2001 * XII * 4

A. Lember.  
  Emiste tiinus- ja imetamisaegse söötmise ja nende jõudlusnäitajate vahelised seosed 199
Correlation of feeding in pregnancy and lactation with reproductive performance traits of sows. Four trials on 145 sows were carried out to study the influence of metabolizable energy and protein intake in pregnancy and lactation on sows reproduction performance traits. The following questions of nutrition strategy of sows were investigated:
  1. In pregnancy:
  • influence of energy and protein intake on the live-weight gain, backfat depth dynamics and their reproduction performance traits (number piglets born and litter weight at birth).
  1. In lactation:
    • influence of energy and protein intake on sows reproduction performance traits (piglets number and their weight at 21 days and weaning).
  2. Pregnancy + lactation:
  • integration between reproduction performance traits in pregnancy and lactation and dependence of these on the metabolizable energy and crude protein intake.

Influence of metabolizable energy and crude protein intake in pregnancy and lactation on sow’s reproduction performance traits, also integration between items investigated were as follows:

  1. Number of piglets born and litter weight.
    Metabolizable energy and crude protein intake in pregnancy had no influence on the litter size and litter weight (P>0.05). An average number of piglets born was dependent on parity number.
  2. Litter size and weight at the age of 21 days.
    Number of piglets at the age of 21 days was dependent on the number piglets born (r=0.84, P<0.001) and their weight at birth (r=0.67, P<0.001). Litter weight at 21 days was influenced by number of piglets born (r=0.48, P<0.05), sow extrauterine gain (r=0.65, P<0.01) and backfat depth increase (r=0.73, P<0.001) in pregnancy. Larger after farrowing sows had a heavier litter (r=0.54, P<0.01).
  3. The number of piglets weaned was dependent on the number of piglets born (r=0.65, P < 0.01) and their weight at birth (r=0.70, P<0.001). The number of piglets weaned was related to the number of piglets at the age of 21 days (r=0.89, P<0.001) and litter weight at 21 days (r=0.72, P < 0.01). Number of piglets weaned was related to the sow live weight gain (r=0.63, P<0.01) and backfat depth increase (r=0.56, P<0.01) in pregnancy. Litter weight at weaning was dependent on the number of piglets at the age of 21 days (r=0.53, P<0.01) and at weaning (r=0.62, P<0.01). Weaned litter weight was also related to sow backfat depth increase in pregnancy (r=0.51, P<0.01) and sow live weight after farrowing.

Regression equations of prediction of sows’ extrauterine weight gain and backfat depth increase in pregnancy, weight loss, backfat depth decrease in lactation, also litter weight at the age of 21 days were calculated via feeding level and production performance data of sows.

Keywords: sow energy intake, sow protein intake, sow live-weight, sow backfat depth, sow reproduction performance traits.

R. Leming, J. E. Lindberg.  
  Süsivesikute seeduvus kiudainerikastes sigade söötades 210
Süsivesikute seeduvus kiudainerikastes sigade söötades. Katsesse valiti neli ristandorikat (L×Y) kelle kehamass katse algul oli keskmiselt 28 kg ja katse lõpul 67 kg. Sead olid peensoole seeduvuse määramiseks varustatud vastavate fistulitega. Sigadele söödeti nelja erinevat katsesööta järgides 4×4 ladina ruudu skeemi. Katsesöödad koosnesid odrajahust, millele oli lisatud kas 0, 5, 10 või 20% lutserni lehejahu (LLJ). Kõikidele katsesöötadele oli lisatud 4% vitamiinide ja mineraalide segu ning 0,5% inertainet (Cr2O3). Iga katseperiood kestis 15 päeva, mis oli jaotatud eelperioodiks (10 päeva) ja arvestusperioodiks (5 päeva). LLJ osatähtsuse suurenemisega katsesöötades suurenes oluliselt ka ratsioonikiu, ligniini, mannoosi, galaktoosi, glükoosi ja uroonhapete söömus, kuid oluliselt vähenes tärklise, arabinoosi ja ksüloosi söömus. Katsesöötade LLJ osatähtsuse suurenemisega vähenes ratsioonikiu seeduvus peensooles. Ratsioonikiu seeduvus kogu seedekanalis vähenes aga ainult söödas, millele oli lisatud 20% LLJ. Neutraalsuhkrute seeduvus seedekanali erinevates osades sarnanes ratsioonikiu seeduvusega. Uroonhapete seeduvus kogu seedekanalis suurenes (P<0.05) proportsionaalselt sööda LLJ osatähtsuse suurenemisega. Ratsioonikiu proportsionaalne seeduvus (protsentuaalne osatähtsus kogu seeduvusest) sigade jämesooles oli 33%, 46%, 48% ja 62% olenevalt sellest, kas söödale oli lisatud 0, 5, 10 või 20% lutserni lehejahu. Ka kõikide neutraalsuhkrute proportsionaalne seeduvus jämesooles suurenes, mis viitab kiudaine komponentide mikrobiaalse lõhustuvuse suurenemisele sigade jämesooles.
H. Peuša, T. Enno, K. Järve, O. Priilinn.  
  Nisu haiguskindluse geneetiline kontroll 219
Genetic control of wheat disease resistance. Interaction between the host plant and the obligate pathogen can lead to a differential selection in either the host or the pathogen. A very high level of virulence can prevent the reproduction of the plant while a very high level of resistance can prevent the survival of the pathogen.

