Papers in Press

Papers in the press are accepted peer-reviewed papers published online in manuscript form, but which have not been copyedited and not yet appeared in a regular issue of the journal. Copyediting may lead to small differences between the papers in press version and the final version, therefore please note that titles and content are liable to change during preparation for publication.


Adedamola Oladapo Akinbadewa1, Henry Adefisayo Adewole2, Victor Folorunso Olaleye2, Gbenga Emmanuel Ogundepo3
SUBLETHAL EFFECT OF GLYPHOSATE [N-(PHOSPHONOMETHYL)GLYCINE] ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITIES IN SOME ORGANS OF CLARIAS GARIEPINUS (BURCHELL, 1822) FINGERLINGS
In Press
Abstract
SUBLETHAL EFFECT OF GLYPHOSATE [N-(PHOSPHONOMETHYL)GLYCINE] ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITIES IN SOME ORGANS OF CLARIAS GARIEPINUS (BURCHELL, 1822) FINGERLINGS
Adedamola Oladapo Akinbadewa1, Henry Adefisayo Adewole2, Victor Folorunso Olaleye2, Gbenga Emmanuel Ogundepo3
1Institute of Ecology and Environmental Studies, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
2Department of Zoology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
The effect of the sublethal concentration of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] on growth and some biochemical indices in the organs of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell 1822) fingerlings in a static bioassay setup was studied to provide information on the sublethal toxicity effect of glyphosate on C. gariepinus fingerlings. Two hundred and seventy (270) fingerlings of C. gariepinus (10.02 ± 0.20g) randomly stocked at 30 fish per tank in triplicate were exposed to varying concentration (0, 2.75 ppm and 5.00 ppm) of glyphosate for 70 days. The results of the study showed that the determined growth parameters decrease with increase glyphosate concentration (except specific growth rate). The highest mortality rate was recorded in the treatment with the highest phosphate concentration (5.50 ppm). The enzymatic analyses of the fish tissue revealed that Na+/K+-ATPase activity which ranged from 0.20 to 19.29 µM Pi min–1 mg–1 protein in all the fish tissues increase with increase glyphosate concentration in the fish muscle and liver, and decreases with increase in glyphosate concentration in the gills. However, the muscle and liver malate DH activities decreased with increase in glyphosate concentration while the lactate DH activity increases with increase intoxicant concentration in the muscle (with the highest treatment having a threefold increase). Generally, the enzymatic activities of fish tissues followed the order: Malate DH >Na+/K+-ATPase>Lactate DH. The study concluded that the glyphosate concentration negatively impacted the growth and survival of C. gariepinus and also had a pronounced effect on the enzymatic activities of the studied organs.
Keywords: glyphosate, enzyme, tissue, growth, sub-lethal toxicity, Clarias gariepinus.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2020, 31(2):In Press
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.20.16

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Akinbadewa, A.O., Adewole, H.A., Olaleye, V.F., Ogundepo, G.E. 2020. Sublethal effect of glyphosate [n-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] on growth performance and biochemical activities in some organs of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fingerlings. Agraarteadus, 31(2):In Press. doi: 10.15159/jas.20.16.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Institute of Ecology and Environmental Studies, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
2Department of Zoology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

 
Highlights: 
  • The use of pesticide especially herbicide for destroying, preventing, or mitigating insects, rodents, nematodes, fungi, or weeds (as applicable), is on the increase worldwide in modern agricultural practices which pose a threat to the underground, surface water and aquatic lives
  • The sublethal toxicity effect of Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) Glycine] on growth performance and some biochemical indices in the organs of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell 1822) fingerlings was therefore evaluated.
  • The determined growth parameters decrease with increase glyphosate concentration with highest mortality rate in the treatment with highest phosphate concentration (5.50 ppm)
  • Na+/K+-ATPase activity in all the fish tissues increase with increase glyphosate concentration in the fish muscle and liver, and decreases with increase in Glyphosate concentration in the gills.
  • However, the muscle and liver malate DH activities decreased with increase in Glyphosate concentration while the lactate DH activity increases with increase in toxicant concentration in the muscle (with the highest treatment having a threefold increase).
  • Generally, the enzymatic activities of fish tissues followed the order: Malate DH >Na+/K+-ATPase>Lactate DH.
  • The glyphosate concentration negatively impacted the growth and survival of gariepinus and also had a pronounced effect on the enzymatic activities of the studied organs.

