2019 * XXX * 1

SISU

SISUKORD
OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/contents/2019_1_sisukord.pdf
Journal
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TEADUSARTIKLID

Malle Järvan
ÜLEVAADE: ÜLEVAADE VÄÄVLI KUI TALINISULE OLULISE TOITEELEMENDI MÕJU UURINGUTEST EESTIS
1–12
Abstract
REVIEW: THE OVERVIEW OF THE RESEARCH ON THE SULPHUR APPLICATION TO WINTER WHEAT IN ESTONIA
Malle Järvan
Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Agrotechnology, Teaduse 4/6, 75501 Saku, Estonia
Due to several objective reasons, the sulphur (S) deficiency in agricultural crops in Europe came to the fore in the last decades before the turn of the century. This work gives an overview of the Estonian long-year research concerning winter wheat responses on the S fertilization. This study presents a versatile influence of S application – beginning with the influence on the yield formation, grain yield quantity and quality, followed by the one on the biological quality of wheat proteins, and on the bread-making properties of flour and dough, and ending with the one on the quality indices of baked breads. Field experiments were conducted at two locations on calcaric Cambisol and Podzoluvisol. On the background of N100 or 120 kg ha-1, S was given as granular NS-fertilizers or foliar applied with Sulfur F3000 or with fungicide Thiovit Jet. Flour and dough properties for bread-making were determined by using a farinograph Brabender. The baking tests were carried out in laboratory conditions. The influence of S on the grain yield and quality, and bread-making properties of wheat depended on the year and location. As the average of experiments, the S application significantly increased the grain yield (r = 0.960). The increasing yields were accompanied by decreasing contents of protein and wet gluten. However, due to S application the biological quality of proteins was increasing, because the contents of some essential amino acids were increasing. The significant positive (r = 0.938) effect of the S application on the Gluten index was revealed, which is a good predictor for the baking quality of wheat flour. In addition, some significant positive effects of the S application on the rheological properties of dough and quality indices of baked breads were demonstrated. Thus, the S addition by nitrogen fertilization in parallel with increasing yields improved several bread-making parameters of wheat flour.
Keywords: yield components, grain yield, content and biological quality of protein, Gluten index, bread-making properties of wheat flour and dough, quality of baked bread.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2019, 30(1):1–12
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.19.03

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VIITAMINE
Järvan, M. 2019. Ülevaade: Ülevaade väävli kui talinisule olulise toiteelemendi mõju uuringutest Eestis. Agraarteadus, 30(1):1–12. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.03
Järvan, M.
2019. Review: The overview of the research on the sulphur application to winter wheat in Estonia. Agraarteadus, 30(1):1–12. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.03 (In Estonian)
AUTORI KONTAKT
Eesti Taimekasvatuse Instituut, agrotehnoloogia osakond, Teaduse 4/6, 75501 Saku, Harjumaa
Oluline: 
  • Talinisu väetamisel lämmastikuga samaaegselt antud väävel suurendas produktiivset võrsumist, terade arvu viljapeas ja saagikust.
  • Väävliga väetamise efektiivsus sõltus aastast ja kasvukoha mulla omadustest.
  • Väävel toimis efektiivselt nii mulla- kui lehekaudselt.
  • Väävli mõjul paranesid kleepvalgu kvaliteet ja taigna tehnoloogilised omadused.
  • Väävliga väetamine tagas toidunisu hea küpsetuskvaliteedi.

