2019 * XXX * Erinumber 2

PÕLLUNDUSTEHNIKA 100

SISU

OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/contents/2019_si2_sisukord.pdf

KROONIKA

Margus Arak
HEA LUGEJA
1
OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/chronicle/2019_si2_arak.pdf

Jüri Olt, Risto Ilves
EMÜ TEHNIKAINSTITUUDI PÕLLUNDUS- JA VEOTEHNIKA TÖÖRÜHM
3–10
OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/chronicle/2019_si2_olt.pdf

Eda Merisalu, Märt Reinvee
ERGONOOMIKAÕPE EESTI MAAÜLIKOOLI TEHNIKAINSTITUUDIS
11–16
OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/chronicle/2019_si2_merisalu.pdf

Eve Aruvee
FÜÜSIKUD JA MATEMAATIKUD EESTI MAAÜLIKOOLIS
17–20
OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/chronicle/2019_si2_aruvee.pdf

EMÜ TEHNIKAINSTITUUDI JA TARTU TEHNIKAKOLLEDŽI AKADEEMILINE PERE (SEISUGA 11.11.2019. A)
21–22
OTSELINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/chronicle/05_2019_si2_anonymous.pdf

TEADUSARTIKLID

Anni Enn, Eda Merisalu
TÖÖÕNNETUSTE LEVIMUS EESTI PÕLLUMAJANDUSES AASTATEL 2008–2017
23–31
Abstract
THE PREVALENCE OF WORK ACCIDENTS IN ESTONIAN AGRICULTURE IN 2008–2017
Anni Enn, Eda Merisalu
Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Biosystems Engineering, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu
Occupational accidents in agriculture are a problem all over the world. The costs of accidents are high to the employer and to the national economy as a whole. Work-related ill-health and injury is costing the European Union 3.3% of its GDP. In Estonia, the estimates of the costs of work accidents (WA) in 2012 showed €2.4 billion per year and due to permanent lost workability €25 billion costs in total for society. Even if the most sectors become more automated, there are also self-employed farmers, who cannot always use the newest technologies. At the same time, family members and farm workers are facing risks higher than in most other occupations. Many accidents involve the handling of machinery or animals. The objective of the study was to analyse fatal and non-fatal work accidents by demographic parameters, severity, type, causes and body location of injuries in Estonian agriculture in 2008–2017. Method. The database of accidents in agriculture was obtained from the Estonian Labour Inspectorate and the data by absolute numbers, percentages and incident rates have described. Results. The total number of accidents at work in agriculture was 1696, which formed 4% from the total economic sector. The average incident rate in the past decade was 678 accidents per 100 000 workers. Predominantly minor accidents and usually among male workers have taken place. There are mainly 3 types of injuries – wounds and superficial injuries (40.4% of the total), bone fractures (25.6%) and concussion and internal injuries (16.2%). The most common causes of work accidents are lack of internal control (20.3%), poor instruction (18.5%) and other factors (18.1%). The most often locations of the injuries throughout the years were upper or lower limbs (35.7% and 33.0% respectively). The biggest number of accidents was taken place at Järva county.
Keywords: work accidents, agriculture, gender, severity, location, regional distribution.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2019, 30(SI1):23–31
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.19.11

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VIITAMINE
Enn, A., Merisalu, E. 2019. Tööõnnetuste levimus eesti põllumajanduses aastatel 2008–2017. Agraarteadus, 30(SI2):23–31. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.11
Enn, A., Merisalu, E.
2019. The prevalence of work accidents in Estonian agriculture in 2008–2017. Agraarteadus, 30(SI2):23–31. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.11 (In Estonian)
  
AUTORI KONTAKT
Eesti Maaülikool, tehnikainstituut, biomajandustehnoloogiate õppetool, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu

  
Oluline: 
  • Uuringu tulemustest selgub, et põllumajandussektoris toimuvate tööõnnetuste esinemissagedus on teatud aastatel kõrgem kui kõigis teistes Eesti majandussektorites keskmiselt kokku.
  • Kõige rohkem tööõnnetusi Eesti põllumajanduses toimub taime- ja loomakasvatuses.
  • Enamik tööõnnetustest on kerget laadi - haavad ja pindmised vigastused ning hõlmavad sagedamini üla- ja alajäsemeid.
  • Ka raskeid ja surmaga lõppenud tööõnnetusi on palju, mida saaks põhjuste analüüsimisel varakult ennetada või ära hoida. Kuigi põllumajandussektoris üldiselt töötab veidi rohkem mehi, on taime- ja loomakasvatuses rohkem naisi, kelle hulgas toimub kõige enam tööõnnetusi, mille on põhjustanud loomad. Raskeid tööõnnetusi esineb meestega enam kui naistega.
  • Raskete vigastuste osakaal on suurim metsanduses. Kõige rohkem tööõnnetusi, arvestades töötajate arvu, esineb Järvamaal.