Basem Rahem Bader1, Mohammed Ali Abood1, Saad Enad Harfoush Aldulaimy2, Shuker Mahmood Hassan Al-Mehmdy2, Ghassan Jaafar Hamdi3
EFFECT OF WATER DEFICIT AND FOLIAR APPLICATION OF AMINO ACIDS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF EGGPLANT IRRIGATED BY TWO DRIP SYSTEMS UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS
In Press
Abstract
EFFECT OF WATER DEFICIT AND FOLIAR APPLICATION OF AMINO ACIDS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF EGGPLANT IRRIGATED BY TWO DRIP SYSTEMS UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS
Basem Rahem Bader1, Mohammed Ali Abood1, Saad Enad Harfoush Aldulaimy2, Shuker Mahmood Hassan Al-Mehmdy2, Ghassan Jaafar Hamdi3
1Department of Soil Science and Water Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Diyala, Baqubah, Iraq
2Department of Soil Science and Water Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Anbar, Ramadi, Iraq
3Department of Horticulture and Landscape, College of Agriculture, University of Diyala, Baqubah, Iraq
Water deficit in semiarid areas limits eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) production and growth indicators. Suitable drip irrigation system and foliar application of amino acids may help overcome water deficit. In this work, the effects of drip irrigation system [Grand flow regulators (GR) and T-Tape], water deficit (50, 75, 100% based on field capacity) and foliar application of amino acids at 0, 100 and 200 mg L–1 on water relation of leaf's, yield and field water use efficiency (WUEf) of eggplant were studied. The experiments were arranged in a split-split plot design within a completely randomized distribution each repeated three times. GR irrigation system treatment produced the highest relative water content (RWC), most yield (TY), WUEf and the lowest of water saturation deficit (WSD) which were 74.71%, 6.50%, 5.97 t ha–1, 2.11 kg m–3 and 23.09%, respectively. The lowest water uptake capacity (WUC) and relative membrane permeability (RMP) was obtained in T-Tape irrigation system treatment (0.43% and 59.45%, respectively). The 100% irrigation level revealed higher RWC (79.32%), WSD (7.38%), most TY (6.93 t ha–1), the least of WSD (18.00%), WUC (0.28%) and RMP (39.40%). The maximum of WUEf (2.37 kg m–3) was obtained from 50% irrigation level. The foliar application of 200 mg L–1 Amino acids rate resulted in significantly maximum RWC (81.50%), WRC (7.19%), TY (6.75 t ha–1) and WUEf (2.51 kg m–3) and least WSD (15.88%), WUC (0.33%), RMP (52.02%). GR drip irrigation system is best for water use efficiency; 200 mg L–1 Amino acids produced the best response for most studied traits.
Keywords: Solanum melongena, Amino decanate, foliar, water use efficiency, water deficit.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2020, 31(2):In Press
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.20.20

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Bader, B.R., Abood, M.A., Aldulaimy, S.E.H., Al-Mehmdy, S.M.H., Hamdi, G.J. 2020. effect of water deficit and foliar application of amino acids on growth and yield of eggplant irrigated by two drip systems under greenhouse conditions. Agraarteadus, 31(2):In Press. doi: 10.15159/jas.20.20.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Department of Soil Science and Water Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Diyala, Baqubah, Iraq
2Department of Soil Science and Water Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Anbar, Ramadi, Iraq
3Department of Horticulture and Landscape, College of Agriculture, University of Diyala, Baqubah, Iraq


 
Highlights: 
  • The combined effects of amino acids, deficit irrigation and irrigation system on eggplant crop was studied.
  • Amino acids can attenuate negative effects of water stress on eggplant growth.
  • Amino acids significantly increased yield and water use efficiency under water stress level.
  • Amino acids can improve plant water status in terms of leaf water potential.
  • Irrigation system strategy led to reduced water used in eggplant.

Volodymyr Bulgakov1, Valerii Adamchuk2, Volodymyr Kuvachov3, Lyubov Shymko1, Jüri Olt4
A THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF COMBINED AGRICULTURAL GANTRY UNIT WITH A MINERAL FERTILISER SPREADER
In Press
Abstract
A THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF COMBINED AGRICULTURAL GANTRY UNIT WITH A MINERAL FERTILISER SPREADER
Volodymyr Bulgakov1, Valerii Adamchuk2, Volodymyr Kuvachov3, Lyubov Shymko1, Jüri Olt4
1National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony St, UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
2National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification, 11 Vokzalna St, Glevakcha-1, Vasylkiv District, UA08631 Kyiv Region, Ukraine
3Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B Khmelnytsky Ave, UA72310 Melitopol, Zaporizhzhia Region, Ukraine
4Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi St, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
Operations to apply mineral fertilisers to the soil are an important part of practically every form of agricultural technology. The current global trend of transitioning to bridge and gantry-type agricultural systems leaves the unanswered relevant question of the effectiveness of the technological process of applying mineral fertilisers to the soil. This is relevant because, in gantry agriculture, a section of the arable soil is separated as an engineering area. This is why the main difference in gantry agriculture from traditional methods of the bulk spreading of fertiliser onto a field is that, with gantry systems, the amount of fertiliser that lands within the engineering zone are limited. This significantly affects the manufacturing costs involved in the entire area of agricultural technology and, as a result, the production costs of the end product. This study aimed to research the patterns that are apparent in affecting the parameters involved in the use of gantry-type equipment when applying fertiliser with the parameters and operational modes of a specially-developed electric spreader of mineral fertilisers. The physical object of the study was the agricultural gantry equipment that had been developed by the authors. This equipment, which is used for spreading fertiliser, was in the form of a tractor-mounted, suspended, single-disc spreader which was known as JarMet, and which had especially been modified to run from an electrical supply. The study indicated that the biggest influence on the speed of rotation of the centrifugal disc in the mineral fertiliser spreader stems from its height above the ground, the distance of track of the agricultural gantry itself, and the aerodynamic coefficient of the fertiliser. It was determined that, for the agricultural gantry with a distance of tracks of 3.5 m, a sufficient angular speed of the single-disc centrifugal tool is 15.5 rad·s−1, with a power demand for driving this at 0.35 kW·h. When using agricultural gantries of this type with an extended track width of up to 6 m, the necessary angular speed of the centrifugal tool for spreading fertiliser increases exponentially, to 318.2 rad·s−1, with the power demand for driving it increasing to the third power.
Keywords: agricultural gantry system, angular speed, disk, fertiliser spreader, power, track.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2020, 31(2):In Press
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.20.15

