Papers in Press

Papers in the press are accepted peer-reviewed papers published online in manuscript form, but which have not been copyedited and not yet appeared in a regular issue of the journal. Copyediting may lead to small differences between the papers in press version and the final version, therefore please note that titles and content are liable to change during preparation for publication.


Volodymyr Bulgakov1, Jüri Olt2, Volodymyr Kuvachov3, Mykhailo Chernovol4, Mykola Sviren4, Serhii Kolomiiets3
A STUDY OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN SOIL AND THE PNEUMATIC WHEELS OF AGRICULTURAL GANTRY SYSTEMS
In Press
Abstract
A STUDY OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN SOIL AND THE PNEUMATIC WHEELS OF AGRICULTURAL GANTRY SYSTEMS
Volodymyr Bulgakov1, Jüri Olt2, Volodymyr Kuvachov3, Mykhailo Chernovol4, Mykola Sviren4, Serhii Kolomiiets3
1National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
2Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., 51006 Tartu, Estonia
3Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B, Khmelnytsky Ave., UA72310 Melitopol, Zaporizhzhia Region, Ukraine
4Central Ukrainian National Technical University, University Ave., 8, UA25006 Kropivnitskyi, Kirovograd region, Ukraine
At the stage at which agricultural gantry systems are being designed, developed, and studied, the question of a rational choice of tyres for such systems is relevant, as tyres are the most important part of an agricultural gantry system and have a significant effect on most of its operating properties. The methods that can be used for choosing tyres for traditional mobile-powered equipment are already well established by scientific experience, but the movement of agricultural gantry systems in permanent artificial tracks creates somewhat different conditions and demands for a pneumatic tyre when compared to a traditional tractor moving along agricultural soil. This is why the development of methods that will assist in finding rational parameters for the pneumatic tyres of agricultural gantry systems that are moving along compacted soil in permanent artificial tracks is an urgent and relevant task. The purpose of the study is to optimise the parameters for the tyres of agricultural gantry systems in terms of their being able to travel on compacted soil in permanent artificial tracks. Theoretical studies and the synthesis of the parameters for a pneumatic wheel to work with an agricultural gantry system took place by modelling on a PC the performance conditions of such a vehicle. The basis for the study methods was formed by the fundamentals of tractor theory and theoretical mechanics, using the software program Mathcad. The traction factor of an agricultural gantry system's pneumatic wheel was used as the performance criterion for the effectiveness of the work being done by the wheel. The physical object of study was an agricultural system that has been developed by us. As a result of the study, it was determined that the solving of the task that has been set out - using an analysis of partial derivates of the function of the efficiency of an agricultural gantry system's wheel – makes it possible to quickly and effectively determine the rational optimum points for its pneumatic tyre's parameters. It was determined that, for the agricultural gantry system at hand, and in view of the maximum efficiency of its pneumatic wheel, the wheel's tyre width must be within the range of 0.20–0.30 m and its diameter must be within the range of 0.90–1.25 m. With those ranges, it is recommended that the tyre's inflation pressure be increased from 100 kPa to 160 kPa because the partial derivates of the function of the efficiency at those parameters would decrease to near zero. It has been proven that the choice of tyre type for agricultural gantry systems should be based first on the choice of its width and then its load-bearing capacity – its diameter. The proposed methods for finding rational parameters for pneumatic wheels make it possible to determine the tyre parameters for all kinds of agricultural gantry systems which will be required to travel on compacted soil in permanent artificial tracks. For the agricultural gantry system that has been developed by us, using tyres of the 9.5R32 type provides the highest levels of efficiency, i.e. at a factor of 0.86.
Keywords: efficiency factor, gantry machine, tyre width and diameter, wheeled agricultural system.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2020, 31(1):In Press
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.20.03