Valerij Karpov1, Artem Nemtsev1, Toivo Kabanen2, Alo Allik2, Andres Annuk2
DETERMINATION OF EFFICIENCY IN THE DESIGN PHASE OF THE ENTERPRISE BY THE METHOD OF FINITE RELATIONS
32–38
Abstract
DETERMINATION OF EFFICIENCY IN THE DESIGN PHASE OF THE ENTERPRISE BY THE METHOD OF FINITE RELATIONS
Valerij Karpov1, Artem Nemtsev1, Toivo Kabanen2, Alo Allik2, Andres Annuk2
1Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian University, Pushkin-1, Box No 1, 196600, St.-Petersburg, Russia
2
Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Energy Application Engineering, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu, Estonia

The algorithm for estimating engineering solutions at the design stage in terms of the relative energy intensity by the method of finite relations (MFR) has been considered. The description and diagram of an energy consumption system serving as the base object in the analysis of energy efficiency for the manufacturing of products have been given. The basic features of using the method of finite relations at the design stage have been investigated. Based on energy estimation, the usefulness of the integrated approach to design for improving the energy efficiency of industrial enterprises has been proved. The aim of this paper is to describe the current approaches to solving energy-saving issues arising at the enterprise design stage to substantiate the possibility of using MFR to optimize design solutions in terms of energy efficiency. To achieve the aim set at the beginning of the paper, we consider an example from the book 'Industrial pumping systems' (Stasinopoulos et al., 2012, p. 165) with the basic formulas and design values preserved. The main design tasks are to select the pump power P and determine the diameter of the pipeline D. The analysis of the given design solutions with the help of the MFR has clearly demonstrated the significant advantages of the integrated design approach over the traditional one. As a result, the use of the integrated approach to design made it possible to reduce the consumed design energy by 88% and the relative energy intensity QPe(project) from 10.468 to 1.215.
Keywords: energy efficiency, energy intensity, the energy consumption system, method of finite relations.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2019, 30(SI2):32–38
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.19.12

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VIITAMINE
Karpov, V., Nemtsev, A., Kabanen, T., Allik, A., Annuk, A. 2019. Determination of efficiency in the design phase of the enterprise by the method of finite relations. Agraarteadus, 30(SI2):32–38. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.12
  
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian University, Pushkin-1, Box No 1, 196600, St.-Petersburg, Russia
2
Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Energy Application Engineering, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu, Estonia


  
Oluline: 
  • Artiklis toodud käsitlus energeetilistest protsessidest on vastupidine laialt levinule. Tavaliselt käsitletakse energeetilisi protsesse läbi kasuteguri, kuid siin on vastupidi. Kõigepealt arvutatakse kasulik energia ja siis leitakse kogu energia. See võimaldab leida protsesside jadas kasulikult kulutatud absoluutse energiakoguse, mis avab uued võimalused energeetiliste protsesside analüüsile.
  • Käsitletud lisanduv indikaator energia efektiivsus – suhteline (ühikuta) energia protsessi intensiivsus vastavalt projekti andmetele teeb võimalikuks hinnata energia efektiivsust protsessis projekteerimise staadiumis kasutades lõplike suhete meetodit.
  • Artiklis esitletud algoritm võimaldab kasutada lõplike suhete meetodit näidiste projekteerimise protsessis otsuste tegemiseks kasutades  energia suhtelise intensiivsuse indeksit ja valida välja kõige optimaalsemad lahendused energia efektiivsuse seisukohalt.
  • Et saavutada kõrgeimad võimalikud energia efektiivsuse näitajad ettevõtte tehnilises süsteemis  on vaja optimeerida energia indikaatorid ettevõttes juba tehniliste protsesside projekteerimise staadiumis.

Valerij Karpov2, Jevgenij Zhguliov2, Toivo Kabanen1, Alo Allik1, Andres Annuk1
ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF CONSUMPTION – METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION
39–43
Abstract
ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF CONSUMPTION – METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION
Valerij Karpov2, Jevgenij Zhguliov2, Toivo Kabanen1, Alo Allik1, Andres Annuk1
1Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Energy Application Engineering, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
2
Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian University, Pushkin-1, Box No 1, 196600, St.-Petersburg, Russia

