2003 * XIV * 2

M. Järvan.  
  Mõnede kohalike lubiväetiste toimest põllukultuuridele ja mulla omadustele 63
Effect of some local lime fertilizers on field crops and soil properties. The trial for comparing the effect of local lime fertilizers (cement clinker powder, limestone meal, dolomite meal, 1:1 mixture of clinker powder and dolomite meal) was established on acid sandy loam (pHKCl 5.1) in Olustvere, Central Estonia in the spring of 1999. The liming rate was 5 t ha-1. It was grown barley, potato, pea and wheat during four years.

In the year of liming the use of clinker powder and the mixture of clinker powder and dolomite meal resulted in the highest barley yields, respectively 4.71 t ha-1 (+22.0% compared with control) and 4.41 t ha-1 (+14.2%). Even potato yields were the highest with the above lime fertilizer, respectively 48.3 t ha-1 (+22.9%) and 48.8 t ha-1 (+24.4%). The better effect of clinker powder in comparison with the meals of carbonate rocks was probably due to the higher nutrient content – in particular of potassium – in this fertilizer. Liming increased directly the share of marketable tubers in the yield, but it also increased the infection with common scab.

In the first aftereffect year the barley yield increased 10.0–13.2% and that of potato 5.4–11.0%. In the second aftereffect year there was a credible increase in the pea yield only in trial plots limed with clinker powder (+13.8%). In the third aftereffect year (2002) the wheat yield increased credibly only in the variant with the mixture of clinker powder and dolomite meal, probably thanks to a more optimum nutrient (Ca:Mg:K) ratio in soil. As a result of four years, it can be said that on sandy loam with the average K- and Mg-need more effective lime fertilizers were clinker powder and the 1:1 mixture of clinker powder and dolomite meal.

Studing the pH dynamics of trial soils, it became evident that at the liming rate of 5 t ha-1 clinker powder neutralized soil acidity faster and to a higher pH than other lime fertilizers. In the fourth year after liming, pH of the limed trial plots had equalized and differed from the pH of unlimed soil by 0.5 units. In comparison with other lime fertilizers the application of clinker powder resulted in the first two years in higher content of available K in soil. While liming with the mixture of clinker powder and dolomite meal, the Mg-content of soil remained moderately high (215→146 mg kg-1) during the whole trial period and in this variant the yields as well as the total effect of liming were the highest. Liming with pure dolomite meal increased the Mg-content of soil too much and it could inhibit the uptake of other nutrients.

Keywords: lime fertilizers, cement clinker powder, limestone meal, dolomite meal, cereals, potato, yield, common scab, soil pH-dynamics, K and Mg content.

H. Kiiman, T. Kaart, M. Henno.  
  Piima somaatiliste rakkude arvu mõjutavate tegurite analüüs 69
Analysis of the factors affecting somatic cell count in milk. The cows being bred in Estonia are suitable for local conditions due to their high milk performance and relatively good fattening and meat qualities. The healthy udder is the prerequisite for obtaining from a cow the maximum production and high quality milk is the primary task of a present-day dairy cow.

More and more attention is paid to milk quality. After the accession of the Estonia to the European Union, the demands on milk must coincide with those valid in the EU.
Somatic cell count in milk is a measure of udder health as well as milk quality.

The objective of the present work was to study the effect of the following factors on somatic cell count (SCC) in milk: environment; milking technique; working procedures performed by the milker; sire of the dairy cow; heritability.
The experimental farms were chosen from agricultural enterprises applying different milking and cow-keeping technologies. Daughters of 23 bulls were studied. The data about ten-month milk yield, fat and protein content and somatic cell count of the milk of the daughters of each bull were collected. Cow's sire, enterprise, birth-year, lactation, milking equipment and milking operator were fixed in database. Monitoring of the working operations of the milkers, who milked the cows selected for our trials, were carried out. The duration of each element of the working process was recorded. SAS-program was used for data processing. Procedure REML was used to estimate the dispersion components and heritabilities.

From these data we can conclude that the milk somatic cell count increases with lactation number (P<0,01).

It became evident from these data that the agricultural enterprise and the milker had an essential effect on the milk somatic cell count (P<0,001).

From these data we may conclude that a calving month was not statistically significant to the milk somatic cell count in lactation period.

The data analysis showed that the milking equipment was not essential to the milk SCC.

The heritability of milk somatic cell count in the first, second, third fourth and fifth lactation was found. The heritabilities were 0.11, 0.14, 0.16, 0.19 and 0.21 respectively.

Keywords: milk quality, udder health, somatic cell count (SCC), milking procedures in machine milking.