For wheat breeders, following the basic principles of resistance genetics is essential. Resistance breeding without precise knowledge of the genes carried by the initial breeding material involved may be dangerous. Selection may favour one particularly effective gene so that many cultivars end up carrying it. As a result, wheat production in an area will be particularly vulnerable to the development of a new race of the pathogen that is virulent on the gene.

Relatives of cultivated wheat provide a rich reservoir of genes of potential value in wheat breeding, including genes for rust and mildew resistance. Using tetraploid wheat species Triticum timopheevii and T. militinae in wide crosses with common wheat cultivars, several sets of introgressive lines showing improved resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust in the seedling stage have been developed in the Plant Genetics Department of the Institute of Experimental Biology at the Estonian Agricultural University.

Using the method of monosomic analysis, genes Pm22, Pm27 and Pm28 conferring resistance in the introgressive line 146-155-T and wheat cultivars Virest and Meri were localized and identified. In the progenies of crosses between cultivars Tähti, Fagott, Laari and Triticum timopheevii/Triticum militinae, several introgres-sive lines with different types of powdery mildew resistance have been selected. Using methods of molecular analyses we plan to determine the chromosomal location of genes conferring disease resistance throughout different stages of ontogeny in these lines.

O. Saveli, T. Bulitko, T. Kaart, U. Kaasiku, K. Kalamees, A. Kureoja, E. Orgmets, H. Pulk, E. Siiber, M. Uba.  
  Eesti veisetõugude aretuskomponentide võrdlev hinnang ja kasutamine aretusprogrammides 224
Comparative estimation of breeding components of Estonian cattle breeds and their use in breeding programmes. Major part of the initial data were obtained from the Agricultural Registers and Information Centre, where breeding value of the bulls of the Estonian Holstein breed (n=278) and the Estonian Red breed (n=213) were estimated by means of BLUP Animal model in the 3rd quarter of 1998. Measurements of Estonian Holstein and Estonian Native cows were taken for registration in Herdbook.

The bulls born abroad exceeded the Estonian contemporaries in breeding value for milk, milk fat and milk protein yield. Higher dry matter content of milk, however, was observed in the daughters of local sires. The productivity of Holstein cows, imported from the Netherlands, exceeded the yield of Estonian Holsteins in the same cowshed by 619…1480 kg milk, 37…96 kg milk fat and protein as an average per lactation.

In breeding of Estonian Red cattle, the bulls with 100% Finnish Ayrshire, Swedish Red-and-White or Swiss breed genotype as well as the combinations of Swiss breed with Red Holstein, Estonian Red, Angeln or Danish Red breed occurred to be the best on the basis of milk productivity and exterior. As for the Estonian Holstein breed, the bulls with more than 75% Holstein genes were preferred. The Holstein gene proportion of Estonian Holstein cows was positively correlated with chine height, and negatively with chest girth and body weight. In breeding of Estonian Native cattle, the combination of three breeds (50 Swedish Red Polled + 25 Jersey + 25 Estonian Native) was considered the best.

Keywords: breed, breeding value, breeding program, body measurements, exterior.

S. Vabrit.  
  Pealtväetamise ja mullaseene Trichoderma viride mõjust üheaastaste dekoratiivtaimede arenemisele avamaal 248
The effects of top-dressing and Trichoderma viride on the growth and development of bedding plants in open field. For bedding plants in urban landscape mostly top-dressing with nutrient solutions are used. At the same time due to a small number of the same plant species and heterogeneous soils it is not possible to determine the right need of plant nutrients. Thus the top-dressing while maintain plants is usually based on general principles and visual diagnostics.

The objective of this research was to find out the effect of top-dressing in the growing period and T. viride strain T13-RC during one vegetation period. The bedding plants with different weather tolerance and nutrient needs such as Bassia scoparia, Consolida ajacis, Godetia grandiflora and Matthiola annua were observed in the open field. Plants were fertilized using the usual amounts and solution concentrations for bedding plants, not considering the special species needs. All the plants from all variants except control and T. viride were top-dressed with Ca(NO3)2 (N 15.5%, NO3-N 14.5%, NH4-N 1.0%, Ca 19%) after rooting. During the flower bud forming K2SO4 (K 42%, S 18%) was added to one variant and Kemira Horti 6-11-24 (N 6.0%, NO3-N 1.3%, NH4-N 4.7%, P 4.8%, K 20%, S 10.0%, Mg 3.0%) to another one in addition. In T. viride variant plant roots before planting were treated with T. viride peat-spore preparation. As the results have shown the positive effect of top-dressing on the development of growth parameters was obvious in case of high nutrient- need M. incana, especially in the variant when potassium was added. Measurements of growth parameters during growth period with a decade interval showed that the top-dressing and T. viride positive or negative effect on the plant growth depended on the amount of precipitation. Thus the weather conditions, species needs depending of phase in growth and soil properties complicate the top-dressing as well as T. viride positive effect on the plant growth and development in green area.

M. Karelson.  
  Eesti põllumajandusnäitused - 125 256
M. Karelson.  
  Ühistegelik Eesti piimandus (kuni 1944. a.). Asutati Eesti Piimandusmuuseum 260
  Akadeemilise Põllumajanduse Seltsi aastakoosolek 270
  Akadeemilise Põllumajanduse Seltsi uusi liikmeid 272