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Bulgakov, V. Adamchuk, V., Kuvachov, V., Shymko, L., Olt, J. 2020. A theoretical and experimental study of combined agricultural gantry unit with a mineral fertiliser spreader. Agraarteadus, 31(2):In Press. doi: 10.15159/jas.20.15.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony St, UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
2National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification, 11 Vokzalna St, Glevakcha-1, Vasylkiv District, UA08631 Kyiv Region, Ukraine
3Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B Khmelnytsky Ave, UA72310 Melitopol, Zaporizhzhia Region, Ukraine
4Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi St, 51006 Tartu, Estonia

 
Highlights: 
  • For the automation of the process of applying technological bulk materials with an agricultural gantry unit, this purpose can be achieved when utilising an electric drive for the centrifugal fertiliser spreader.
  • The highest impact on its angular speed at its circumference comes from its installation height above the soil, as well as from the agricultural gantry’s track distance, and from the fertiliser’s aerodynamic coefficient.
  • The dependence of the angular speed of the spreader tool on the agricultural gantry’s track distance has an exponential character. It was determined that, for an agricultural gantry with a distance of track of 3.5 m, it is sufficient to have the angular speed of a single-disc centrifugal tool be set at 15.5 rads−1 (2.47 s−1). At such an angular speed of the spreader, the mineral fertilisers that are being spread onto the crop area of the agricultural gantry unit will not reach the wheel tracks of the engineering zone in the field. The power demand required for driving the spreader is 0.35 kW.
  • When using agricultural gantries unit with a track distance that was increased to 5.4 m, the necessary angular speed of the centrifugal tool for spreading mineral fertiliser will exponentially increase to 140 rad s−1 (22.2 s−1). The power demand required for driving the spreader is 8 kW.

Piret Hussar1, Ilmārs Dūrītis2, Florina Popovska-Percinic3, Tõnu Järveots4
Short Communication: IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF SODIUM-DEPENDENT GLUCOSE CO-TRANSPORTERS IN OSTRICHES KIDNEYS
In Press
Abstract
Short Communication: IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF SODIUM-DEPENDENT GLUCOSE CO-TRANSPORTERS IN OSTRICHES KIDNEYS
Piret Hussar1, Ilmārs Dūrītis2, Florina Popovska-Percinic3, Tõnu Järveots4
1Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, Tartu 50411, Estonia
2Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Latvian University of Agriculture, Jelgava, Latvia
3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ss.Cyril & Methodius University in Skopje, 1000 Skopje, R. Macedonia
4Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia
Out of the two families of glucose transporters identified, the sodium-dependent glucose co-transporters contribute to renal glucose reabsorption. Due to the lack of knowledges of the localization of SGLTs in bird's kidneys, the present study aimed to immunolocalize Na+-glucose co-transporters SGLT1 and SGLT2 in ostrich's kidneys. In the study kidney material derived from five 14 days old female ostriches. Material 0.5–1.0 cm in diameter was fixed in 10% formalin, dehydrated, embedded into paraffin; thereafter slices 7 μm in thickness were cut and deparaffi­nized, followed by immunohistochemical staining with polyclonal primary antibodies Rabbit anti-SGLT1 and Rabbit anti-SGLT2 (Abcam, UK) according to the manufacturers' guidelines (IHC kit, Abcam, UK). Our study revealed the immunohistochemical localization of SGLT1 and SGLT2 in the proximal tubules of the renal cortex. The immunohisto­chemical locations of sodium-dependent glucose transporters resembled those in mammals.
Keywords: glucose transporters, SGLT1, SGLT2, ostriches, kidneys, immunohistochemistry.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2020, 31(2):In Press
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.20.23

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Hussar, H., Dūrītis, I., Popovska-Percinic, F., Järveots. 2020. Immunohistochemical study of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporters in ostriches kidneys. Agraarteadus, 31(2):In Press. doi: 10.15159/jas.20.23.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, Tartu 50411, Estonia
2Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Latvian University of Agriculture, Jelgava, Latvia
3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ss.Cyril & Methodius University in Skopje, 1000 Skopje, R. Macedonia
4Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia

 
Highlights: 
  • The current immunohistochemical study showed the SGLT1 and SGLT2 similar locations in the renal proximal tubules as previously detected in mammals.

