2003 * XIV * 4

M. Aunapuu, Ü. Pechter, M. Ots.  
  Neerupuudulikkuse eksperimentaalsed mudelid 197
Experimental renal failure. Renal failure is defined as the cessation of kidney function. Acute renal failure develops over the period of hours or days. Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is one of the leading cause of the transplated organ loss. Chronic renal failure develops over months, years or decades. Chronic progressive kidney disease leads to end-stage renal disease. Several experimental models are being used for the studies of the renal failure. We studied 20 adult Wistar rats during four and eight weeks after the renal ablation. 10 rats without surgery served as healthy controls. Renal damage was assessed using following parameters: urine protein excretion rate, systolic blood pressure, and serum creatinine. We showed that after the renal ablation blood pressure was raised and proteinuria developed in nephrectomized rats. Kidney morphology showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Acute renal failure will be studied in the ischemia-reperfusion experimental model.

Keywords: 5/6 nephrectomy, experimental renal failure, ischemia-reperfusion, hypertension.

R. Hõim, V. Andrianov, A. Lenzner.  
  Modifitseeritud toggle pin fiksatsioon puusaliigese luksatsiooni ravis koertel: ülevaade kirjandusest ja kahe kliinilise juhu kirjeldus 203
Use of the modified toggle pin technique for management of coxofemoral luxation in dogs: A review of literature and a report of two cases. The surgical technique described in this paper is a modification of toggle pin stabilization, which is an intracapsular reduction technique for displaced hip. The modification involves a different prosthesis to replace the ligament of the head of femur (LHF), which was made by braiding together 4 strands of lavzane – a non-absorbable, polyester, multifilamentous suture material. The braiding makes the prosthesis extra stretchable and elastic, which makes it more resistant to tension. At the same time it allows articular mobility and good healing of the joint. The surgical approach and technique for use of toggle pin for LHF were similar to those that have been described. In both clinical cases, no bandage was used postoperatively, and the patients started to use the affected limbs immediately after surgery. No postoperative complications associated with the surgical technique or the material occured. Both dogs were fully recovered by 30 days, one of the dogs had no lameness at 10 days already. Radiographic images at 6–7 months revealed moderate degenerative changes in one case, that showed no progression in 3 years. No radiographic abnormalities were observed in the other dog.

The modified toggle pin technique can maintain coxofemoral reduction and allow early weight-bearing. As it requires no postoperative immobilization of the coxofemoral joint, it is a particular advantage in those animals with multiple orthopedic injuries (especially of the contralateral limb).

According to the literature, the failure of the toggle pin technique occurs mostly due to the breakage of the suture. This modification might thus decrease the percentage of reluxation. Further studies are in progress to investigate the long-term efficacy of braided toggle material and the application of this method in different clinical cases.

Keywords: traumatology, coxofemoral luxation, toggle pin technique.

K. Juhkam, P. Elias, K. Laikoja.  
  Probiootikumide sisaldus Eesti piimatoodetes 209
The presence of probiotics in Estonian dairy products. The aim of the study was to assess the multiplicity of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. in the Estonian probiotic dairy products. The number of health benefits have been claimed for probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. Suggested minimum numbers of probiotic bacteria at consumption is 106 CFU/g. In order to assess viability of probiotic bacteria, the Christian Hansen’s Laboratory methods were used.

Dairy products (n=36) of 3 Estonia dairy enterprises were investigated. Study covered selective enumeration and assessment of survival probiotic bacteria in bioyoghurts (n=18), biokefirs (n=5) and cultured milks (n=13). Viable numbers of probiotic bacteria in the probiotic products varied greatly including some products with very low Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacteria counts. The majority of the bioyoghurts and biokefirs contained viable counts above 106 per g even at the best before use period, but cultured milk products contained only 104 CFU/g. The survival of the Lactobacillus acidophilus strains during storage was lower in low fat milk products, but Lactobacillus acidophilus was more resistant to the environment conditions compared to Bifidobacteria.

Keywords: Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteria, probiotic dairy products, selective enumeration, survival.

T. Järveots, T. Suuroja, E. Lepp.  
  Vasikate hingamiselundite haiguste etioloogiast ja patomorfoloogiast 214
The aetiology and pathomorphology of respiratory diseases in calves. The aim was to study the possible relation of pathomorphological changes in the respiratory tract and lungs of calves to isolated germs. The study is based on 30 calves aged less than a month from 1997 to 1999. In addition, there was studied the autopsy reports of 408 calves aged less than one month that had been dissected from 1978 to 1988. Histological methods were used to find out the pathomorphological changes in lungs. Virological and bacteriological studies were carried out on 22 calves dissected.

Acute catarrhal pneumonia was diagnosed in 23 calves. Two calves had purulent pneumonia. Research findings show that pneumonia in stillborn and less than 30-day-old calves was mostly caused by various bacteria: E. coli K99, E. coli O78, E. coli O101, Salmonella dublin, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida; and viruses: bovine adenovirus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and bovine herpesvirus-1.

