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Malle Järvan  
  SÕNNIKU MÕJUST MAHEVILJELUSLIKULT MAJANDATAVAS KÜLVIKORRAS  
 
Abstract
THE IMPACT OF MANURE APPLICATION IN THE ORGANICALLY MANAGED CROP ROTATION
Malle Järvan

Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Agrotechnology, Teaduse 4/6, 75501 Saku, Estonia
Organic agriculture is a production system which relies on ecological processes. In the organic farming systems, it is important to improve soil fertility and to protect soil physical condition for its healthy functioning. The benefit from organically cultivated crops is strongly related to the maintenance of soil fertility based to a great extent on the soil organic matter content. Farmyard manure is one of the more valuable organic fertilizers maintaining soil fertility in the systems of alternative agriculture. To investigate the influence of manure from several aspects, a field experiment was carried out on a sandy loam Luvisol. A five-year crop rotation (potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) → oat (Avena sativa L.) → spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) → red clover (Trifolium pretense L.)→ winter rye (Secale cereale L.) was organically managed without manure (Org I) and with manure (Org II) treatments. 8.3 t ha-1 of organic dry matter as straw-based cattle farmyard manure was ploughed into the soil for potato grown the next year. During a seven-year experimental period, no significant (p < 0.05) changes were found in the soil organic carbon content. For the Org I treatment, a significant decrease in potassium, copper and boron contents in the soil occurred. The application of manure counterbalanced the need for potassium, and significantly increased the contents of phosphorus and magnesium in the soil. Manure stimulated microbial life in the soil: the communities of cellulose-decomposing bacteria, nitrifying bacteria and total bacteria increased significantly. Under the influence of manure, the yields of potato, oat and barley increased by 52, 23 and 10%, respectively; this allowed us to gain an extra 30 GJ metabolizable energy during the crop rotation. In organic farming systems, the regular application of solid farmyard manure is recommendable for the maintaining and improving the status of available nutrients and microbial activities in the soil, and for the economic profitability.
Keywords: cattle farmyard manure, crop yields, organic carbon, plant nutrients, soil bacteria.
Source: Agraarteadus 2018(29) 1: In Press
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.18.1

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KUIDAS VIIDATA
Järvan, M. 2018. The impact of manure application in the organically managed crop rotation. Agraarteadus, 29(1), In Press. doi: 10.15159/jas.18.1 (In Estonian)
või
Järvan, M. 2018. Sõnniku mõjust maheviljeluslikult majandatavas külvikorras. Agraarteadus, 29(1), Avaldamisel. doi: 10.15159/jas.18.1
AUTORI KONTAKT
Eesti Taimekasvatuse Instituut, agrotehnoloogia osakond Teaduse 4/6, 75501 Saku, Harjumaa
 
Oluline: 
  • Maheviljelus ilma taimetoitaineid juurde andmata põhjustas mullas omastatava kaaliumi sisalduse olulise languse.
  • Sõnniku kasutamine suutis mulla kaaliumibilansi tasakaalustada ning ühtlasi suurendas ka omastatava fosfori ja magneesiumi sisaldust mullas.
  • Sõnnikuga väetamine aktiveeris mullamikroobide tegevust.
  • Põhu allapanuga veisesõnniku kasutamine maheviljeluslikult majandatavas külvikorras oli kasulik nii ökoloogilisest kui ka majanduslikust vaatekohast lähtudes: oli tagatud mullaviljakuse püsimine (teatud näitajate osas ka paranemine), aktiveerus mullamikroobide tegevus, saakide suurenemine tagas maheviljeluse tulukuse suurenemise.
 
Margit Olle  
  THE EFFECT OF VERMICOMPOST ON THE GROWTH AND QUALITY OF CRESS (LEPIDIUM SATIVUM)  
 
Abstract
THE EFFECT OF VERMICOMPOST ON THE GROWTH AND QUALITY OF CRESS (LEPIDIUM SATIVUM)
Margit Olle

Estonian Crop Research Institute, J. Aamissepa 1, 48309 Jõgeva, Estonia
Vermicompost is the excreta of earthworm, which are capable of improving soil health and nutrient status. Vermiculture is a process by which all types of biodegradable wastes such as farm wastes, kitchen wastes, market wastes, bio-wastes of agro based industries, livestock wastes etc. are converted while passing through the worm-gut to nutrient rich vermicompost. The aim was to find suitable substrate to grow cress. 1. 30% vermicompost, peat, sand and dolomite stone. 2. 25% vermicompost, peat, gravel, perlite. 3. 25% vermicompost, peat, gravel, light gravel. 4. Growth substrate bought from a shop in Estonia (seller didn't allow to usage the name of the brand). 5. 20% vermicompost and organic matter rich claysoil. Results: Most elongated cress plants were in treatment 4, and the shortest ones in treatment 5. At the same time the longest roots were measured from plants in treatment 2, but shortest in treatment 5. The thickest stem was measured by treatment 1 and the thinnest stem was by treatment 5. The chemical analyses are showing that the smallest content of nitrogen was by treatment 3 and the highest by treatment 4. The smallest content of phosphorus was by treatment 5 and the highest by treatment 4. The smallest content of potassium was by treatment 4 and the highest by treatment 5. The smallest content of calcium was by treatment 4 and the highest by treatment 3. The smallest content of magnesium was by treatment 4 and the highest by treatment 5. Conclusion: out of the results of this experiment we could conclude that the best substrate to grow cress is substrate number 3: 25% vermicompost, peat, gravel, light gravel.
Keywords:  cress, growth, vermicompost, quality
Source: Agraarteadus 2018(29) 1: In Press
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.18.02

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KUIDAS VIIDATA
Olle, M. 2018. The effect of vermicompost on the growth and quality of cress (Lepidium sativum). Agraarteadus, 29(1), In Press. doi: 10.15159/jas.18.02
AUTORI KONTAKT
Estonian Crop Research Institute, J. Aamissepa 1, 48309 Jõgeva, Estonia
 
Highlight: 
  • Cress growth parameters are showing that best growth substrates to grow this plant are treatments 1 (30% vermicompost, peat, sand and dolomite stone) and 2 (25% vermicompost, peat, gravel, perlite).
  • The nutrient content of cress plants shows that best suitable growth substrate is treatment 3 (25% vermicompost, peat, gravel, light gravel).
  • It can be summarized that for cress the best growth substrate, regarding growth parameters and nutrient content, is treatment 3 (25% vermicompost, peat, gravel, light gravel).