Technical, economic, and social need to define and control the efficiency of energy usage – consumer energy efficiency implies the necessity to determine the exact contents of this new concept. A deeper analysis of a consumer energy system in order to support the consumer energy efficiency value appropriate for the contents should be carried out to find the factors that affect the value. This article shows that for the purposes of advanced energy consumption analysis, the consumer energy system becomes an integral part of the whole energy system (starting with the energy generation facility) which forms the demand for the produced energy and its usage efficiency. The consumer energy system is so important that in the course of developing and improving the electric supply and consumption systems, it questions the traditional priority of the first component (energy supply) and adaptive dependence of the second one. This article proves, inter alia, that manufacturers can raise their consumer energy efficiency by improving the production technology, using materials with new properties, modernizing the energy equipment, switching to automatic enterprise design systems and using other means commonly known as scientific and technical progress.
Keywords: energy saving, finite relations method, energy efficiency, product energy contents, energy differentiation, the structure of energy contents.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2019, 30(SI2):39–43
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.19.13

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VIITAMINE
Karpov, V., Zhguliov, J., Kabanen, T., Allik, A., Annuk, A. 2019. Energy efficiency of consumption – methods of analysis and evaluation. Agraarteadus, 30(SI2):39–43. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.13
  
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Energy Application Engineering, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
2
Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian University, Pushkin-1, Box No 1, 196600, St.-Petersburg, Russia
 

  
Oluline: 
  • Et saada igakülgset ülevaadet protsesside varieeruvusest ja energia liikidest ning farminduses kasutatavatest seadmetest, on piisav kui protsessid jagada staatilisteks ja mobiilseteks.
  • See artikkel toob välja, et süvendatud energia tarbimise analüüsi eesmärk on näidata, et tarbija energia süsteem on integraalne osa kogu energiasüsteemist (alustades energiatootmise seadmetest), mis kujundab nõudluse toodetud energiale  ja tarbitud energia efektiivsuse.
  • Peamine energeetiliste protsesside hindamise käsitlus on alates sisend energiast läbi efektiivsuse kuni lõpptarbitud energiani.
  • See käsitlus lubab tuvastada protsessi kasulikult tarbitud energia ja siis leida viisid energeetiliste protsesside efektiivsuse tõstmiseks.

Veli Palge1, Andres Grigor2
JUHTUMIANALÜÜS: ENERGIAKULU ANALÜÜS PÕLLUMAJANDUSTOODANGU VÄÄRINDAMISEL TALUS AUTOKLAAVI ABIL
44–50
Abstract
CASE REPORT: ANALYSIS OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION AT PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION BY USING AN AUTOCLAVE ON A FARM
Veli Palge1, Andres Grigor2
1Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Energy Application Engineering, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
2Filter Ltd, Ilmatsalu 1, 50412 Tartu, Estonia
The purpose of this article is to analyze the causes and distribution of autoclave energy consumption between the various stages of the technological process and identify ways to reduce energy costs. It was found that the recovery of waste heat is the most effective way to reduce energy consumption.
Keywords: energy cosumption, autoclave, food product
Source: Agraarteadus, 2019, 30(SI2):44–50
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.19.14

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VIITAMINE
Palge, V., Grigor, A. 2019. Case Report: Analysis of energy consumption at processing of agricultural production by using an autoclave on a farm . Agraarteadus, 30(SI2):44–50. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.14
Palge, V., Grigor, A. 2019. Juhtumianalüüs: Energiakulu analüüs põllumajandustoodangu väärindamisel talus autoklaavi abil . Agraarteadus, 30(SI2):44–50. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.14 (In Estonian)
  
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Eesti Maaülikool, tehnikainstituut, energiakasutuse õppetool, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu
2Filter AS, Ilmatsalu 1, 50412 Tartu


  
Oluline: 
  • Taludes on autoklaavi kasutamine eelistatud teiste produktide kuumutusviiside ees seoses võimalusega kuumutada erinevaid produkte ja kasutada erineva konstruktsiooniga ja erinevast materjalist valmistatud pakendeid.
  • Kuigi autoklaaviga seotud tehnoloogia kasutab palju energiat ja esinevad intensiivsed energia ülekandumised, ei tähenda see seda, et kasutatavad energiaallikad peavad olema suure võimsusega. Autoklaavis produkti ülessoojendamiseks vajalikku energiat saab koguda ülekuumutatud auru näol aurukogujasse.
  • Autoklaavi tööd saab korraldada soojuse taaskasutusega, mis võimaldab kasutada väiksema võimsusega energiaallikaid.
    4. Auru tekitamiseks saab kasutada nii bio-, tuule-, kui ka päikeseenergiat, millede rakendamisel saab autoklaavi tööd korraldada CO2-neutraalsena.

