1997 * VIII * 1

M. Karelson.  
  Estonian agriculture in words and numbers 3
Estonian Agriculture in Words and Numbers. Estonia has above all been an agricultural country during centuries. It remained so in the years of the first republic as well (1918…1940). In 1938 52.3 % of the foreign currency was received for the export of agricultural products. Estonia exported 14,732 tons of butter, 3,661 tons of meat, 40.9 million eggs, about 10,000 tons of grain and 20,000 tons of potatoes. As the result of the World War II, still more due to collectivization process the condition of Estonian agriculture became considerably worse and the production of farm goods decreased. Another increase began in 1960s, due to an inexhaustible market in Russia, especially in Leningrad. Compared to 1940, the production of beef and bacon increased about three times and that of poultry meat 12 times by 1985. An average milk yield per cow per year increased twice. Such progress was possible by raising the amounts of local feeds and also by importing concentrates from Kazakhstan, the Ukraine and southern regions of Russia. As Estonia lost its eastern market after the re-establishment of the republic (doubled customs) and following the rules of the IBM (no customs can be applied to imported foodstuffs), local agriculture began to deteriorate. In 1995 Estonia produced 45 % of milk, 70 % of meat and 44 % of eggs less than in 1988. The average milk yield per cow in this period has dropped from 4162 kg to 3588 kg.

While the governments of all the European countries support farming, it is not so in Estonia. If the Estonian government doesn’t change its attitude in the near future, the decline of our agriculture will continue.

The present work includes 28 thorough tables which characterize the use of agricultural land as well as the production and use of agricultural goods in the course of different years. The headlines and text of the tables are both in Estonian and English.

Key words: Estonian agriculture.

A. Paas.  
  Conditions for pedogenesis and topographical distribution of soils on the deposits of Baltic transgressions 28
Conditions for Pedogenesis and Topographical Distribution of soils on the Deposits of Baltic Transgressions. Waterlogging is the main phenomenon to determine the trends and character of pedogenesis and soil mantle in the area of Baltic transgressions. At that the chemical composition of perched and ground water, seasonal dynamics of both moisture relationship and ground water table as well as the parent materials gleyed often in the process of their sedimentation have a great importance. Gley-Podzols form on sandy deposits where ground water level is rela-tively deep, capillary fringe does not reach soil section and water mineralization is poor. Sod-gley unsaturated soils can also been formed in these conditions. The formation of sandy sod-gley saturated soils is created by the high level of hard (enriched by hydrocarbonates) ground water. Varved clay plains is characterized by the large occurrence of sod-gley soils of different base saturation whereas besides prevalent ground gleyization the surface eluvial one can be often described there. Sod-gley soils on silty sandy and loamy sandy deposits are characteristic of transitional area between clayey and sandy plains close to the morainic and/or glaciofluvial outcrops where ground water is more rich in hydrocarbonates.

On the basis of complex profiles described and peculiarities of soil topographical distribution investigated the territory of Baltic transgressions can be divided into three morphological areas of accumulative plains:

  1. coastal (littoral) area with the presence of saline littoral gley soils;
  2. typical accumulative area of transgressional sediments with the prevalence of gley-soils on microhollows and/or plains and gley-podzols on sandy microheights (hillocks);
  3. transitional area between tilly (morainic) hillocks and sedimentary plains with highly variable soil mantle.

Key words: pedogenesis, topographical distribution of soils, aqueous parent material for soil formation, soil properties.

R. Kalmet.  
  Iodine in Estonian agricultural biosphere 49
Iodine in Estonian Agricultural Biosphere. The iodine content in Estonian ground rocks varies from 0.13 to 0.42 mg/kg, in quaternary sediments, depending on texture, it is 0.17…0.59 mg/kg. The iodine content of soils depends to a considerable extent rather on their distance from the sea, than soil forming rocks. The iodine content of soils of coastal areas is up to 52 mg/kg, while in the inland it is with in 1 mg/kg. In carbonaceous soils, rich in humus and with heavier texture there is more iodine than in acid sandy soils with low humus content. The iodine absorption and volatility depends on humus content in soil, iodine amount in the soil and in the atmosphere, on the temperature and inorganic catalysators.

There is much more iodine in the plants which grow close to the sea than in the plants growing inland. In the first stage of growth plants assimilate iodine mainly from the soil, in the later period mainly through leaves from air. The content of iodine is increased by using phosphoric and manganic fertilizers, but while using lime and other mineral fertilizers the content of iodine decreases.

In the Baltic sea there has been found 0.4 mg/L iodine. In the water of wells of inland the iodine content is 0.9…3.5 μg/L, but in the island and seashores >3.5 μg/L. In the precipitations of seashores the iodine content is 0.029 mg/L, inland 0.005 mg/L and in the atmosphere 14.5 μg/m3 and 3.5 μg/m3, respectively.

