2011 * XXII * 1

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A. Bender.  
  Lääne- ja Loode-Eesti punase ristiku (Trifolium pratense L.) looduslike populatsioonide aretuslik väärtus 3
During the expeditions organised in Westand North-West Estonia in 2002 seeds of natural red clover populations were gathered with which two field trials were established at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute: one (2003) for the identification of development dynamics and for the determination of seed yield, the other (2006) for the evaluation of dry matter yield and its quality in a three-cut utilization regime. Data were collected from both trials in two harvest years. Of yield quality indicators the crude protein content, the acid and neutral detergent fibre content were determined from a general sample, the digestibility, palatability and relative feeding value of dry matter were calculated. Based on a parallel sample taken during harvest the percentage of foreign species in the yield was determined as well as the ratio of leaves and stalks in red clover yield and the crude protein content of yield fractions. The diploid early red clover cultivar ’Jõgeva 433’ was used in trials as a standard variety. The aim of the research was to estimate the breeding value of red clover populations collected from the Estonian nature and to find out the possibilities of their use. One of the sub-objectives was to identify the effect of single propagation of seeds on the yield of natural population and on the quality indices of the yield. Altogether 22 natural red clover populations were studied in the trials.

Keywords: red clover, natural populations, seed yield, dry matter yield, crude protein content, dry matter digestibility, palatability, relative feeding value.

T. Elias, A. Elias, A. Kiis, M. Reinik, T. Püssa, K. Meremäe, M. Roasto.  
  Köögiviljade ja nendest valmistatud toormahlade nitraadi- ja nitritisisaldus ning tarbija saadavad kogused 10
This review article summarises Terje Elias PhD thesis part I and II. The content of nitrates were determined in 1,453 samples of vegetables. The highest mean values of nitrates were detected in leafy vegetables. The influence of storage conditions on nitrate and nitrite contents, pH and total viable bacterial count of raw vegetable juices was studied. Four different types of homemade juices were analyzed. Analyzes were performed immediately after preparation of a homemade juice. Additionally, samples were taken after open storage of a juice at the refrigerator and ambient temperatures during 24 and 48 hours. The highest changes in nitrate and nitrite contents were determined during the storage of carrot, beetroot and radish juices. During 48 hours of storage at ambient temperature the mean increase of nitrite content in homemade carrot, beetroot and radish juices were from 0.1 to 187, from 2.1 to 578 and from 0.5 to 259, respectively. After 48 h of storage at the refrigerator temperature the changes of nitrite and nitrate were smaller.
In case of consumption of 300 ml homemade carrot juice, with nitrate and nitrite content of 64 and 110 mg l–1, respectively, stored for 24 h at ambient temperature, the average intake is 8 and 846% of ADI of nitrates and nitrites, respectively. After consumption of 50 ml of the same carrot juice by children (1-2 years) the average intake of nitrates and nitrites is 7.0% and 733% of ADI, respectively.

Keywords: Nitrate content, nitrite content, vegetables, raw vegetable-based juices.

K. Meremäe, P. Elias, M. Roasto, T. Elias.  
  Ülevaade probiootikumide antagonistlikust aktiivsusest Campylobakter jejuni tüvedele in vitro 18
This review article summarises Kadrin Meremäe’s PhD thesis part II: The co-effect of pro- and prebiotics to the Campylobacter spp. strains in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the antagonistic activity of selected lactobacilli and bifidobacteria combined with and without inulin and oligofructose to the C. jejuni strains of human origin in vitro. Interactions between probiotic bacteria and C. jejuni strains were determined using co-culture experiments. Lactic and acetic acid produced by probiotics in growth media were analyzed by HPLC. Our findings showed that the antagonistic activity of probiotic bacteria against campylobacters depended on the probiotic strain and on the presence of prebiotic ingredient in growth media. L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 combined with 1% inulin or 1% oligofructose and B. bifidum Bb12 as well as B. longum B46 with 1% oligofructose totally inhibited the growth of all the tested C. jejuni strains below detection limit (< 1 CFU/ml). The antagonistic activity of selected probiotic bacteria against C. jejuni was mostly related to the decrease of pH via the production of lactic and acetic acids in growth media.

