2003 * XIV * 3

B. Aasmäe, P. Kalmus, T. Tiirats.  
  Lüpsilehmade kliinilist mastiiti põhjustavate mikroobide antibiootikumiresistentsus 139
Antimicrobial resistance of pathogens causing clinical mastitis in dairy cows. During the period from May until December 2001 altogether 862 milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis were collected from 130 different farms in Estonia. The Veterinary and Food Laboratory in Tartu performed the bacteriological investigation of samples. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility was tested using disc diffusion method. Antibiotics used most frequently in veterinary and human medicine in Estonia were selected for susceptibility testing.
Mastitis pathogens were found in 543 (63%) milk samples, 180 (20.9%) samples were without growth, 34 (3,9%) samples contained mixed culture. Altogether there were isolated 11 different microbial agents. Most frequently were isolated Staphylococcus aureus (169 of 543) and Streptococcus agalactiae (81 from 543). Genereal antibiotic resistance of clinical mastitis pathogens was high to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, penicillin and ampicillin. Most frequently isolated pathogen Staph. aureus showed the highest resistance against penicillin (75,1% of isolated strains) and ampicillin (66,8% of isolated strains).

Keywords: clinical mastitis, antimicrobial resistance, dairy cows.

V. Andrianov, R. Hõim, G. Tralman, T. Haviko, A. Lenzner, A. Lehtla.  
  Pikkade toruluude murdude fragmentide ühendamine kombineeritud metallosteosünteesi meetodil 144
Combined metalosteosynthesis technique for reduction of fragments of long tubular bones. The approach to the pathophysiology of bone fracture has significantly changed in the last decades. The knowledge of fracture healing and management have also improved a great deal. The goal of fracture treatment is early ambulation and complete return to function. In animals, it is of utmost importance for the damaged bone to recover as fast as possible, since it is impossible to keep the animal immobilized through the whole healing period. The quicker and more intensive the regeneration of the bone tissue is, the better is the functional recovery of the limb and the fewer are the complications. The most important components in fracture treatment are accurate anatomical – repositioning of the bone fragments, stabile fixation and early mobilization of the limb. Implementation of osteosynthesis in practice requires special knowledge, experience and technical skills, and specific materials and instruments. Different types and locations of fractures require different surgical techniques and specific fixing devices. There are many methods of osteosynthesis and in every individual clinical case the choice of the right method is the most important point. Methods of treatment of bone fractures must meet the following requirements: 1. Bone fragments have to be fixed strongly. 2. Application of the fixative element has to be minimally traumatic and the surgery must be performed with as minimal soft tissue damage as possible. 3. Fixator has to be compact, strong and it must maximally preserve the structure of bone tissue and its vitality. 4. Fixation must not inhibit or block the regeneration of bone-tissue i.e. formation of bone callus, it must not irritate the surrounding tissues. 5. Fixative element has to enable the animal to use the damaged limb right after the operation. During the postoperative period the usage of additional immobilization that might provoke inflammation or decalcification of bone fragments must be minimized. 6. Fixator has to be technically easy to make, incorporate universal details and easily removable and reusable.

Keywords: tubular bone fracture, internal fixation, combined fixator, rabbit.

E. Ernits.  
  Peter Jesseni (1801-1875) teadustegevuse algusest 152
About the beginning of scientific activity of Peter Jessen (1801–1875). Veterinarian P. Jessen was interested in research activity at least since the year when he graduated from the veterinary school. The first manuscript based on his practical experiences was completed already in 1829 but got published only after five years. After coming out it was an essential progress in the field of cattle plague and signified the achievement of the goal of life of the author. Today this written work interest readers only as the historical material with information about control of infectious animal diseases in Russia and its local history and fragments from the biography of P. Jessen.

Keywords: cattle plague, control of animal infectious diseases, effect of curatives, history of epizootiology, Peter Jessen, Russia, scientific activity, vaccination.