Peter-Damian Chukwunomso Jiwuba
NUTRIENT INTAKE, DIGESTIBILITY AND NITROGEN BALANCE OF WEST AFRICAN DWARF GOATS FED CASSAVA ROOT SIEVATE AND CASSAVA LEAF MEAL MIXTURE IN THEIR DIETS
In Press
Abstract
NUTRIENT INTAKE, DIGESTIBILITY AND NITROGEN BALANCE OF WEST AFRICAN DWARF GOATS FED CASSAVA ROOT SIEVATE AND CASSAVA LEAF MEAL MIXTURE IN THEIR DIETS
Peter-Damian Chukwunomso Jiwuba
Department of Animal Production Technology, Federal College of Agriculture, P.M.B.7008, Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Four West African Dwarf (WAD) bucks averaging 7.62 kg and aged 8–10 months ere used to determine the intake, body weight changes, digestibility and nitrogen balance of cassava root sievate-cassava leaf meal mixture based diets. The four experimental diets (T1, T2, T3 and T4) were formulated to contain palm kernel cake, brewers' dried grain, molasses, bone meal, limestone, meal, common salt and 0, 20, 40 and 60% cassava root sievate-cassava leaf meal mixture at the rate of 3:1 res­pectively. The diets were assigned individually to the four animals in metabolism cages in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment. Feed intake, body weight gain, dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient digestibility and the nitrogen balance status of each animal were measured. Results on proxi­mate composition revealed that the nutrient requirements of the goats were adequate. The DMI for the supplement, total DMI, total DMI (g kg–1 W0.75), CF intake were highest (P < 0.05) for T4. Average body weight gain (g day–1) and average body weight gain (g kg–1 W0.75) were best (P < 0.05) for T3 and T4. Crude protein digestibility was best (P < 0.05) for T4. Neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre digestibilities were best for T3 and T4. Nitrogen intake (g day–1), nitrogen balance (g day–1) (g W–1 kg0.75), nitrogen retention (%), nitrogen absorbed (g day–1) (g W–1 kg0.75), apparent N digestibility (%) and the efficiency of nitrogen utilization were all best (P < 0.05) for and T4. The diet (T4) containing 60% CRSCLM mixture was recommended among the other diets for feeding goats, as it had better performance concerning nutrient intake, body weight gain, nutrient digestibility and utilization.
Keywords: nutrient intake, digestibility, utilization, body weight gain, cassava, goats.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2020, 31(2):In Press
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.20.24

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Jiwuba, P.-D. C. 2020. Nutrient intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance of West African Dwarf goats fed cassava root sievate and cassava leaf meal mixture in their diets. Agraarteadus, 31(2):In Press. doi: 10.15159/jas.20.24.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
Department of Animal Production Technology, Federal College of Agriculture, P.M.B.7008, Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

 
Highlights: 
  • .

Panagiotis Kanatas1, Ioannis Gazoulis2, Ioanna Kakabouki2, Panayiota Papastylianou2
AROMATIC PLANT MELISSA OFFICINALIS EXTRACTS SELECTIVITY IN VARIOUS BIOMASS CROP AND LEGUME SPECIES
In Press
Abstract
AROMATIC PLANT MELISSA OFFICINALIS EXTRACTS SELECTIVITY IN VARIOUS BIOMASS CROP AND LEGUME SPECIES
Panagiotis Kanatas1, Ioannis Gazoulis2, Ioanna Kakabouki2, Panayiota Papastylianou2
1Agricultural Cooperative of Mesolonghi-Nafpaktia, 30200 Mesolonghi, Greece
2Agricultural University of Athens, 11855, Athens, Greece
Allelopathic effects of various plants can be exploited for use against weeds; however, the selectivity in different crops is also important. In the current study, the effects of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) allelochemicals on seed germination and seedling emergence of three biomass crops and three legume species were evaluated. Seed germination of rapeseed was reduced by 19, 30, 56, and 80% in the concentrations of 1, 2, 5 and 10%, respectively, as compared to the control group, whereas sweet sorghum seeds showed a more intermediate response and sunflower germination was affected only by the highest concentration. Seed germination of common bean was by 25, 34 and 60% lower at 1, 2 and 5% extract concentrations, respectively, in comparison to the control whereas up to 85% reduction of seed germination was recorded in 10% concentration. Peanut seed germination percentage ranged between 72 and 47% of control in 5 and 10% concentrations, respectively, while soybean germination was least affected from M. officinalis leaf extracts since it was reduced by only 25 and 41% in 5 and 10% concentrations, respectively, as compared to the control. Seedling emergence of rapeseed was reduced by 14, 25, 46, and 79% in the concentrations of 1, 2, 5 and 10%, respectively, as compared to the control whereas lemon balm extracts showed increased selectivity on the sunflower. Soybean emergence was reduced by only 27 and 46% in 5 and 10% concentrations, respectively, in comparison to the control whereas common bean’s seedling emergence was reduced up to 35% even in 2% concentration. Allelopathic response index values confirmed that sunflower and rapeseed were the least and most sensitive biomass crops to lemon balm allelochemicals, respectively, whereas sweet sorghum showed an intermediate response. Increased was the selectivity of the aqueous leaf extracts on soybean, whereas seed germination and seedling emergence of peanut were more affected and common bean was the most sensitive crop. Further research is needed to investigate the selectivity of M. officinalis and other aromatic plants’ allelochemicals on various crops and under different soil and climatic conditions to optimize their efficacy as tools of more eco-friendly weed management strategies.
Keywords: Melissa officinalis, allelopathy, selectivity, biomass crops, legume.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2020, 31(2):In Press
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.20.13