Raimo Kõlli, Tõnis Tõnutare
ÜLEVAADE: EESTI AASTAMULD 2019 ON MADALSOOMULD
13–24
Abstract
ÜLEVAADE: EESTI AASTAMULD 2019 ON MADALSOOMULD
Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Chair of Soil Science, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 5, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
By the Estonian Soil Sciences Society for the Year 2014 Soils the Leached soils, for 2015 – Limestone rendzinas, for 2016 – Bog soils, for 2017 – Typical podzols, for 2018 – Pseudopodzolic soils, and for 2019 – Fen soils (M) were elected. As the Year Soil of 2019 was not previously introduced in the Journal of Agricultural Science, in the actual overview was necessary to treat their classification, ecological conditions of their forming and functioning, hydro-physical and ecological properties, association of them with other soil species, distribution and conversion their names into WRB system. In the review, the main morphological properties of fen soils and the principles of their dividing into soil species (identified by soil genesis) and varieties (divided on basis of peat decomposition stage) are treated. Besides that, the fen soils' productivity, peculiarities of their paludification processes, distribution in Estonia and the data about their chemical properties are presented. In the overview, as well, the estimations of organic carbon stocks and assessments of annual organic carbon fluxes in peaty soil cover are presented and discussed. In the final part, the problems connected with environmentally sustainable use in agriculture and forestry and protection of fen soils are treated.
Keywords: year soil, classification of fen soils, fen soils, Eutric Histosol, composite soil matrix, peat soil cover, soil species, soil variety, annual cycling of carbon, drained peatland.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2019, 30(1):13–24
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.19.05

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VIITAMINE
Kõlli, R., Tõnutare, T. 2019. Ülevaade: Eesti aastamuld 2019 on madalsoomuld. Agraarteadus, 30(1):13–24. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.05
Kõlli, R., Tõnutare, T.
2019. Review: The Estonian Soil of Year 2019 is fen soil. Agraarteadus, 30(1):13–24. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.05 (In Estonian)
AUTORI KONTAKT
Eesti Maaülikool, Põllumajandus- ja Keskkonnainstituut, mullateaduse õppetool, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 5, 51006 Tartu
Oluline: 
  • Eesti Mullateaduse Seltsi poolt valiti Eesti aasta 2019 mullaks madalsoomuld.
  • Madalsoomullad moodustavad ca 14% kogu Eesti muldkattest ja ca 59% selle turvasmuldkattest.
  • Tutvustatakse aastamuldade määramisel ja iseloomustamisel aluseks olnud Eesti muldade klassifaksiooni põhiprintsiipe.
  • Madalsoo-muldkattena tuleks käsitleda vaid turbalasundi pindmist 50 cm tüsedust kihti, kuna selle all oleva turvas on oma olemuselt maavara.
  • Madalsoomuldade hulgas on domineerivaks erimiks ’Sügav hästilagunenud madalsoomuld’, mille koodiks mullastikukaartidel on M3’’’.
  • Madalsoomulla kuivendamisel paraneb puistu boniteet ligikaudu kahe boniteediklassi võrra.

Aleksejs Nipers1, Ilze Upite1, Irina Pilvere1, Aldona Stalgiene2, Ants-Hannes Viira3
EFFECT OF VAT RATE REDUCTION FOR FRUITS AND VEGETABLES ON PRICES IN LATVIA: EX-POST ANALYSIS
25–31
Abstract
EFFECT OF VAT RATE REDUCTION FOR FRUITS AND VEGETABLES ON PRICES IN LATVIA: EX-POST ANALYSIS
Aleksejs Nipers1, Ilze Upite1, Irina Pilvere1, Aldona Stalgiene2, Ants-Hannes Viira3
1 Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Economics and Social Development, Lielā iela 2, Jelgava, LV-3001, Latvia
2 Lithuanian Institute of Agrarian Economics, Division of Farms and Enterprises’ Economics, V. Kudirkos 18-2, 03105 Vilnius, Lithuania
3 Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Chair of Rural Economics, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 1a, 51006 Tartu, Estonia

Latvia reduced Value Added Tax (VAT) rate for some fresh fruits and vegetables in 2018. The reduced VAT rate is set at 5%, while the standard VAT rate in the country is 21%. The rate was reduced for a 3-year period, during which it is intended to assess the impacts of the policy and to decide whether to keep the reduced VAT rate after the period ends. This research aims to evaluate whether VAT reduction reduced retail prices of fruits and vegetables. As prices on various fruits and vegetables are quite volatile, we used prices for exactly the same products in neighbouring Estonia and Lithuania as controls. We found that although in the first year after the VAT reduction retail prices decreased considerably, the decrease was smaller than the VAT reduction – the pass-through effect was 88%. However, due to the limited competition in the retail sector, it is important to continue observation in order to draw conclusions about the long-term effect.
Keywords: VAT, reduction, fruits and vegetables, pass-through.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2019, 30(1):25–31
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.19.06

