2018 * XXIX * 2

CONTENTS

DIRECT LINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/2018_2_contents.pdf

RESEARCH ARTICLES

Toomas Kramarenko1,2, Kadrin Meremäe1, Jelena Sõgel3, Maiu Kuningas2, Annika Vilem2, Liidia Häkkinen2, Mihkel Mäesaar2, Terje Elias1, Mati Roasto1
OCCURENCE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 IN ESTONIAN DAIRY FARMS AND BEEF PRODUCTION CHAIN IN 2005–2014
89–94
Abstract
OCCURENCE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 IN ESTONIAN DAIRY FARMS AND BEEF PRODUCTION CHAIN IN 2005–2014
Toomas Kramarenko1,2, Kadrin Meremäe1, Jelena Sõgel3, Maiu Kuningas2, Annika Vilem2, Liidia Häkkinen2, Mihkel Mäesaar2, Terje Elias1, Mati Roasto1

1Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56/3, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
2
Estonian Veterinary and Food Laboratory, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 30, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
3
The Veterinary and Food Board, Väike-Paala 3, 11415 Tallinn, Estonia

Escherichia coli O157:H7 human infections are mostly associated with consumption of raw or undercooked beef and raw milk. Ruminants, especially cattle are the main reservoir of the pathogen. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle dairy farm and beef production level in Estonia. It was found that E. coli O157:H7 is present at both the dairy farm and slaughterhouse level. The occurrence of the pathogen at Estonian dairy farm level was 1.2% from 1312 cattle's sampled. At slaughterhouse level 744 hide swabs were taken from which 30 (4.0%) were positive to E. coli O157:H7. Both stx1 and stx2 genes were determined from isolates and often the combination of both genes was found to be present. Minimal inhibitory concentration was determined for 30 E. coli O157:H7 isolates which revealed 26.7% of multiresistant isolates. In 2009–2010 in a total of 188 beef samples were analysed, which all were negative for O157:H7.
Keywords: Escherichia coli O157: H7, cattle, STEC serogroups, virulence markers, drug resistance.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2018, 29(2):89–94
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.18.09

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Kramarenko, T., Meremäe, K., Sõgel, J., Kuningas, M., Vilem, A., Häkkinen, L., Mäesaar, M., Elias, T., Roasto, M. 2018. Occurence of Eserichia coli O157:H7 in Estonian dairy farms and beef production chain in 2005–2014. Agraarteadus, 29(2):89–94. doi: 10.15159/jas.18.09 (In Estonian)
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56/3, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
2
Estonian Veterinary and Food Laboratory, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 30, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
Highlights: 
  • A total of 1312 cattle’s were tested on the dairy herd level, of which 16 (1.2%) were positive for Escherichia coli O157: H7, and a total of four dairy cattle farm was found to be positive for E. coli O157:H7.
  • At slaughterhouse level 4% (CI95 2.8-5.7%) of the hide samples taken from the brisket area were found to be positive for E. coli O157:H7.
  • Combinations of STEC virulence genes stx2a + eae, stx1a stx2a + eae ja stx2a + eae were determined among isolates obtained from slaughterhouse level, which points to their high potential to cause severe illness in humans.
  • In total of 12 (40%) E. coli O157:H7 isolates from the slaughterhouse level were resistant against one or more antimicrobials.
  • At the meat cutting level, all 188 beef samples tested were negative for E. coli O157: H7.

Raimo Kõlli1, Tõnu Tõnutare1, Tarmo Kõlli2
REVIEW: PSEUDOPODZOLIC SOILS IN ESTONIAN SOIL COVER
95–105
Abstract
REVIEW: PSEUDOPODZOLIC SOILS IN ESTONIAN SOIL COVER
Raimo Kõlli1, Tõnu Tõnutare1, Tarmo Kõlli2
1Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Chair of Soil Science, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 5, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
2Viru Õlu Ltd Haljala, Rakvere Road 7, 45301 Haljala, West-Viru County, Estonia

In actual review, the main morphological properties of the Pseudopodzolic soils and the principles of their dividing into soil species (identified by soil genesis) and varieties (divided on the basis of soil texture) are treated. The compiling of actual review is caused by the fact that Pseudopodzolic soil was elected by the Estonian Soil Science Society for the Estonian year 2018 soil. In the introductory part, the special attention is paid to the problems connected with the naming of these soils. Although the soil introducing is done after Estonian Soil Classification principles, for characterization of soil properties and functioning the qualifiers of WRB are largely used in it. In the work, the two layers of soil (1) the soil humus cover (pro humus form) or humipedon and (2) soil cover or solum as a whole are treated separately. The data on soil properties are presented separately as well for arable and forest soils giving their comparative analysis and dealing with the changes in soil properties in connection with land use change. Substantial part of the work is consecrated (1) to the soil-plant cover and to the Enchytraeidae living in forest soils' humipedon, (2) to the soil productivity and peculiarities of their usage in agriculture and forestry, and (3) to the distribution of Pseudopodzolic soils in Estonian soil cover and to the association of Pseudopodzolic soils with other soil species.
Keywords: pseudopodzolic soil, Estonian year 2018 soil, Enchytraeidae, soil properties, humus cover type (pro humus form).
Source: Agraarteadus, 2018, 29(2):95–105
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.18.12