Print

HOW TO CITE
Bulgakov, V., Olt, J., Kuvachov, V., Chernovol, M., Sviren, M., Kolomiiets, S. 2020. A study of the interaction between soil and the pneumatic wheels of agricultural gantry systems. Agraarteadus, 31(1):In Press. doi: 10.15159/jas.20.03.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
2Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., 51006 Tartu, Estonia
3Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B, Khmelnytsky Ave., UA72310 Melitopol, Zaporizhzhia Region, Ukraine
4Central Ukrainian National Technical University, University Ave., 8, UA25006 Kropivnitskyi, Kirovograd region, Ukraine


 
Highlights: 
  • Under the conditions of there being an identical load on the tyre of agricultural gantry system, the efficiency of its wheels increases with any increase in the tyre diameter and width.
  • The choice of tyre size for agricultural gantry systems should first be based on its suitable width and then on its diameter – a parameter that determines load-bearing capacity.
  • When optimising tire parameters of the agricultural gantry system, it was found that, under given conditions, an outer diameter of 1.245 m and a width of 0.250 m proved to be the most suitable.
  • The proposed methods of choosing tyre types for pneumatic wheels makes it possible to determine the tyre parameters for all kinds of agricultural gantry systems for travelling on compacted soil in permanent artificial tracks.

Lembit Nei1, Egge Haiba1, Merike Lillenberg2
REVIEW: PHARMACEUTICALS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE AND THEIR DEGRADATION DURING COMPOSTING – RECENT STUDIES IN ESTONIA
In Press
Abstract
REVIEW: PHARMACEUTICALS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE AND THEIR DEGRADATION DURING COMPOSTING – RECENT STUDIES IN ESTONIA
Lembit Nei1, Egge Haiba1, Merike Lillenberg2
1Tallinn University of Technology, Tartu College, Puiestee 78, 51008 Tartu
2Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Chair of Food Hygiene and Veterinary Public Health, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 56/3, 51014, Tartu
Pharmaceuticals are present in sewage sludge and its compost. This may cause severe health problems due to the plant uptake of pharmaceuticals by food plants when sewage sludge compost is used for fertilizing agricultural soils. Recently studies were conducted for estimating the efficiency of composting technologies in the view of the degradation of pharmaceutical residues. Experiments on plant uptake of pharmaceutical residues showed, that this phenomenon could not be ignored when using sewage sludge compost as a fertilizer. Novel approaches were developed via optimising the composition of the compost mixture with the aim of utilising sewage sludge compost as a nutrient-rich source for the improvement of soil properties. Sawdust as a bulking agent clearly speeded up the degradation of most of the studied pharmaceutical residues present in sewage sludge and its compost. More work in this field is needed for increasing the efficiency of the sewage sludge composting process. Efficient express methodologies should be developed with the aim of assessing the safety of sewage sludge compost.
Keywords: sewage sludge, pharmaceutical, plant uptake, compost.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2020, 31(1):In Press
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.20.02

Print

HOW TO CITE
Nei, L., Haiba, E., Lillenberg, M. 2020. Review: Pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge and their degradation during composting – recent studies in Estonia. Agraarteadus, 31(1):In Press. doi: 10.15159/jas.20.02.
Nei, L., Haiba, E., Lillenberg, M. 2020. Ülevaade: Ravimijäägid reoveesettes ja nende lagunemine kompostimisel – viimase aastakümne uuringud Eestis. Agraarteadus, 31(1):Avaldamisel. doi: 10.15159/jas.20.02.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Tallinn University of Technology, Tartu College, Puiestee 78, 51008 Tartu
2Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Chair of Food Hygiene and Veterinary Public Health, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 56/3, 51014, Tartu


 
Highlights: 
  • Simultaneous method for determination of fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides and tetracyclines in sewage sludge, compost and plants was developed in Estonia.
  • The sewage sludge and compost from Estonian wastewater treatment plants contained fluoroquinolones in remarcable amounts, the concentration of sulfonamides was comparatively low and tetracyclines were not detected.
  • The migration of fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides from soil to plants was obvious, and concentrations of sulfonamides in plants were generally higher.
  • The degradation rate of pharmaceuticals depends on the compound and sludge treatment technology.
  • Sawdust as a bulking agent speeded up the degradation of most pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge, but no decomposition of carbamazepine was observed in any of the compost mixtures.