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VIITAMINE
Nipers, A., Upite, I., Pilvere, I., Stalgiene, A., Viira, A.-H. 2019. Effect of VAT rate reduction for fruits and vegetables on prices in Latvia: ex-post analysis. Agraarteadus, 30(1):25–31. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.06
AUTORI KONTAKT
1 Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Economics and Social Development, Lielā iela 2, Jelgava, LV-3001, Latvia
2 Lithuanian Institute of Agrarian Economics, Division of Farms and Enterprises’ Economics, V. Kudirkos 18-2, 03105 Vilnius, Lithuania
3 Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Chair of Rural Economics, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 1a, 51006 Tartu, Estonia

Highlights: 
  • In 2018 Latvia reduced Value Added Tax (VAT) rate for some fresh fruits and vegetables to 5%.
  • The rate is reduced for a 3-year period, during which it is intended to assess the impacts of the policy.
  • Current research conducted to evaluate whether VAT reduction reduced retail prices of fruits and vegetables.
  • It was concluded that VAT reduction pass-through effect withing the first year after reduction was 88%.

Margit Olle
SHORT COMMUNICATION: THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE QUALITY, AND NUTRIENT CONTENT OF LEAF CELERY TRANSPLANTS BY EFFECTIVE MICROORGANISMS
32–35
Abstract
SHORT COMMUNICATION: THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE QUALITY, AND NUTRIENT CONTENT OF LEAF CELERY TRANSPLANTS BY EFFECTIVE MICROORGANISMS
Margit Olle
Estonian Crop Research Institute, J. Aamissepa 1, Jõgeva alevik, 48309, Estonia
Effective microorganisms (EM) comprise a mixture of live natural cultures of microorganisms isolated from fertile soils that are used to improve crop production. The purpose was to assess the influence of EM on the growth and nutrient content of leaf celery transplants. Two treatments were compared: 1) EM treatment comprised of seed soaking in EM 1:500 solution, sowing in EM treated peat and watering the plants weekly with EM solution. 2) Control treatment included similar treatments with water. Leaf celery transplants grown with EM were significantly shorter and had thicker stems than those grown without EM. The contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium increased in transplants grown with EM compared to those grown without EM. The contents of nitrates and magnesium did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusion: EM improves the growth and increases nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium contents of leaf celery transplants.
Keywords: effective microorganisms, height, leaf celery, nutrients, stem diameter, transplants.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2019, 30(1):32–35
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.19.01

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VIITAMINE
Olle, M. 2019. Short Communication: The improvement of the quality and nutrient content of leaf celery transplants by effective microorganism. Agraarteadus, 30(1):32–35. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.01
AUTORI KONTAKT
Estonian Crop Research Institute, J. Aamissepa 1, Jõgeva alevik, 48309, Estonia
Highlights: 
  • Effective microorganisms (EM) improves the growth and increases nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium contents of leaf celery transplants.
  • Leaf celery transplants grown with EM were significantly shorter and had thicker stems than those grown without EM.
  • The contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium increased in transplants grown with EM compared to those grown without EM.

Margit Olle
SHORT COMMUNICATION: THE INFLUENCE OF VERMICOMPOST BASED SUBSTRATES ON BASIL GROWTH AND NUTRIENT CONTENT
36–39
Abstract
SHORT COMMUNICATION: THE INFLUENCE OF VERMICOMPOST BASED SUBSTRATES ON BASIL GROWTH AND NUTRIENT CONTENT
Margit Olle
Estonian Crop Research Institute, J. Aamissepa 1, Jõgeva alevik, 48309, Estonia
Vermicompost produced by earthworms is rich in macro- and micronutrients, vitamins and growth hormones, which are all needed for successful plant growth. The influence of vermicompost based growth substrates on basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) growth and nutrient content was assessed. Treatments were: 1. 30% vermicompost, peat, sand, dolomite stone; 2. 25% vermicompost, peat, gravel, perlite; 3. 25% vermicompost, peat, gravel, light gravel, 4. commercially available growth medium, or 5. 20% vermicompost and organic matter rich clay soil. Basil growth was best with treatments 1 and 2. Nutrient content of basil was best in treatment 3. The best growth substrate for basil production is treatment 1, based on growth results, while based on nutrient analysis when basil is used in medicine, the right treatment is 3: 25% vermicompost, peat, gravel, light gravel.
Keywords: basil, growth, nutrient content, substrates, vermicompost.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2019, 30(1):36–39
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.19.02