K. Kask, J. Kurõkin, R. Lindjärv, A. Kask, H. Kindahl.  
  Poegimisjärgne hormonaalne profiil ja emaka bakterioloogia kahes Eesti kõrgetoodangulises lüpsikarjas 159
Postpartum hormonal profiles and uterine bacteriology in two high producing Estonian dairy herds. Early postpartum (6 weeks) ovarian activity, hormonal profiles, uterine infections, were studied in 2 Estonian high producing dairy herds with annual milk production of 7688 (Farm A) and 9425 (Farm B). Ten cows were studied from each farm. All cows had a normal calving performance. Ten ml of jugular vein blood for the hormonal (PGF-metabolite, progesterone) analyses were withdrawn 3 times per day during first 2 weeks PP and 2 times per day during remaining 4 weeks. Each animal in the study was sampled for bacteriological examination using endometrial biopsies once a week. Two types of PGF-metabolite patterns were detected: elevated levels during 14 days PP, then decline to the basal levels and then a second small elevation at the time of final elimination of the bacteria from the uterus; or elevated levels during first 7 days PP, then decline to the basal levels and a second small elevation before the final elimination of bacteria. In farm A, 5 cows out of 10 ovulated during experimental period and in one cow cystic ovaries were found. Follicular activity but no ovulations were detected during experimental period in 4 cows. In farm B, 3 cows out of 10 ovulated. In three cows cystic ovaries were found. No ovulations, but good follicular activity was detected in 4 cows. Altogether 40% of cows had their first ovulation during the experimental period. Three cows in farm A and 5 cows in farm B were totally bacteria negative during the experimental period. The most frequent bacteria found were A. pyogenes, Streptococcus spp., E. coli., F. necrophorum and Bacteroides spp. The highest incidence of bacteriological species was found during the first 3 weeks in both farms. All animals were free from bacteria after 5th week PP in farm A and after 4th week in farm B, respectively. Based on the present investigations the uterine involution and bacterial elimination in the two selected farms is acceptable but future studies (metabolic) are needed to clarify problems which are associated with delayed resumption of ovarian function.

Key words: Postpartum cow, PGF, progesterone, milk production, ovarian activity, uterine bacteriology.

I. Miller, T. Järvis.  
  Kodusiga kui oluline lüli inimeste trihhinelloosi haigestumise ahelas 168
Domestic pig as an important link of human clinical trichinellosis. Trichinellosis was not diagnosed in domestic pigs by compressorium and by artifical digestion method in Estonian slaughterhouses during last 70 years. In 1994–1995 trichinellosis in five domestic pigs first time in Estonia (on island Hiiumaa) was diagnosed.

In 1999 trichinellosis in two domestic pigs was diagnosed in county Järvamaa. It was the first case of human trichinellosis in Estonia, caused by the consumption of the meat from a domestic pig. Trichinella britovi and T. spiralis were identified in domestic pigs.

T. britovi is widespread in wild animals on the island Hiiumaa and T. spiralis was found in fur-bearing farm animals on the same island. To diagnose T. spiralis in mainland was the primary case.

Three patients from county Järvamaa became infected with T. spiralis larvae having consumed pork, which had not undergone any veterinary check.

Keywords: domestic pig, man, Trichinella spp., infection intensity.