Nele Nutt1,2, Ardo Kubjas1, Minea Kaplinski-Sauk1
SHORT COMMUNICATION: A METHOD FOR COMPARING THE TREE SPECIES COMPOSITION OF ESTONIAN HISTORIC MANOR PARKS AND FORESTS
In Press
Abstract
SHORT COMMUNICATION: A METHOD FOR COMPARING THE TREE SPECIES COMPOSITION OF ESTONIAN HISTORIC MANOR PARKS AND FORESTS
Nele Nutt1,2, Ardo Kubjas1, Minea Kaplinski-Sauk1
1Tallinna Tehnikaülikool, Tartu kolledž, inseneriteaduskond
2Tallinna Tehnikaülikool, arhitektuuri ja urbanistika akadeemia, inseneriteaduskond, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn
The following short communication article presents a method for comparing the species composition of Estonian forests and parks, giving an overview of the data that is currently being gathered and underlining how these two datasets can be compared.
Even though both forest and park inventories are carried out throughout the country, to this day there have been no comparative studies on how the species composition of parks and forests differ from each other. This stems from the fact that the park and forest inventories are carried out using different methods.
Forest inventories classify most of the trees according to their genera, but also differentiate between the species composition of the forest canopy and sub-canopy layers. The park inventories classify all dendrological plants by their species, also measuring several other individual parameters. The main difference being that park inventories do not differentiate between different canopy layers, rather providing species composition charts that include all the dendrological plants growing in the park.
In order to compare the two datasets, it is necessary to transfer the data derived from manor park inventories to match that of the Estonian forest inventory. The first step in implementing the method is to divide the inventory data from parks into the forest canopy and sub-canopy layers. The canopy layer of parks was determined to consist of old trees (>100 years). The age of the trees in parks was modelled after growth charts compiled from the data from Estonian forests, which was then extrapolated to reach 120 years. These growth charts were compared to the breast height diameter of park trees, to determine their age. The canopy layer of parks was then analysed to provide an overview of species composition that corresponds to the same level of generalisation as the forest inventories. 
The results showed that the species composition of old manor parks differs significantly from most Estonian forests with the majority of the trees in parks being broad-leaved. The proposed method is suitable for comparing forests and parks on a generalised level.
Keywords: park, forest, species composition, dendrological inventory, forest habitat.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2020, 31(1):In Press
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.20.01

Print

HOW TO CITE
Nutt, N., Kubjas, A., Kaplinski-Sauk, M. 2020. Short Communication: A method for comparing the tree species composition of Estonian historic manor parks and forests. Agraarteadus, 31(1):In Press. doi: 10.15159/jas.20.01.
Nutt, N., Kubjas, A., Kaplinski-Sauk, M. 2020. Lühiartikkel: Eesti ajalooliste mõisaparkide ja metsade puistu liigilise koosseisu võrdluse meetod. Agraarteadus, 31(1):Avaldamisel. doi: 10.15159/jas.20.01.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Tallinna Tehnikaülikool, Tartu kolledž, inseneriteaduskond
2Tallinna Tehnikaülikool, arhitektuuri ja urbanistika akadeemia, inseneriteaduskond, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn


 
Highlights: 
  • It is possible to compare the species composition of forests and old manor parks, but to do so it is necessary to transfer the data derived from manor park inventories to match that of the Estonian forest inventory.
  • The results show that the species composition of old manor parks differs significantly from most Estonian forests with the majority of the trees in parks being broad-leaved.
  • The proposed method is suitable for comparing forests and parks on a generalised level.

Creative Commons License