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Kanatas, P., Gazoulis, I., Kakabouki, I., Papastylianou, P. 2020. Aromatic plant Melissa officinalis extracts selectivity in various biomass crop and legume species. Agraarteadus, 31(2):In Press. doi: 10.15159/jas.20.13.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Agricultural Cooperative of Mesolonghi-Nafpaktia, 30200 Mesolonghi, Greece
2Agricultural University of Athens, 11855, Athens, Greece

 
Highlights: 
  • The effects of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) allelochemicals on seed germination and seedling emergence of three biomass crops and three legume species were evaluated.
  • Sunflower and rapeseed were the least and most sensitive biomass crops to lemon balm allelochemicals, respectively, whereas sweet sorghum showed an intermediate response.
  • Peanut seed germination percentage ranged between 72 and 47% of control in 5 and 10% concentrations, respectively, while soybean germination was least affected from M. officinalis leaf extracts since it was reduced by only 25 and 41% in 5 and 10% concentrations, respectively, as compared to the control.

Inha Kuznietsova1, Valentyna Bandura2, Vаdym Paziuk1, Oleksii Tokarchuk2, Ihor Kupchuk2
APPLICATION OF THE DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY METHOD IN THE STUDY OF THE TOMATO FRUITS DRYING PROCESS
In Press
Abstract
APPLICATION OF THE DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY METHOD IN THE STUDY OF THE TOMATO FRUITS DRYING PROCESS
Inha Kuznietsova1, Valentyna Bandura2, Vаdym Paziuk1, Oleksii Tokarchuk2, Ihor Kupchuk2
1Institute of Engineering Thermophysics of NAS of Ukraine, 2a, Zhelyabova str., UA 03057, Kiev, Ukraine
2Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3, Sonyachna str., UA 21008, Vinnytsia, Ukraine
Structural changes in the process of heating fresh fruit, sun-dried fruits and powder obtained from the dried tomato fruits were studied by differential scanning calorimetry method application. The kinetics of the shredded fruits in the dryer proves the prospects for using convective drying, which is performed for 295 minutes. The kinetic coefficients of drying and critical moisture content in the crushed fruits of tomato were determined. The kinetic coefficients were determined by the graphical-analytical method: a = 0.839, ln(α) = 1.3 and α (1 s–1) = 0.262. It was determined that the critical maximum moisture content for drying the shredded fruits of tomatoes is 1.503% mm–1, after what the process of combustion of vegetable tissue begins. The application of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method allowed the fuller study of the mechanism of drying the fruits of tomato in different condition: fresh, sun-dried and dried. It was determined that the greatest amount of energy is consumed to remove free moisture (1,993 J g–1) from the fresh tomatoes. At the same time, when being cooled, crystallization in plant tissue occurs with the release of energy in the amount of 0.03922 J g–1. When drying the previously sun-dried tomatoes the process of moisture removal and the partial decomposition of the compounds that are unstable to temperature is completed. At the same time, at the 129.61 °C temperature in the powder obtained from the fruits of tomatoes, melting of carbohydrates and other compounds occurred. Thus, this confirms the need to observe the normalized value of the mass fraction of moisture in the powders in the process of their packaging, storage and use. The basic technological system of production of powder from dried fruits of tomatoes is offered.
Keywords: tomatoes, drying, method, moisture, crystallization, carotene-containing raw materials.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2020, 31(2):In Press
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.20.14

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Kuznietsova, I., Bandura, V., Paziuk, V., Tokarchuk, O., Kupchuk, I. 2020. application of the differential scanning calorimetry method in the study of the tomato fruits drying process. Agraarteadus, 31(2):In Press. doi: 10.15159/jas.20.14.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Institute of Engineering Thermophysics of NAS of Ukraine, 2a, Zhelyabova str., UA 03057, Kiev, Ukraine
2Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3, Sonyachna str., UA 21008, Vinnytsia, Ukraine

 
Highlights: 
  • It has been proved that convective drying of the shredded tomato fruits is one of the promising ways of producing tomato powder. The values of kinematic coefficients (α = 0.839, ln(α) = 1.3, α(1 s–1) = 0.262) and the critical boundary moisture content (1.503% per mm) were determined.
  • It is determined that the most energy is consumed to remove free moisture (1 993 J h–1) in processing fresh tomato fruit.
  • The 129.61 °C temperature causes melting of carbohydrates and other compounds of the powder obtained from tomato fruits.

