spring. Using bigger amounts (450 l ha-1) caused larger damages both using pure or water-diluted (1:1) fertilizer. Heavy damage appeared in the day of spraying in summer. Leaves of damaged herbage and pinnacles of grasses turned brown. Younger plants of herbage died in sward of annual ryegrass.

The total DM yield varied from 5.1 to 6.6 t ha-1 without nitrogen fertilizer. Fertilizing with ammonium nitrate (N60) in spring increased productivity of meadow foxtail by 36% and productivity of annual ryegrass by 79% while fertilizing before sowing. Using Silmet’s liquid fertilizer caused productivity gains by 30% and 74%, correspondingly. Given difference is statistically not plausible (LSD05 13%). Increase in yield of meadow foxtail sward was down by 16% and annual ryegrass sward by 56% when using Silmet’s liquid fertilizer instead of ammonium nitrate after the second fertilization.

Calculations of fertilizer (N60, N90) efficiency showed that increase in yield of dry matter related to 1 kg of fertilizer principle regardless of type of fertilizer was 40–42 kg kg-1 if fertilizing before sowing and 26–31 kg kg-1 if spraying in spring. Efficiency of Silmet’s liquid fertilizer during summer spraying was 17–22 when pure fertilizer was used and only 14–19 kg kg-1 in case of water-diluted fertilizer. Efficiency of ammonium nitrate was 23–43 kg kg-1 at the same time.

Content of protein in dry matter was 11–14% without nitrogen fertilizers. This increased up to 16% in case of N60 and up to 20% in case of N90. Summer-time fertilization increased the content of protein more than fertilization in spring. When were used larger amounts of Silmet’s liquid fertilizer (N90, N120) increased crude fibre by 2%. This was because share of herbage with lower content of crude fibre decreased. Nitrogen fertilizers did not influence plausibly content of P, Ca and Mg. The content of potassium increased when larger amounts (N90 and N120) of Silmet’s liquid fertilizer were used.

Keywords: liquid N fertilizer, botanical composition, yield, dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre.

V. Vasar, K. Kotkas.  
  Maasika tervendatud istutusmaterjali produktiivsus sõltuvalt söötmisest ja meriklooni vanusest 106
Productivity of disease-free strawberry plants influenced by culture medium and mericlone. The productivity of strawberry plants depends highly on the quality of initial planting material. The aim of current project was to study the growth and development of microshoots in vitro and the formation and quality of daughter plants depending on the composition of culture medium, age of mericlone and genotype-specific growth habits. Microshoots of three cultivars – ‘Jonsok’, ‘Bounty’, ‘Senga Sengana’ – were introduced into tissue culture in 4 different years and preserved in vitro in EAU Plant Biotechnological Research Centre EVIKA gene-bank. Microshoots were cultivated either on MS (high salt concentration) or on Mullin’s medium (lacks ammonium nitrate and low salt concentration). On in vitro level the proliferation rate of microshoots was counted; in field conditions the number of runners, daughter plants and pre-plants was counted during the autumn season after planting.

MS medium caused active proliferation, but the shoots remained too short for rooting and the level of vitrification was high. On Mullin’s medium the proliferation rate was lower, but shoots elongated enough for successful rooting. In field tests the subsequent influence of culture medium composition was slightly evidenced. Plants propagated on Mullin’s medium produced more daughter plants than the ones grown on MS-medium. The age of mericlone did not have significant effect on the production of runners or daughter plants. The formation of daughter plants depended more on cultivars properties than on the duration of in vitro cultivation. The highest number of runners was formed on cv ‘Jonsok’. The development of runners on cvs ‘Bounty’ and ‘Senga Sengana’ was slower and therefore the production of daughter plants remained lower than on cv ‘Jonsok’.

Keywords: in vitro, Fragaria × ananassa, runner, daughter plant, MS, Mullin, mericlone.

V. Viljasoo, I. Tomson.  
  Loomafarmides kasutatavate ja saadavate materjalide sisekliimalised omadused 114
Indoor climate characteristics of materials used and produced in cowsheds. Due to fast develop-ment of science and technology more and more new materials, machines and equipment have come up in our everyday life and working environment. Its usage, especially in working conditions, considerably influences the surrounding environment. All the materials, equipment and machines lie in the atmosphere and a great part of it uses air as a necessary component for work. In some way or other the change of the chemical composition and the electrical properties of air takes place in technological processes. Hence more attention is being paid to the environmental pollution, the protection of open air and the microclimate of offices among that. It is essential to note that in these fields the integrated normparameter, on the ground of which it would be possible to obtain comparative data about air sanitation-hygienic conditions (of time, area, room) is not in usage. For this kind of parameter the diagnosed mean electrostatic index of atmosphere or air ionization is proper to use. As a result, it is essential to make a difference between the microclimate of natural and working environments (air tempera-ture, relative air humidity, air velocity, intensity of heat radiation) and the mean electrostatic condition or electroclimate (Viljasoo, 2000) of the atmosphere of natural and working environments.

As the review about the literature concerning the subject shows most of the research deals with the indoor climate of cowsheds by measuring certain climate parameters. The results are compared with the characterizing indices of animal health and production capacity. It is essential in the mentioned research the influence of the materials used and generated in cowsheds on indoor climate has been studied, but up to now a scientific motivation is absent. The present research serves as an introduction in this direction.

Keywords: climate, ion exchange, straw, turf, environment.

M. Jalakas, Ü. Jaakma.  
  Harukordne lootekestade vesitõve juhtum lehmal 127
A case of fetal membrane dropsy (hydrallantois and hydramnion) in 8 years old Estonian Red Breed cow. Separately 42 l of amnion fluid and 158 l of allantoic fluid were measured, and additionally 83 l of mixed fetal fluids were collected. The total amount of fetal fluids was 283 l. The abdominal circumference measured 295 cm. The length of the pregnant horn was 290 cm along the greater curvature. The fetus had developed normally (male, 29 kg). The umbilical cord was twisted 3×360°.We suppose that increased amount of amnionic fluid caused appropriate conditions for turning of the fetus in amniotic sac. The fetus turns itself around in the uterus from the posterior to the anterior presentation during 6–7 months of normal pregnancy when the amount of amnion fluid is most high.