E. Mägi, M. Sahk.  
  Herbaalmeditsiini printsiipide rakendamisest kohalikes tingimustes 172
Use of herbal medicine principles in local conditions. Herbal medicine is a growing area of the alternative medicine nowadays. Many of the active ingredients in manufactured drugs are originally derived from plant compounds and have a wide range of uses. It is believed that plants are more natural, less toxic and safer than chemical preparations. As many drugs of synthetic origin may have a negative impact on the environment and parasite resistance to poisonous chemicals can develop after repeated applications, the use of natural products is becoming more popular. In purpose to control swine mange mites (Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis), pig farm trials were carried out to measure the effect of several plant extracts. About 120 sows showing clinical signs of swine sarcoptosis were used in our trials. Each trial group was allocated as untreated control or treated over the whole body twice, with a week interval. Scrapings of infested skin from each pig were examined microscopically to determine the number of live mites, their eggs and larvae present. Local plants used in our trials were: mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), sweet flag (Acorus calamus), nettle (Urtica urens), cow parsley (Heracleum sosnowskyi), garlic (Allium sativum) and juniper (Juniperus communis). Essential medi-cinal ethereal oils were as follows: black pepper (Piper nigrum), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), citronella (Cymbopogon nardus) and tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia). All the tested plant products occurred to be lethal against swine mange mites. Insect reproductive inhibitors and repellents, extracted from certain plants, affected reproduction of parasites in all trial variants. Already in the first post-treatment examination the number of mites was significantly lower in scrapings from treated pigs and a great improvement of pigs was noticed 4 weeks after treatments. The most active extract of tested local plants proved to be sweet flag (Acorus calamus). After treatments with 10% extract of dried roots approximately 60–95% of parasites died in 1–4 weeks. The essential ethereal oil of tea tree diminished the number of mites approximately 75%, the extracts of cow parsley 40% and garlic up to 60% of parasites in one week after treatments.

It became evident that plant extracts may be used in practice as alternatives to neurotoxic insecticides and therefore the plant components with insecticidal effects may play major role in control of swine ectoparasites.

Keywords: plant extracts, farm trials, herbal medicine.

E. Nahkur, M. Jalakas, V. Andrianov, E. Ernits, E. Järv.  
  Veise ja põdra vaagna võrdlev morfoloogia 179
Pelvis of the elk and cow – comparative morphology. The study focused on the morphology of the pelvises of female elks. The osseous pelvis was prepared, measured, X-rayed, and macerated. The comparison was based on the hip bones of contemporary cows of various ages and partially survived hip bones of medieval cows that were found during archaeological excavations. The elk pelvis was narrow and stretched out by comparison with the bovine pelvis – its length from the hip tuber to the ischial tuber was 120–130 mm greater than its width. The length of the bovine pelvis was shorter than the width between the hip tubers. From the perspective of delivery it is important to realize that as a female elk is growing old, the pelvis is widened in the caudal part by the increased distance between the ischial tubers and the angle between the ischial plates. The structure of the pelvic floor of the medieval cow was similar to that of the elk, but the proportions of the ischium and the ilium were much closer to the bones of the contemporary cow. The hip bones of the elk have a blunt notch in the cranial border of the obturator foramina. This notch makes it possible to differentiate the hip bones of the elk from the hip bones of the cow. In the contemporary cow the pelvic floor is lowered due to the increased udder and the body mass, which led to the formation of the symphysial crest. The pelvises of all the studied animals revealed an unpaired osseous formation between the ischia – the interischial bone (os interischia-dicum). In the contemporary cow it could be observed as a separate bone from the age of 14–15 months to 6 years when it became attached to the ischia. In the female elk it had become attached from both sides by the age of ten years.

Keywords: elk, cow, pelvis, morphology, interischial bone.

P. Padrik, Ü. Jaakma.  
  Eesti punast tõugu sugupullide sperma kvaliteet pärast asukohavahetust 186
Semen quality in Estonian Red dairy A.I. bulls after relocation. The aim of the current study was to clarify how did a long interval between semen collections associated with bulls’ transport and adaptation in a new location influence quality of the semen.

The results of the study showed that the ejaculate volume and sperm concentration were stable after the 54-days interval in semen collection. After recommencement of semen collection, the ratio of abnormal spermatozoa decreased during the 5-weeks study period from 13.9 % to 7.8 %. (P<0.05). The ratio of motile spermatozoa in fresh semen and in frozen/thawed semen increased for 3.4 % and 9.7%, respectively (P<0.05). The progressive motility of spermatozoa, VCL, VAP, VSL, BFS and ALH increased significantly in frozen/thawed semen (P<0.05). The same tendencies were observed for the fresh semen.

We conclude that the quality of semen of the Estonian Red A.I. bulls, previously transferred from one A.I. station to the another, improved significantly during 5 weeks after restart of semen collection.

Key words: dairy bull, semen quality, sperm morphology, computer-assisted sperm motion analysis (CMA).