Raimo Kõlli, Karin Kauer, Tõnu Tõnutare
ORGANIC CARBON AND NITROGEN CONTENT IN ESTONIAN EROSION-AFFECTED SOILS
In Press
Abstract
ORGANIC CARBON AND NITROGEN CONTENT IN ESTONIAN EROSION-AFFECTED SOILS
Raimo Kõlli, Karin Kauer, Tõnu Tõnutare
Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Chair of Soil Science, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 5, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
The work is dedicated to the characterization of erosion-affected soils' (EAS) humus status (HS) in pedo-ecological conditions of South-Eastern Estonia. For understanding HS of EAS their organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (NT) sequestration capacities and the ratio C:N was studied by separate soil layers. The average data about soil OC and NT contents (g kg–1) and superficial densities (Mg ha–1) are given by arable soil species. The analysis of reflecting EAS HS on four research areas (Valgjärve, Otepää, Haanja and Mooste) was carried out on the basis of four different origin databases. The analysis of OC content is done by Tjurin and NT by Kjeldahl. In soil associations of erosion-affected areas' the following groups of soils were distinguished: eroded (E), deluvial (D), neutral (N) and non-eroded (En) soils.
The HC thicknesses of research area Valgjärve E soils are in limits 18–23 cm, D soils 30–65 cm and of En soils 22–27 cm. The medians of same soils OC concentrations are accordingly 9.4, 11.2 and 10.9 g kg–1 and ratios C:N accordingly 9.8, 9.4 and 10.2. The OC stocks given in the limits of quartiles are in E soils 24–36, D soils 51–143 and En soils 32–49 Mg ha–1. Therefore on eroded areas the perpetual continuums of soil properties' (among these HS) changes may be followed and it is very complicated to separate soil contours on 1:10 000 soil maps. In this work the transitional areas between E and D soils are characterized via N soils.
On erosion-affected areas the E and D soils form different soil associations with auto- and hydromorphic normally developed non-eroded soils, where very commonly as well the fluvial (abnormal) soils are presented. The relatively high pedodiversity caused by the areas high geodiversity, is the requisite to the high biodiversity. In erosion-affected regions is extremely important to maintain agricultural activity, as with this is ensured the persistence of naturally beautiful landscapes. The soil cover with EAS acts as accumulator of formed on the same area soil OC.
Keywords: erosion-affected soils, water and tillage erosion, total nitrogen, soil organic carbon, humus status, sustainable soil management, soil association.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2020, 31(2):In Press
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.20.21

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Kõlli, R., Kauer, K., Tõnutare, T. 2020. Organic carbon and nitrogen content in estonian erosion-affected soils. Agraarteadus, 31(2):In Press. doi: 10.15159/jas.20.21. (In Estonian)
or
Kõlli, R., Kauer, K., Tõnutare, T. 2020. Eesti erosioonist häiritud muldade orgaanilise süsiniku- ja lämmastikusisaldus. Agraarteadus, 31(2):In Press. doi: 10.15159/jas.20.21. (In Estonian)
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Chair of Soil Science, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 5, 51006 Tartu, Estonia

 
Highlights: 
  • Erosion of agriculturally used soils is one of the most important problems in the sustainability of country-side life and development of agricultural activity in East-Southern Estonia.
  • The eroded soils are distinguished by their intensity of erosion and calcareousness, but deluvial (colluvial) soils by their water regime and thickness of colluvial horizon.
  • In East-Southern Estonia the organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (NT) stocks’ (given in quartiles) are accordingly in eroded soils in limits 24–36 and 2–3 Mg ha–1, but of deluvial soils in limits 51–143 and 5–16 Mg ha–1.
  • The soil cover with a high percentage of erosion-affected soils acts as an accumulator of formed on the same area soil organic carbon.
  • The high pedo-diversity of erosion-affected areas caused by areas high geodiversity is the prerequisite for high plants’ and soil organisms’ biodiversity.
  • Pedo-ecologically sound use of erosion-affected soils is the main requisite for the persistence of naturally beautiful and with high recreative value agricultural landscapes.

BIO-FERTILIZER ACTIVITY OF TRICHODERMA VIRIDE AND PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS AS GROWTH AND YIELD PROMOTER FOR MAIZE
In Press
Abstract
BIO-FERTILIZER ACTIVITY OF TRICHODERMA VIRIDE AND PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS AS GROWTH AND YIELD PROMOTER FOR MAIZE
Bikram Nepali1, Subash Subedi2, Sabin Bhattarai1, Santhosh Marahatta1, Devashish Bhandari1, Jiban Shrestha3
1Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, 15, Bharatpur Metropolitan City, Chitwan, 44209, Nepal
2National Maize Research Program, Rampur, 15, Bharatpur Metropolitan City, Chitwan, 44209, Nepal
3National Plant Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Khumaltar, 15, Lalitpur Metropolitan City, 44700, Nepal
The bio-fertilizer potential of Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens on growth and yield performance of open-pollinated maize variety Rampur Composite was studied at the research farm of Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during the winter season of 2018/19. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with seven treatments (T1: recommended dose of NPK (120:60:40 kg NPK ha–1), T2: T. viride only, T3: P. fluorescens only, T4: T. viride + 50% NPK; T5: P. fluorescens + 50% NPK; T6: T. viride + P. fluorescens + 100 % NPK, T7: control) and replicated thrice. The package of agronomic practices was followed as per national recommendation. The result revealed that T. viride + 50% NPK enhanced most of the growth components like plant height (103%), leaf number (9.77%), stem diameter (73.98%), root length (40.57%), leaf area index (173.28%), leaf biomass (83.36%) and stem biomass (127.72%) of maize compared to the control. Similarly, the higher cob biomass (641 g), yield (5708 kg ha–1) and thousand kernel weight (295 g) were recorded in the plot applied to P. fluorescens + 50% NPK. The use of Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens with a half-dose of recommended fertilizers may increase the vegetative growth and yield of maize and may also help to reduce the rate of chemical fertilizers in maize.
Keywords: growth, maize, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Trichoderma Viride, bio-fertilizer, yield.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2020, 31(2):In Press
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.20.17