Keywords: calves, lungs, pneumonia, pathomorphology, aethiology.

N. Koslov, J. Kärner.  
  Chlamydia sp. sp. kindlakstegemine ja lokalisatsioon vasikate ja põrsaste kesknärvisüsteemis 223
Detection and Localisation of Chlamydia sp. sp. in the Central Nervous System in Calves and Piglets. Our numerous and long-term studies have demonstrated the localization of Chlamydia in the brain and spinal cord of calves and piglets, which were stillborn, weaklings, died postnatally or were slaughtered at the age of 3 months. The animals were obtained from various districts in Estonia. Chlamydia were detected by determing chlamydial antigen (lipopolysaccharide) in the brain applying the immunofluorescence method and electron-microscopic studies.

Chlamydial antigen was revealed in the brain samples taken from 65 calves of the total of 105, i.e. 61,9%. The antigen was most common in stillborn calves – in 18 cases of the total of 23, consequently 78,3%. 57,3% of postnatally dead or slaughtered calves (47 cases out of the 82 investigated animals) had an infected CNS. It should be underlined that the percentage of infected calves was higher in 1-week old animals (61,8%). In the calves between 8–14 days after birth the percentage of the infected animals was 56,3% and it was diminished in the animals at the age of 1,5–3 months (50%). Of the investigated piglets the CNS was infected by chlamydial antigen in 28 animals, i.e. 49,1%. In the 5 stillborn piglets the positive sample was found only in one animal. Among the dead piglets and slaughtered weaklings the positive test was detected in 27 animals, i.e. 51,9% of all the investigated piglets in this category. Most of the infected piglets died on the 1–3nd day postnatally or were slaughtered (16 piglets of 22, i.e. 72,7%). Considerably high was the percentage of infected animals at the age of 15–30 days (77,8%), lower in the piglets which died 4–14 days or 1–3 month after birth (20% and 18,2% respectively).

Our electronmicroscopical investigation demonstrated the presence of vacuoles in the brain and spinal cord containing elementary and reticulate bodies with typical size and structure for Chlamydia.

Keywords: Chlamydia, calves, piglets, brain, spinal cord.

D. Põdersoo, T. Saar.  
  Sigade enzootilise pneumoonia vastu vaktsineerimise tulemustest eesti seafarmides 233
The effect of vaccination against swine enzootic pneumonia in Estonian pigs herds. Two studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of vaccination against swine enzootic pneumonia. In the first study (farm 1), using ELISA the serological response and lung lesions score at slaughter were examined in an equal number (16) of vaccinated and control pigs. Maternal antibodies were detected in piglets seven to 10 days of age. 14 days post first vaccination 100% of piglets were seroconversed. The vaccinated pigs, 71–80 days old became seronegative 56% by ELISA. RespiSure vaccinated pigs had 68% of the reduction in lung lesions at slaughter examination.

This study suggested that humoral antibodies were not persisted, while mucosal antibodies and cellmediated immune response were important for control of mycoplasmal pneumonia in pigs.

The average daily weight gain was examined in the second study including 75 pigs from infected herds (farm 2). The age of each pig was determined required to reach 100 kg liveweight. Daily weight gain was impoved by 23 g/day during the period compared with unvaccinated group.

Keywords: Swine Enzootic Pneumoniae, Swine respiratory mycoplasmosis, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA, maternal immunity, antibody.

A. Viltrop, J. Alaots, K. Must, S. Põldma.  
  Marutaudi epizootilised iseärasused Eestis aastatel 1999–2002 239
Epidemiological features of Rabies in Estonia during the years 1999–2002. The present paper describes the incidence, host range, geographical distribution as well as seasonal trends of Rabies in Estonia during the years 1999–2002. Rabies is endemic among Estonian wildlife. The major host species are red fox and racoon-dog. During the last four years the number of infected racoon-dogs has increased year by year exceeding the number of red foxes in 2002 (192 and 153 cases recorded accordingly). Rabies cases in wildlife form 80,5% of all recorded cases (838) in the period of 4 years (1999–2002). Among domestic animals cat, dog and cattle have been most frequently infected approximately in the same proportions (32–33% of infected domestic animals). The spread of Rabies among wildlife has followed the natural course of infection as oral vaccination of major host species is not practised in Estonia yet. Comparing the incidence of the disease with data from previous years, it can be concluded that the disease has reached the epizootic phase of spread, as the number of registered cases in 2002 (422) exceeds more than twice the average number of cases per year during last decade (approx. 125). The monthly data on occurrence of rabies in different animal species reveals the seasonal cycles of the disease incidence. The disease incidence in foxes and racoon-dogs have two peaks during the year, the first in spring – March or April, and the second in the autumn – September or October. In cattle one peak is observed, usually in August. The seasonal cycle of the disease incidence in cats and dogs follows in mainly the cycle observed in wildlife.

Keywords: Rabies, lyssavirus, epidemiology.