I. Kübarsepp, M. Henno, K. Mihhejev, O. Kärt, J. Samarütel, K. Ling, T. Kaart.  
  Piima laapumist mõjutavad tegurid 84
Factors influencing milk coagulation properties. Milk samples (n=1407) from first lactation cows of five experimental groups (Estonian Holstein, with higher pedigree index > 112 − EHF-t; Estonian Holstein, with middle pedigree index 95–112 − EHF; Red-and-White Holstein − RHF; Estonian Red − EPK; Estonian Native − EK) on Põlula Experimental Farm were taken once a month from January to October 2001 and twice a month from October 2001 to November 2002. Samples were tested for calcium, phosphorus and protein contents, somatic cell count and pH. A Formagraph was used for measuring rennet coagulation time (RCT), curd firming time (K20), and curd firmness (E30). One individual, using the visual technique developed by Edmonson, twice a month assessed body condition scores (BCS). Results were evaluated statistically using general linear model including both discrete and continuous effects.

Individuality of a cow, stage of lactation, experimental group, pH and milk calcium content significantly affected all measured coagulation properties. Milk protein content affected RCT and E30, and milk phosphorus content only E30. The renneting properties showed marked lactational changes. The milk coagulation properties were at their best during the 1st month of lactation (5–30 d after calving) and again from the 5th month (>150 d after calving) onward. From all noncoagulated milk samples most fell in the period of 61–120 days after calving. The milk characterized by abnormal rennetability was more frequent among stage of lactation than the breed. Coagulation properties of milk were significantly better in EK group.

Keywords: milk renneting properties, noncoagulated milk, Estonian dairy cattle breeds, months of lactation, milk calcium content, milk phosphorus content, milk pH, somatic cell count, body condition.

U. Tamm, S. Tamm.  
  Karjamaa-raiheina di- ja tetraploidsete sortide kasutussageduse mõju saagile ja toiteväärtusele 96
The Effect of Cutting Frequency on Yield and Nutritive Value of Diploid and Tetraploid Perennial Ryegrass Varieties. Current study presents the results (recorded in 2000–2001) of a field experiment carried out at the Juuliku Experimental Farm in 1999–2001. The experiment included comparison of the two Dutch diploid (‘Moronda’ and ‘Compliment’) and two tetraploid varieties (‘Elgon’ and ‘Cheops’). The applied experimental scheme foresaw two and four cuts of investigated varieties during the summer. Our study evaluated following qualities of above-mentioned varieties: winter hardiness, protein and dry matter yields, chemical composition (protein, crude fibre and mineral contents), nutritive value (digestibility and content of metabolizable energy), protein quality (metabolizable protein and protein balance value), and rust diseases resistance.

Dutch perennial ryegrass varieties had low winter hardiness in our geographical conditions. Relatively hardier were investigated tetraploid varieties. More frequent cutting (four times during the summer) increased the winter hardiness. The results of two-year experiment indicated that the dry matter yield of the tetraploid varieties exceeded that of the diploid varieties by 19.6% in the 2-cut variants and by 16.4% in the 4-cut variants. The protein yield of tested tetraploid varieties exceeded that of the diploid varieties in average by 13.6%.

The required protein content of forage (over 14%) was achieved in the 4-cut variants. Selected cutting frequency also influenced the crude fibre content. The 2-cut variants resulted in a higher crude fibre content (over 26%). The diploid varieties manifested rust damage in autumn cutting whilst the tetraploid varieties demonstrated higher resistance. The 2-cut variants provided forage with satisfactory nutritive value. Its protein content, digestibility, and the metabolizable energy content were below the requirements of good nutritive value standard. Its rumen protein balance value was negative.

The 4-cut variants provided forage with a good nutritive value (digestibility over 65%, metabolizable energy content over 10 MJ kg–1), and with a positive protein balance value. More frequent cutting decreased the growth period between cuttings, the ryegrass was in the earlier growth stage, and contained more mineral substances than in the case of double cutting cultivation.

Keywords: perennial ryegrass, cutting frequency, ploidy level, forage, chemical parameters, nutritive value, protein balance value.

Ü. Tamm.  
  Euroopa õlleodrasortide linnase kvaliteet 103
The malting quality of European malting barley varieties. The trials of malting barley varieties were carried out in 1991–2001 at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute (PBI) in Estonia. The malt analyses were made at the VTT Biotechnology in Finland. The objective of the study was to estimate the malt quality of European malting barley varieties. 70 malting barley varieties of Northen region of European Brewery Convention (EBC) were included in the trial. There were used two standard varieties ‘Alexis’ in 1991–1995 and ‘Scarlett’ in 1997–2001.