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Nepali, B., Subedi, S., Bhattarai, S., Marahatta, S., Bhandari, D., Shrestha, J. 2020. Bio-fertilizer activity of Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens as growth and yield promoter for maize. Agraarteadus, 31(2):In Press. doi: 10.15159/jas.20.17.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, 15, Bharatpur Metropolitan City, Chitwan, 44209, Nepal
2National Maize Research Program, Rampur, 15, Bharatpur Metropolitan City, Chitwan, 44209, Nepal
3National Plant Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Khumaltar, 15, Lalitpur Metropolitan City, 44700, Nepal


 
Highlights: 
  • The bio-fertilizer potentiality of Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens on maize growth and production was evaluated.
  • The application of Trichoderma viride along with 50 % of recommended fertilizer dose (120:60:40 kg NPK ha–1) increased the growth traits of maize.
  • The application of Pseudomonas fluorescens along with 50 % of recommended fertilizer dose (120:60:40 kg NPK ha–1) increased the yield and yield attributing traits of maize.
  • The use of Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens minimizes the usage of chemical fertilizers and reduces the cost of production.

Oleksandr Smirnov, Andrii Zinchenko, Leila-Аnastasiia Karpets, Mariia Kovalenko, Nataliya Taran
SHORT COMMUNICATION: CHANGES OF COMPATIBLE SOLUTES CONTENT IN TRITICUM AESTIVUM AND TRITICUM DICOCCUM SEEDLINGS IN RESPONSE TO DROUGHT STRESS
In Press
Abstract
SHORT COMMUNICATION: CHANGES OF COMPATIBLE SOLUTES CONTENT IN TRITICUM AESTIVUM AND TRITICUM DICOCCUM SEEDLINGS IN RESPONSE TO DROUGHT STRESS
Oleksandr Smirnov, Andrii Zinchenko, Leila-Аnastasiia Karpets, Mariia Kovalenko, Nataliya Taran
Educational and Scientific Centre "Institute of Biology and Medicine", Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13 Volodymyrska St, Kyiv 01601, Ukraine
The influence of drought stress modelling by polyethene glycol (PEG) on water status, total soluble protein, proline and carbo­hydrates content in the roots and leaves tissues of three drought resistance wheat genotypes – Triticum aestivum L. (Podolianka, Favorytka) and Triticum dicoccum Schrank. (Holikovska) have been studied. Tested varieties of bread wheat and emmer wheat presented the resilience-aniso­hydric strategy for water balance regulation retaining a high level of relative water content, great variability in organic solutes with osmo­protective properties (total soluble protein, total carbohydrates and free proline) accumulation and retaining the level of low molecular weight proteins in response to drought with noticeable distinctions amid the varieties. However, drought stress increased the efficiency of accumu­lation of osmoprotectants either protein or carbohydrate nature in all three tested varieties of wheat seedlings.
Keywords: drought stress, Triticum aestivum, Triticum dicoccum, osmoregulators, resilience-anisohydric strategy.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2020, 31(2):In Press
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.20.19

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Smirnov, O., Zinchenko, A., Karpets, L.-A., Kovalenko, M., Taran, N.  2020. Changes of compatible solutes content in Triticum aestivum and Triticum dicoccum seedlings in response to drought stress. Agraarteadus, 31(2):In Press. doi: 10.15159/jas.20.19.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
Educational and Scientific Centre "Institute of Biology and Medicine", Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13 Volodymyrska St, Kyiv 01601, Ukraine

 
Highlights: 
  • The response of three cultivars of wheat on polyethene glycol (PEG) modelling drought stress was evaluated.
  • The results show that the all analyzed drought resistance wheat genotypes – Triticum aestivum L. (Podolianka, Favorytka) and Triticum dicoccum Schrank. (Holikovska) presented the resilience-anisohydric strategy for water balance regulation.
  • It is determined that chemical dehydration increased the efficiency of accumulation of osmoprotectants either protein or carbohydrate nature in all three tested cultivars of wheat seedlings.

