2008 * XIX * 1

A. Bender, R. Aavola, P. Sooväli.  
  Seed production agrotechnics of chewings fescue "Herbert" 3
Seed production agrotechnics of chewings fescue ´Herbert´. Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute carried through two cycles of field experiments in 2001–2006 to elaborate seed production techniques for chewings fescue cultivar 'Herbert'. We studied the impact of sowing time (10 and 24 May, 10 and 24 June), sowing rate (4, 6, 8 and 10 kg ha–1), drill space (15, 45 and 60 cm) and the application rate and time of nitrogenous fertiliser (N 70 kg ha–1 in spring + 35 kg in the second half of summer, N 70 kg ha–1 in spring + 70 kg in the second half of summer, N 105 kg ha–1 in spring + 35 kg in the second half of summer and N 105 kg ha–1 just in spring without nitrogen application in late summer) on the seed yield and quality. In another experiment the storage life of viable seeds was monitored in a warehouse with uncontrolled environment. The efficacy of five herbicides or their mixtures in controlling shortlived dicotyledonous weeds on the seed production field of chewings fescue in sowing year and their impact to the first seed crop was explored in a field trial. The appearance of plant pathogens was followed. The infection levels were recorded during four visual observartions at plant tillering, flowering and full maturity of the seeds and on post-harvest aftermath. Based on the results a guide for seed production of chewings fescue cv. 'Herbert' was compiled. This is summed up at the end of current paper.
Keywords: sowing date, sowing rate, drill space, fertilization, seed yield, 1000 seed weight, seeds’ germination
S. D. Kiru, E. V. Rogozina.  
  Use of vir potato collection's genetic diversity as initial material for breeding 13
Use of VIR Potato collection’s genetic diversity as initial material for breeding. The Potato Collection of the N.I.Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry is one of the biggest in the world. It totals about 9000 accessions including 3000 accessions of wild and 3500 of cultivated species, 2100 of bred varieties, 400 of interspecific hybrids and dihaploids. Accessions of cultivated species, hybrid clones and bred varieties are preserved in vitro. The initial material with a complex of valuable traits including resistance to fungal, viral, bacterial diseases and pests has a special importance for modern breeding programs. The main source of genes that control resistance to diseases and pests are the wild and cultivated species. Complex evaluation of hundreds of samples is carried out annually at VIR and its experimental stations. As a result, valuable material for breeding has been selected. Crossability of wild potato species belonging to the series Acaulia Juz., Glabrescentia Buk., Commersoniana Buk., Demissa Buk., Longipedicellata Buk., Simpliciora Buk., Megistacroloba Card. et Hawk., Transaequatorialia Buk. (=Tuberosa wild Hawkes, =Bukasoviana Gorbat.) with species of other series and bred cultivars has been investigated.
Keywords: potato, collection, accession, traits, resistance, breeding
J. Kuht, E. Reintam, E. Nugis, L. Edesi, K. Trükmann.  
  Barley plants stress depending on soil degradation due to soil compaction 19
Barley plants stress depending on soil degradation due to soil compaction. A field experiment carried out on the experimental area of Estonian University of Life Science on Stagnic Luvisol soil. For soil compaction the hard tractor (total load 4.44 Mg) has been used. The induce compaction was done by wheel traffic applied uniformly to cover the entire of the full experimental plots: 1 time, 3 times and 6 times. The measuring with the microelectrode the cellular fluid pH directly from plants is a quick method for explaining soil qualities. By using intracellular pH measurements we can detect easily the most suitable soil condition for plant growing. For the chemical analysis of plants the Kjeldhal method was used to determine the nitrogen content in plants of barley. In our experiments the intracellular pH indicated very well the critical level of soil bulk density for barley growth, which was 1.52– 1.60 Mg m–3 in sandy loam soil depending on number of compaction. For soil bulk density in plough layer 1.52 Mg m3 (the cellular fluid pH had increased with higher soil density, particularly steeply on space of soil bulk density 1.52–1.58 Mg m–3). The drastic decrease of nitrogen content started at the same soil bulk density values, where the cellular fluid pH suddenly increased. The level of the degree of intracellular fluid pH (CpH) is the most favorable which corresponds to the conditions CpH = 0.01, and on the contrary if CpH = 1.00 then degree of CpH is maximum worst level.
Keywords; Soil bulk density, barley, cellular fluid pH, degree of cellular fluid pH, soil degradation, plant stress
S. Tölp, P. Piirsalu.  
  Nutritional requirements for dairy goats 23
Nutritional requirements for dairy goats. The total number of goats in Estonia is low and the importance of goat husbandry is modest in Estonia. However, the goat population has increased and duplicated during the last ten years from 1700 goats in 1997 to 3400 goats in 2007 (Piirsalu, 2007). Although goat husbandry has low economic importance as regards the national income, it provides employment for a large number of rural families living in small holdings in Estonia. Most breeders keep small non-commercial herds for home consumption of milk, cheese or for hobby purposes, with the exception of a growing number of commercial milk producers. During the last years bigger farmers got problems with feeding their animals as there were not national nutritional requirements existing for dairy goats in Estonia and farmers could not use rationed feeding. The aim of this study was worked out by publications the nutrient requirements for lactating dairy goats, for growing kids and for billy goats of the Estonian local goat breed.
Keywords: Feeding goats, compiling nutritional requirements, nutritional requirements for lactating dairy goats, nutritional requirements for dairy kids, nutritional requirements for billy goats, DM concentrations of nutritional factor.
A. Valdovska, A. Jemeljanovs, M. Pilmane.  
  Fungi and growth factors in liver of mink infected with Aleutian disease 33
When mink are infected with Aleutian disease, the immune protection is impaired. In the present work we have studied the prevalence of fungal flora in the liver of 18 dark brown minks infected with Aleutian disease. We isolated 12 genus of moulds. Members of the genus Candida, Aspergillus and Penicillium were the most frequently isolated strains. Our results demonstrated that the distribution of hyphae were between hepatocytes in all areas of liver acinus, but yeastlike cells – mainly in interlobular bile ducts.We studied VEGF and HGF expression by immunohistochemistry. Results suggested the expression of VEGF in blood vessels (around central veins) and mainly in periportal hepatocytes, consequently, this factor is expressed in areas of the liver, which are moderately and/or richly supplied with oxygen. Allocation of HGF in hepatocytes was observed uniform or non uniform, frequently around bile-ducts and portal tracts.In conclusion, detection of VEGF and HGF simultaneously to inflammation liver might be connected to the tissue ischemia and damage realized by the same inflammatory cells.
Keywords: mink, liver, mycoses, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)
J. Vanags, H. Jirgena.  
  Application of PEST-SWOT method in strategic planning of agriculture 40
The development of agricultural sector is influenced by a number of internal and external factors. The internal factors in this case mean the factors, which are developed inside the country as the result of a purposeful activity or, on the contrary, inactivity of the government. After accession to the European Union, economy of Latvia is influenced by economic and social policy of the European Union as well as external factors influencing the economic development of EU to a great extent. The totality of these factors is forming the group of external factors. This paper only outlines the most significant factors influencing the sector of agriculture and their possible impact on the development of the explored object. It is very important to discover these factors and evaluate them. Commonly in these cases SWOT method or PEST method is used. The paper demonstrates a possibility to use a new approach for identification and evaluation of external and internal factors – PEST – SWOT and SWOT – PEST methods.
Keywords: agricultural strategy, SWOT analyses, PEST analyses