2007 * XVIII * 2

E. Nahkur, E. Ernits, V. Andrianov, M. Jalakas, E. Järv.  
  Veise vaagnapõhja soolised iseärasused ja ealised muutused 81
Sex-related peculiarities and age-related changes in the bovine pelvis. The aim of the study is to focus on the male pelvis of the Estonian black-and-white Holstein breed (EHF) as the most widespread bovine breed in Estonia. Eight pelvises of variously aged bulls were studied by means of preparation, measurement, X-raying, and maceration, and the data was compared with the data of previously studied female animals of the same ages. The pelvises came from three 14-month-old, two 17-month-old, and three five-year-old animals. Because bone tissue is rather adaptable, the proportions of the bony pelvis in animals of different sexes and ages have become adapted to the changing needs and loads. An increased weight of the mass of internal organs on the abdominal muscles brings about the strengthening of the pre-pubic tendon and the pubic pecten both in female and male animals. The pelvis of the cow focuses on carrying the udder, which exerts a negative influence on suitability for delivery and limb mobility.

Keywords: bull, pelvis, interischial bone, age-related changes, sex-related changes.

M. Noormets, H. Raave, R. Viiralt, A. Parol.  
  Rohtsete taimede kasutamine bioenergia tootmiseks 89
In comparison with other countries, in Estonia the research work related to herbaceous energy cultures is in the beginning. Here is missing clear overview of cultures that could be cultivated in Estonian conditions for energy production. Also it is not evident which technology is best in order to get bioenergy from grasses in Estonia. In Finland and Sweden generally used technologies might not be justified in local climatical conditions. In Estonia, the spring harvest for energy hay could be problematic because of rainy springs. The spring harvest scarcity is also the harvest losses and small number of suitable species for particular method. It is possible, that in Estonian conditions the most suitable bioenergy type could be biogas production, in comparison to energy hay production this does not set so strict requirements for substrate quality and therefore the most herbaceous species are useful for this.

Keywords: Bioenergy, sward types, sward duration, grasslands.

M. Nurmet, A. Põder, J. Lehtsaar, R. Värnik, P. Zeiger, E. Plaan.  
  Erialase nõuande ja täiendkoolituse saamine aastatel 2004–2006 ning vastavus põllumajandus tootjate vajadustele 93
Availability of advising and training opportunities for agricultural producers during the period of 2004–2006. The study identifies the availability and demand for agricultural advisory services and training opportunities in small agricultural enterprises. The substance and scope of information received by farmers during the period of 2004–2006 was determined by using the data of questionnaire-survey that included 150 farms. The results show that farmers need training in legislation, accounting and taxation, application for agricultural subsidies, environmental protection, plant growing, agricultural machinery. Farmers are relatively well informed in crop cultivation, environmental requirements and protection, application for agricultural subsidies, animal husbandry, accounting and taxes; and less informed in information technology, financial planning, business management, quality requirements, marketing and sales. Limited liability companies need training in relatively larger amount than self-employed persons. Self-employed persons are sensitive to the cost of training or advice. Marketing and sales problems are typical to self-employed persons, and could be solved by the developing of cooperative movement.

Keywords: agricultural enterprises, advisory services, subject of training, need for advice and training, cost of training.

R. Põldaru, J. Roots, A.-H. Viira.  
  Teravilja saagikuse ökonomeetrilise mudeli parameetrite hindamine: andmekaeve meetoditel saadud analüüsitulemuste võrdlus 103
This paper presents a comparison of estimated parameters of econometric model of grain yield in Estonia. For parameter estimation various data mining (DM) methods are used principal component regression (PCR), Bayesian statistics (BUGS), artificial neural network (ANN) models, fuzzy regression (FR) and support vector machines regression (SVMR). The data are a balanced panel of fifteen Estonian counties observed during the period from 1994 to 2001. Our analysis shows that Bayesian methods are the most acceptable and widespread. This result is primarily obtained due to assignment of informative priors for the parameters for fertilizer use.

Keywords: data mining, econometric models, grain yield.

T. Saar, T. Järveots, R. Lindjärv, E. Lepp, T. Suuroja, D. Põdersoo, S. Sütt, C. Fossum, S. Timmusk.  
  Sigade proliferatiivne enteropaatia ja võõrutusjärgne multisüsteemne kurnatuse sündroom Eestis 114
Porcine proliferative enteropathies and post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome in Estonia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis, porcine circovirus-2 and other intestinal pathogens in Estonian swine farms using PCR, histopathological methods and electronmicroscopical studies. Pathological material was collected from 18 surveyed farms to demonstrate clinical symptoms for porcine proliferative enteropathy (PE) and post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). The results indicated that 9 swine farms were infected with L. intracellularis and 6 with porcine circovirus-2. L. intracellularis was found by transmission electronmicroscopic (TEM) investigation of their digestive tracts which caused acute inflammations of jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon. Most of the examined pigs also had a necrosis of mucosa. Intracellular bacteria were found at TEM investigation in the affected epithelium cells of the ileum. It was concluded on the basis of TEM investigation that the intracellular bacteria cause disturbances of normal growth, differentiation and apoptosis of the epithelial cells of ileum.

Keywords: Lawsonia intracellularis, PRC, Warthin-Starry silver staining, TEM, porcine circovirus-2, porcine post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.

M. Sepp, T. Ohvril.  
  Põllumajandusettevõtete struktuuri arengud Euroopa Liidu uutes liikmesmaades 124
Farm restructuring is an ongoing process in any country. The Common Agricultural policy employs some instruments which have a direct impact on the farm structures (the milk and sugar quotas, setaside program etc.). The present structure of farm sector depends very much on some important decisions in the past. A comparison between the New and Old Member state provide the evidence that similar economic conditions didn't lead to a convergence in the farm structure. Hence the history might be one of the main determinants of the present farm structure in every country. The agricultural land price accomplishes one from the important functions to express the production and economical potential of agriculture. The real price of arable land characterize the production and economical potential of the farms situated in different natural conditions.

Keywords: farm structure, farm size, Common Agricultural policy, farm development history, commodity prices, land prices.

L. Sihver, I. Tomson, V. Viljasoo, M. Pääsuke, J. Ereline, H. Gapeyeva.
  Elektrokliima mõju inimese füüsilisele ja psüühilisele töövõimele 131
The influence of electroclimate on human physical and psychic working capacity. Electroclimate is an electrostatic state of inner and outer atmosphere connected with living, production or other activity. Unfortunately this subject hasn't caught sufficient attention in the process of improving the working environment. The article presents methods and results of influence of air enriched with negative aeroions on a person's physical and mental working capacity. Experiments have been carried out on two age groups (I – 18…26; II – 50…75), their psychic and physical working capacity measured both in normal environment as well in the air which electrostatic stucture has been enriched with negative aeroions. In the course of experiments such indicators as static standing balance, hand muscle strength, memory, visual and acoustic reaction speed were measured. The results show the different effect of negative aeroions on working capacity, but the majority of registered parametres still indicate of improvement. Probably greater changes in test results would be noticed when ionization would last longer.

Keywords: negative aeroions, ionization, working capacity.