Olena Solona, Volodymyr Kovbasa, Ihor Kupchuk
ANALYTICAL STUDY OF SOIL STRAIN RATE WITH A PLOUGHSHARE FOR UNCOVERING SLIT
In Press
Abstract
ANALYTICAL STUDY OF SOIL STRAIN RATE WITH A PLOUGHSHARE FOR UNCOVERING SLIT
Olena Solona, Volodymyr Kovbasa, Ihor Kupchuk
Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3 Sonyachna St, UA 21008, Vinnytsia, Ukraine
The article is devoted to solving one of the most important tasks of substantiating rational design and technological parameters of the working body for the installation of elements of subsurface irrigation. To reduce the frictional resistance during pulling of intra-soil irrigation communications, it becomes necessary to form a cavity inside the soil. The energy efficiency of such a process is determined by the traction resistance and directly depends on the normal and shear stresses of the soil as a result of its relative deformation during interaction with a special working body – the share of a mole plough. The geometric shape and kinematic parameters of the share, together with the mechanical characteristics of the soil, have the greatest influence on the nature of the relative deformation. Therefore, the purpose of the article is to determine the functional dependences of the components of the soil deformation rates on the geometric and kinematic parameters of the working body surface. These equations are necessary to determine the stress components in the soil, which make it possible to determine the compaction of the soil on the walls of the formed cavity (molehill), as well as the components of the forces of resistance to the movement of the working body.
Keywords: subsoil irrigation, trenchless laying, molehill, geometric parameters, share, soil deformation rate.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2020, 31(2):In Press
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.20.22

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Solona, O., Kovbasa, V., Kupchuk, I. 2020. Analytical study of soil strain rate with a ploughshare for uncovering slit. Agraarteadus, 31(2):In Press. doi: 10.15159/jas.20.22.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3 Sonyachna St, UA 21008, Vinnytsia, Ukraine

 
Highlights: 
  • .

GROWTH AND YIELD RESPONSES OF POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L.) TO BIOCHAR
In Press
Abstract
GROWTH AND YIELD RESPONSES OF POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L.) TO BIOCHAR
Kalika Prasad Upadhyay1, Narayan Bahadur Dhami2, Prem Nidhi Sharma3, Janaki Datta Neupane1, Jiban Shrestha4
1National Potato Research Program, Khumaltar 15, Lalitpur Metropolitan City, 44700, Nepal
2Hill Crops Research Program, Baiteshwor 4, Kabre, Dolakha, Baiteshwor Rural Municipality, 45500, Nepal
3National Entomology Research Centre, Khumaltar 15, Lalitpur Metropolitan City, 44700, Nepal
4National Plant Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Khumaltar15, Lalitpur Metropolitan City, 44700, Nepal
The response of five types of biochar (Lantana camara, Ipomoea carnea, rice husk, sawdust, no biochar) on growth and yield attributes of potato was evaluated. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with six replications in rainfed areas of two different environments (Jiri in 2018 and Pawati in 2019) of Nepal. The popular early maturing potato variety 'Desiree' was used in the experiment. The spacing was maintained 60 cm between rows and 25 cm between plants in the plot size of 7.2 m2. Seed tubers were planted in the 1st week of February and harvested in the 4th week of May. Recommended fertilizers (100:100:60 kg ha–1 NPK + 20 t ha–1 farmyard manure) and biochars at 2 t ha–1 were applied to the soil. Seed tubers were completely covered with an equal amount of biochar before covering with the soil. The results revealed that the total yield and marketable yield of potato varied with biochars types. The potato tuber yield was found higher and red ants infestation was lower in plots applied with biochars as compared to control plots (without biochars). The use of biochars derived from Lantana camera produced the highest number of tubers (6.1 tubers plant–1), the greatest weight of tubers (286.1 g plant–1) and the least damage of red ants on tubers (4.7%) followed by sawdust (6.0 tubers plant–1, 263.6 g tuber weight plant–1 and 7.8% damaged tubers by red ants). The findings provide new information on the understanding of biochar effect on increased marketable yield of potato in rainfed lands by reducing damage from red ants.
Keywords: biochar, potato, red ant, yield.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2020, 31(2):In Press
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.20.18

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Upadhyay, K.P., Dhami, N.B., Sharma, P.N., Neupane, J.D., Shrestha, J.  2020. Growth and yield responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to biochar. Agraarteadus, 31(2):In Press. doi: 10.15159/jas.20.18.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1National Potato Research Program, Khumaltar 15, Lalitpur Metropolitan City, 44700, Nepal
2Hill Crops Research Program, Baiteshwor 4, Kabre, Dolakha, Baiteshwor Rural Municipality, 45500, Nepal
3National Entomology Research Centre, Khumaltar 15, Lalitpur Metropolitan City, 44700, Nepal
4National Plant Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Khumaltar15, Lalitpur Metropolitan City, 44700, Nepal


 
Highlights: 
  • The response of five types of biochar (Lantana camara, Ipomoea carnea, rice husk, saw dust, no biochar) on growth and yield attributes of potato was evaluated.
  • The application of biochars derived from Lantana camera produced the highest number of tubers (6.1 tubers plant–1), the greatest weight of tubers (286.1 g plant–1) and  the least damage  of red ants on tubers (4.7%).
  • It has been proved that the application of biochar increases marketable yield of potato grown in red ant prone areas.

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