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VIITAMINE
Olle, M. 2019. Short Communication: The influence of vermicompost based substrates on basil growth and nutrient content. Agraarteadus, 30(1):36–39. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.02
AUTORI KONTAKT
Estonian Crop Research Institute, J. Aamissepa 1, Jõgeva alevik, 48309, Estonia
Highlights: 
  • The best substrates to grow basil were 1 (30% vermicompost, peat, sand, dolomite stone) and 3 (25% vermicompost, peat, gravel, light gravel).

Jüri Olt, Risto Ilves, Arne Küüt
ÜLEVAADE: PÕLLUMAJANDUSLIKU MASINAPARGI ARENGUD EESTIS AJAVAHEMIKUL 2010–2018
40–48
Abstract
REVIEW: TRENDS IN THE PARK OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY IN ESTONIA IN THE PERIOD 2010–2018
Jüri Olt, Risto Ilves, Arne Küüt
Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Biosystems Engineering, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
The aim of the current research is to provide an overview of the trends in the park of agricultural machinery in Estonia during the period 2010–2018. For this purpose, data obtained from the registers of Agriculture and Transport of Statistics Estonia have been used. The article outlines, firstly, changes in the number of agricultural holdings by the size of arable land and growing area of grain, secondly, changes in the number of tractors and grain harvesters, including the number of new tractors and harvesters sold over the years, thirdly, the preferences of holdings for tractors and grain harvesters, and fourthly, the categorization of new tractors and grain harvesters by the manufacturing company in the given time period. What is more, developments concomitant with trends in the park of agricultural machinery have been described.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2019, 30(1):40–48
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.19.04

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VIITAMINE
Olt, J., Ilves, R., Küüt, A. 2019. Ülevaade: Põllumajandusliku masinapargi arengud Eestis ajavahemikul 2010–2018. Agraarteadus, 30(1):40–48. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.04
Olt, J., Ilves, R., Küüt, A.
2019. Review: Trends in the park of agricultural machinery in Estonia in the period 2010–2018. Agraarteadus, 30(1):40–48. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.04 (In Estonian)
AUTORI KONTAKT
Eesti Maaülikool, Tehnikainstituut, Biotehnoloogiate õppetool, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu
Oluline: 
  • Teravilja kasvupinna suurenemisega perioodil on kaasnenud võimekama traktori- ja kombainipargi tekkimine.
  • Traktorite keskmine mootorivõimsus ja koguarv on suurenenud.
  • Teraviljakombainide keskmine mootorivõimsus, heedrilaius ja koguarv on suurenenud.
  • Põllumajandusliku masinapargi arengud on perioodil muutunud sarnasemateks Lääne-Euroopa masinaparkides toimuvate arengutega.

KROONIKA

Marko Kass, Heli Kiiman
AKADEEMILISE PÕLLUMAJANDUSE SELTSI 2018. AASTA TEGEVUSARUANNE
49–50
OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/chronicle/2019_1_kass1.pdf

Marko Kass
MEELEOLUKAS RINGREIS NAABRITE JUURDE
51–52
OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/chronicle/2019_1_kass2.pdf

JUUBELID

Enn Leedu
AGROKEEMIK ENDEL TURBAS – 90
53
OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/chronicle/2019_1_leedu.pdf

Erkki Hannolainen
ARVO SIRENDI – 80
54–55
OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/chronicle/2019_1_hannolainen.pdf

Marko Kass
AUPRESIDENT ARVO LEOLA – 75
56–57
OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/chronicle/2019_1_kass3.pdf

Luule Tartlan
VALLI LOIDE – 70
58
OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/chronicle/2019_1_tartlan.pdf

Ants Bender
ÜLLE TAMM – 60
59–60
OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/chronicle/2019_1_bender.pdf

MÄLESTUSPÄEVAD

Jaan Kuht
HEINRICH VIPPER – 90
61
OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/chronicle/2019_1_kuht.pdf

 

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