Keywords: probiotics, prebiotics, antagonistic activity, C. jejuni.

E. Nugis.  
  Märgisüsteemid ja agrosemioos maaviljeluses 25
The paper presents applicated agrosemiotics and try to study some ways for using in practice of the agricultural activities. Concerning that firstly we have introduced the semiology which aims to take in any systems of significations. Our opinion that the agrosemiotics is also one of part of biosemiotics like something zoosemiotics, phytosemiotics and mycosemiotics. However, the agrosemiotics through some agrotechnical means has a quite significance influence to biosemiotics including his several above mentioned parts. Therefore, the role of agrosemiotics is quite more haigher. Also the role of metaphor and its use in agrosemiotics for practice of agricultural research activities is very important. Related soil technology we have shown how the metaphor of going over the sign, and thence to the soil physical properties. The long-term research based on experience and evaluate the agrosemiotic characteristics by bringing for model in roughly two different farmers through the results of presowing soil tillage were carried out. Demonstrations of the results obtained leads to the conclusion that the theoretical model is sensitive enough to allow both the specific work in the fields, adequate assessment of the results of complex investigations, and through a semiotic approach to research completely new and innovative perspective has been gave. This work is not complete and still needs further development in light of a serious system “soil – plant”, and the last element of semiosis should be a more deep studies, looking closer points of contact with the phytosemiotics, zoosemiotics, mycosemiotics, ecosemiotics and biosemiotics particularly.

Keywords: sign system, semiotics, biosemiotics, agrosemiotics, metaphor

M. Roasto, K. Meremäe, K. Praakle-Amin, A. Hörman, T. Elias, M. Lillenberg, A. Elias, T. Kramarenko, L. Häkkinen, P. Põltasma, M.Mäesaar, P. Elias, M.-L. Hänninen. 31
  Termofiilsete kampolübakterite uuringud Eestis 2000–2010  
This article summarizes research within Campylobacter spp. in Estonian food chain in 2000 to 2010 in Estonia and Mati Roasto´s PhD thesis: Campylobacter spp. in poultry and raw poultry meat products in Estonia with special reference to subtyping and antimicrobial susceptibility. Proportion of Campylobacter positive samples on fresh chicken meat was 11.2% in 2000 to 2010 in Estonia. Analysis of seasonality of Campylobacter positive samples indicated that the seasonal peak of Campylobacter on chicken meat was from June to October. Studies showed high serotype and genotype diversity among Campylobacter isolates from raw retail poultry meat in Estonia. The serotype distribution did not show association with the origin of the sample. The genotyping of the 70 Campylobacter isolates showed KpnI to be more discriminatory, yielding 34 PFGE types compared to 29 obtained by SmaI. PFGE with the enzymes KpnI and SmaI for digestion proved to be discriminatory, repeatable and reproducible. In our study the majority of the isolates sharing a similar PFGE genotype originated from one country. Antimicrobial susceptibility studies of Campylobacter strains resulted in high resistance patterns for several antimicrobials. High MICs of both erythromycin and ciprofloxacin pose a problem and because erythromycin is considered as a first-line choice of treatment for human C. jejuni infections, the resistance has an important public health impact. Multidrug resistance in Estonian broiler chicken isolates was one of the highest reported in latest studies of broiler chicken Campylobacter isolates all over the world. Our findings in 2005 and 2006 suggest that the use of fluoroquinolones may select multiresistant strains since resistance to erythromycin, gentamicin or oxytetracycline was exceptional without simultaneous resistance to fluoroquinolones.