Most of the tested varieties showed excellent or good level of extract yield, β-glucanes content, viscosity and diastatic power. ‘Maresi’, ‘Landora’ (Germany), ‘Caruso’, ‘Miralix’ (Denmark), ‘Wikingett’ (Sweden) and ‘Brise’ (Great Britain) showed the highest level of extract yield compared to standard varieties. ß-glucanes content of the varieties ‘Chariot’ (Great Britain), ‘Caruso’ (Denmark), ‘Potter’ (Sweden), ‘Pasadena’ and ‘Annabell’ (Germany) showed excellent level of this quality trait. The varieties ‘Annabell’ (Germany), ‘Maud’ (Sweden), ‘Extract’, ‘Saloon’, ‘Prestige’ (Great Britain) and ‘Astoria’ (France) showed lower level of viscosity. The varieties ‘Elo’ (Estonia), ‘Cork’ (Great Britain), ‘Extract’ and ‘Laura’ (Germany) showed the highest level of the diastatic power when compared to the standard varieties.

Keywords: malting barley, genetic resources, breeding, malting quality, extract, β-glucanes, viscosity, diastatic power.

A. Tsahkna.  
  Uus varajane kiduussikindel kartulisort 'Maret' 113
The new early potato variety ‘Maret’. The characteristics of the new nematode and wart resistant potato variety ‘Maret’ developed at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute is discussed in this paper. Small and hobby farmers are interested in local early varieties which are better adapted to Estonian climatic conditions and the price of local seedpotato is lower.

Already in early stages of breeding the breed 1370-94 (‘Maret’) showed several good results. It was included in Official Variety Testing trials in 2001–2002. From 2003 the early nematode and wart resistant, high-yielding variety ‘Maret’ was taken to the Variety List.

By total tuber yield, marketable tuber yield, starch content and yield, tuber weight, taste, darkening after cooking and enzymatic discoloration and for the suitability for chips ‘Maret’ exceeded the standard varieties (‘Berber’, ‘Sante’ and ‘Ants’) in the preliminary and final trials (1997–2000). By tuber yield ‘Maret’ exceeded the standard variety ‘Berber’ in dynamic trial at different harvest times. Infection of ‘Maret’ by late blight starts and spreads slower than of the standard variety. Therefore the new variety is suitable to use in organic farming.

Keywords: early potato variety, yield, dynamic of yield, starch content, disease resistance, cooking quality.

M. Vadi, H. Kaldmäe, O. Kärt, M. Ots, A. Jürgenson, A. Olt.  
  Temperatuuri mõjust rapsikoogi proteiini lõhustuvusele vatsas 119
On the effect of processing temperature on rumen degradability of rapeseed cake proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chemical composition and thermal treatment of rapeseed cake, processed at different temperatures, on protein degradability in the rumen of cattle. Four in sacco trials were carried out. Thermotreatment at the temperatures of 98 °C, 100 °C, 110 °C and 112 °C did not affect the chemical composition of rapeseed cake. The dry matter and protein degradability, however, were influenced by the temperature used during the processing of rapeseed cake. During the 4-hour incubation the protein degradability of the rapeseed cake treated at the temperature of 98 °C was 58.8%, whereas during the 16-hour incubation the protein degradability of the rapeseed cake processed at the temperature of 112 °C was only 53.3%. Increasing the processing temperature from 98 °C to 112 °C, the dry matter and protein degradability of rapeseed cake decreased by 7% and 14%, respectively. The higher was the temperature during processing of the rapeseed cake, the lower was the speed and extent of protein degradability in the rumen of cattle.

Keywords: rapeseed cake, heat-treatment, degradability, protein, dry matter.

V. Viljasoo, I. Tomson.  
  Tootmisprotsessides kasutatavate ja saadavate materjalide mõju veiselauda sisekliimale 125
The influence of materials used and produced in production processes to indoor climate of cowshed. Due to the fast development of science and technology more and more new materials, machines and equipment have come up in our everyday life and working environment. In different technological processes the change of the chemical composition of air and its electrical qualities will definitely change. In certain conditions, especially in indoor condition the outside air becoming the inside one, may lose its quality which is the condition characterizing the air content and it will be estimated by the contamination level. Hence more attention is being paid to the environmental pollution, the protection of open air and the microclimate of offices among that. Feeding, watering, bedding and manure disposal as a part of production process are the most used technological processes in animal keeping. To carry out the technological operations different equipment, machines, materials and solutions are used. All the processes take place in a room, separated with walls and the roof of a building from the outer environment. In connection with this some steps have been taken for more efficient solutions of indoor climate problems.

The objective of the research was to control the possible influences of the used and produced materials on the cowshed indoor climate.

To achieve these objectives the tasks as the reference sources concerning the subject, the methodology and the equipment assembly, diagnose and data processing were made.

Keywords: climate, ion exchange, straw, turf, environment.