Boris Reppo, Jüri Kuzmin
PULSAVI MEETOD TÖÖTAJA TÖÖ RASKUSASTME JA ENERGEETILISE KOORMATUSE MÄÄRAMISEKS JA HINDAMISEKS
51–55
Abstract
PULSAVI: A METHOD FOR DETERMINING AND ASSESSING THE WORKLOAD AND ENERGY EXPENDITURE OF WORKERS
Boris Reppo, Jüri Kuzmin
Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Biosystems Engineering, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
Human-centred evaluation of technology and work techniques requires the determination of the workload category and the internal workload, which is the internal response of the worker to exposure to external load factors in the work environment. The aim of this paper is to present a method for a human-centred analysis of the work process. The method requires the worker's physiological data, which is used to process their wirelessly transmitted heart rate. The processed heart rate is combined with a video feed and displayed in real time on a computer. This allows monitoring the worker's actions and the corresponding workload category, total energy expenditure, work-related energy expenditure, and base metabolic rate. Using the method does not interrupt the work process and it is possible to save the data for further analysis. The method has been recognised as an invention and is protected with patent EE 05807 B1.
Keywords: heart rate, workload, work process, patent.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2019, 30(SI2):51–55
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.19.15

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VIITAMINE
Reppo, B., Kuzmin, J. 2019. PULSAVI: a method for determining and assessing the workload and energy expenditure of workers. Agraarteadus, 30(SI2):51–55. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.15
Reppo, B., Kuzmin, J. 2019. PULSAVI meetod töötaja töö raskusastme ja energeetilise koormatuse määramiseks ja hindamiseks. Agraarteadus, 30(SI2):51–55. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.15 (In Estonian)
   
AUTORI KONTAKT
Eesti Maaülikool, tehnikainstituut, biotehnoloogiate õppetool, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu

  
Oluline: 
  • PULSAVI meetod kuulub ergonoomika valdkonda ja võimaldab inimese südame löögisageduse ja füsioloogiliste andmete alusel määrata tema töö raskusaste ja energeetiline koormatus, mis on vajalik tööprotsesside ja töötehnoloogiate või töövõtete analüüsimiseks ja hindamiseks.
  • Seda saavutatakse töötaja füsioloogiliste andmete sisestamisega arvutisse, tema töötamise ajal
    pulsimuutuse edastamisega, samaaegselt töötaja tegevuse videokaameraga jäädvustamisega, andmete arvuti rakendusprogrammiga töötlemisega ja tulemuste kuvamisega reaalajas arvutiekraanil oleval kasutusliidesel, hinnates reaalajas või hiljem salvestatuna töötehnoloogia (töövõtete, -asendite) sobivust inimesele, häirimata seejuures tema tööd.

Vladimir Shkrabak1, Sergei Levashov1, Roman Shkrabak1, Vasily Kaljuga1, Eda Merisalu2, Toivo Kabanen2
ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERVENTIONS FOR PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS
56–61
Abstract
ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERVENTIONS FOR PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS
Vladimir Shkrabak1, Sergei Levashov1, Roman Shkrabak1, Vasily Kaljuga1, Eda Merisalu2, Toivo Kabanen2
1Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian University, Pushkin-1, Box No 1, 196600, St.-Petersburg, Russia, E-mail:
2
Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Energy Application Engineering, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu, Estonia

Transition to the concept of professional risk management assumes the transfer of focus from measures of response to accidents after they have happened to activities for preventive measures, i.e. risk management of workers' health. The strategy of "reactive" response within the framework of the traditional system of managing occupational safety of workers focused primarily on compensating for the negative consequences of accidents. However, it does not focus on eliminating the systemic causes of their occurrence and, as a result, does not lead to positive changes in reducing traumas and injuries. The results of the analysis of the socio-economic efficiency of this strategy suggest the need for a transition to a different type of occupational safety management – which is "proactive", therefore the priorities are not the management of "occupational environment", but the management of "employee work safety", based on identification and assessment of professional risks. The calculation of the economic efficiency of measures for employee protection and the prevention of industrial injuries on the example of agricultural workers in the Kurgan region was the aim of the present study.
Keywords: work safety, traumas, efficiency of safety management.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2019, 30(SI2):56–61
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.19.16

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VIITAMINE
Shkrabak, V., Levashov, S., Shkrabak, R., Kaljuga, V., Merisalu, E., Kabanen, T. 2019. Analysis and evaluation of effectiveness of interventions for prevention of occupational accidents. Agraarteadus, 30(SI2):56–61. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.16
  
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian University, Pushkin-1, Box No 1, 196600, St.-Petersburg, Russia, E-mail:
2
Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Energy Application Engineering, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu, Estonia


  
Highlights: 
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Avaldatud 29-11-2019