In the food and feedstuff of East- and South-East-Estonia the iodine content is lower than in the same products produced on the islands. In the earlier years from their districts came most of prophylactical struma patients.

In storing fodders and foodstuffs the content of iodine decrease due to volatility.

The iodine requirement of the domestic animals depending on the different kind of animal, is 0.15…0.5 mg/kg DM, the human requirement of the domestic animals – 0.15 mg a day.

Key words: iodine in ground rocks, iodine in soils, iodine in feedstuffs, iodine in water.

P. Lättemäe, U. Tamm.  
  Relations between yield and nutritive value of grass or grass-legume mixtures at different cutting regimes 66
Relations between yield and nutritive value of grass or grass-legume mixtures at different cutting regimes. Six forage stands were used in this study. Four stands consisted of grasses and two stands were legume-grass mixtures: cocksfoot Y 220 (Dactylis glomerata), bromegrass Lehis (Bromus inermis), reed canarygrass Pedja (Phalaris arundinacea), timothy Y 54 (Phleum pratense), lucerne-grass mixture (Medicago sativa, Festuca rubra) and white clover-grass mixture (Trifolium repens, Festuca pratensis, Phleum pratense, Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra). Forage stand plots were randomly assigned in three blocks. Thus, a total of 18 main plots of 6×10 m each were established. For each main plot three cutting frequencies were applied i.e. 4-, 3-, and 2-cuts. Regardless of cutting frequency the first cut was taken at the leaf stage, the second cut at the heading stage, and the third cut at the flowering stage. Subsequent cuts were made according to the growth rate of herbage. The results of two successive years were recorded.

Nutrient concentrations were highest in the early cut harvests. Both crude protein (CP) and metabolizable energy (ME) concentrations decreased and dry matter (DM) yield increased as herbage matured. As the decline in nutrient concentration was smaller than the gain in crop yield, nutrient yield increased, but at decreasing rates as the crops matured. Thus, nutrient yield should be taken into consideration when optimizing harvest management. The optimal time of the first harvest for obtaining high nutrient yields is when both CP and ME remain on an acceptable level. Thereafter harvest management is determined by growth rate. The inclusion of legumes in grass-legume mixtures contributed nitrogen corresponding to 200 kg N ha-1 when compared with grass in pure stands. Legume-grass mixtures also had higher CP concentrations than grass species alone and the decline in nutrients during growth was less. It is concluded that the optimal time of harvest is determined by both nutrient quality and quantity. In general, the 3-fold cutting frequency is more favourable than the others. The use of legumes or legume-grass mixtures is superior to grasses alone.

Key words: Crude protein, crop, cut, cutting frequency, harvest, herbage, maturity, metabolizable energy, nutrient, quality, stage, yield.

A. Lember.  
  Partial calculation of metabolizable energy and crude protein requirements of lactating sows 81
Partial Calculation of Metabolizable Energy and Crude Protein Requirements of Lactating Sows. The influence of metabolizable energy and crude protein level in the ration of sows on the reproduction performance data was investigated in four trials. On the basis of the experimental data and partial requirements the energy and protein balances of lactating sows were calculated.

1. Energy balance. Sows fed at a low (below 65 MJ) metabolizable energy level had a negative (according to ARC, 1981) energy balance – 9.9 MJ. An average daily weight loss of these sows was 0.44 kg.

Sows fed at a medium (65…70 MJ) energy level had an energy lack of 4.6 MJ/day (by ARC, 1981). At the same time the daily weight loss of sows averaged 0.56 kg. To meet this modest energy deficiency, it appears, the energy content of body tissues used for milk synthesis was only 9.7 MJ/kg. Such low energy content is explicable only in the case, when body tissues used for milk synthesis replaced partly by water.

Sows fed at a high (over 70 MJ) energy level had a higher milk yield (according by Walker, Young, 1992) and energy deficient (by ARC, 1981) was 13.8 MJ/day. Body weight loss of these sows was an average 0.47 kg a day.

2. Protein balance. The protein balance was most negative in sows fed at a low (below 800 g) protein level.

Sows fed at a medium (800…900 g) protein level had (by ARC, 1981) the protein lack of 112 g/d concurred with 0.56 kg daily weight loss.

The protein requirement of sows fed at a high (over 900 g) protein level was almost met, the protein balance (by ARC, 1981) was only a little (20 g) nega-tive. Weight losses (0.47 kg/d) of these sows probably composed mainly of fat.

High metabolizable energy and crude protein level in the diet of pregnant sows had no influence on the survival of piglets, but a high feeding level of lactating sows had a little advantage compared with low energy and protein intakes. Sows obtaining more energy and protein with the feed had a greater number of piglets in the litter at the age of three and eight weeks.

Litters from the sows fed at a low metabolizable energy and crude protein level during lactation were heavier than those from the sows fed at a medium and high level, which was caused by increased creep feed consumption of these piglets.

Key words: swine nutrition, energy requirement of sows, protein requirement of sows.