Keywords: Campylobacter jejuni, Contamination, Broiler chicken meat, Susceptibility to antimicrobials, Molecular typing

B. Tein, V. Eremeev.
  Eri viljelusviiside mõju kartuli saagistruktuuri elementide kujunemisele 40
In the experimental field of the Department of Field Crops and Grassland Husbandry the yield structure elements (total yield, commercial tubers, commercial yield, average weight of tubers per plant, number of tubers per plant, weight of tubers per plant, starch content in tubers, starch yield) of potato were studied in 2008 in cultivar ’Ants’ and in 2009 in cultivar ’Reet’. The potato was part of the five years crop rotation experiment where red clover, winter wheat, fieldpeas, potato and barley were following each other. In the both experiment years there were three production variants which followed the crop rotation. In one variant pesticides were used and the others were conversion to organic and conversion to organic with manure without any synthetic agrochemicals. In mineral fertilizing variant on the background of P25 and K95 kg ha-1 the N amount varied from 50 to 150 kg ha-1and agrochemicals were used. In the variant N0P0K0 and in variants conversion to organic the potato tubers which followed the fieldpeas had higher starch content in tubers in both experimental years. Total yield, commercial tubers, commercial yield, average weight of tubers per plant, number of tubers per plant, weight of tubers per plant and starch yield increased in both years with increase of the amount of mineral N.

Keywords: commercial yield, number of tubers, starch, weight of tubers, yield.

A. Tänavots, A. Põldvere, R. Soidla, L. Lepasalu, S. Žurbenko.
  Sigade rümba- ja lihakvaliteeti mõjutavad tegurid. I kuldi tõu ja sigade soo mõju rümba koostisele 45
Crossbred progeny, both barrows and sows, of Estonian Landrace and Estonian Large White sows sired by Duroc, Pietrain and crossbred white breed boars, were evaluated for carcass traits. Progeny of purebred Duroc sires were heavier at slaughter, and had heavier carcasses than those sired by Pietrain boars. Therefore data were adjusted to 100 kg live body weight. Pietrain sire progenies showed superiority over white sire progenies concerning average daily gain. Duroc sire progenies carcasses exhibited higher fat deposition and lower lean meat content. Sex had significant effects on fat thickness, being higher on barrows however carcass length I was longer on gilts. Although barrows had a larger area of m. longissimus dorsi, their lean meat content was little bit lower due to thicker fat. Sires of both breeds have beneficial traits which can be utilized in commercial pork production and merit further investigation.

Keywords: Pietrain, Duroc, gender, carcass quality, leanness, backfat.

A. Tänavots, A. Põldvere, R. Soidla, L. Lepasalu, S. Žurbenko.
  Sigade rümba- ja lihakvaliteeti mõjutavad tegurid. II kuldi tõu, sigade soo ja pH1 mõju liha kvaliteedinäitajatele 53
A study was conducted to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of m. longissimus dorsi of the progeny, both gilts and barrows, of white, Pietrain, Duroc and Duroc x Estonian Landrace sires. Least-square means of the physical and chemical characteristics, which included the content of protein, intramuscular fat, ash and, dry matter, boiling and drip losses, and two water holding capacities, were found by using a general linear model. M. longissimus dorsi of the progeny of purebred Duroc sires had a significantly higher dry matter content (26.47%) compared to, that of the progeny of white and Pietrain sires. At the same time, m. longissimus dorsi of the progenies of Pietrain sires had a lower protein content (21.90%) compared to progenies of white sires. Intramuscular fat content was significantly lower (0.98%) in white sire progenies compared to that in pure- and crossbred Duroc sires (2.31 and 2.47%, respectively). PSE meat showed significantly higher protein content (23.34%) than normal meat (22.13%). Further research is necessary to study the relationship between intramuscular fat content and eating quality of pigs bred in Estonia.

Keywords: Pietrain, Duroc, gender, pH, m. longissimus dorsi, drip loss, water holding capacity, chemical composition.

S. Kasepalu, A. Rohtla, A. Joandi.  
  Oskussõnadest 62
Juhend autoritele  
Errata: Ajakirja sisukorras peab autori T. Tänavots asemal olema A. Tänavots