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Kõlli, R., Tõnutare, T., Kõlli, T. 2018. Review: Pseudopodzolic soils in Estonian soil cover. Agraarteadus, 29(2):95–105. doi: 10.15159/jas.18.12 (In Estonian)
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Chair of Soil Science, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 5, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
2
Viru Õlu Ltd Haljala, Rakvere Road 7, 45301 Haljala, West-Viru County, Estonia
Highlights: 
  • Pseudopodzolic soils (denoted on soil maps by a code LP) have been elected by Estonian Soil Science Society for the year 2018 soil of Estonia.
  • By the WRB (2015) these soils may be characterized as Fragic Stagnic Glossic Retisols (Abruptic, Siltic/Loamic, Humic).
  • For the dominating textures of the Pseudopodzolic soils are loamy and silty loamy sands on moraine origin loams.
  • For the dominating humipedon types of Pseudopodzolic soils in forests are fresh and moist moders, but on arable lands the umbric type humus horizons.
  • Pseudopodzolic soils have the highest productivity among whole Estonian forest soils and among South Estonian arable soils.
  • The main constraints in using of Pseudopodzolic soils in quality of arable lands are (i) accumulation temporarily of perched water into the topsoil, (ii) low content of humus and calcium in the humipedon, and (iii) the formation of plow pan under the humus horizons.

Peep Piirsalu1, Tanel Kaart2, Jaak Samarütel1, Silvi Tölp1, Aire Ilves1, Hanno Jaakson1, Irje Nutt1
EFFECT OF ADDITIONAL OAT SUPPLEMENTATION IN FORAGE-BASED FEEDING DURING GESTATION AND LACTATION PERIODS ON EWE BODY CONDITION, PERFORMANCE, BLOOD GLYCOSE AND β-HYDROXYBUTYRATE CONCENTRATION IN ORGANIC FARM
106–114
Abstract
EFFECT OF ADDITIONAL OAT SUPPLEMENTATION IN FORAGE-BASED FEEDING DURING GESTATION AND LACTATION PERIODS ON EWE BODY CONDITION, PERFORMANCE, BLOOD GLYCOSE AND β-HYDROXYBUTYRATE CONCENTRATION IN ORGANIC FARM
Peep Piirsalu1, Tanel Kaart2, Jaak Samarütel1, Silvi Tölp1, Aire Ilves1, Hanno Jaakson1, Irje Nutt1
1Estonian University of Life Science, Chair of Animal Feeding, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 62, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
2Estonian University of Life Science, Chair of Animal Breeding and Biotechnology, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 62, 51006 Tartu, Estonia

The aim of this study was to estimate the feeding strategies of pregnant and lactating ewes fed only silage/hay or supplemented with concentrates (oat) on the ewe body condition score (BCS), production of ewes (lambs born per ewe lambed (LB), lambs born alive per ewe lambed (LBA), lambs born dead per ewe lambed (LBD), lamb birth weight (LBW), lamb 100 day weight (L100DW)) and ewe blood glycose and β-hydroxy­butyrate (BHB) concentrations. The Estonian White Face and Texel ewes (107 ewes) were divided into two similar groups: the experimental group (59 ewes) and control group (48 ewes). For 45–60 days before lambing (from 90th–105th day of gestation) the experimental ewes were fed in addition to forage feeds (silage, hay or pasture grass) 0.22 kg of organic oat per day (totally 10 kg in gestation period) and 0.3 kg of oat during suckling period (totally 13.5 kg per ewe). The control group of ewes were fed only with forage-based rations (silage, hay, pasture grass) without cereals. Ewe BCS was assessed before mating, on 130–140 day of pregnancy, after lambing (following 7th–10th day), during the 2nd suckling months (45–60 suckling day) and at weaning of lambs by two observers during the whole study. It was concluded that additional feeding of minimal amount of oats increased the ewes BCS in the experimental group at 130–140 day of pregnancy (BCS was respectively 3.36 and 2.97, p < 0.001) and on the 45–60th suckling day (BCS respectively 2.84 and 2.52, p < 0.001) compared with control ewes, but did not affect BCS of ewes at the end of the experiment (at weaning). Production traits (LBA, LBW, L100DW) nor ewes blood glycose and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations at the 130–140 days of preg­nancy and 7–10 days after lambing were not affected by supplementation of oat to ewes' diet.
Keywords: ewe body condition score, ewe production, oat supplementation, forage-based feeding, glycose, β-hydroxybutyrate, organic farm.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2018, 29(2):106–114
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.18.13

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Piirsalu, P., Kaart, T., Samarütel, J., Tölp, S., Ilves, A., Jaakson, H., Nutt, I. 2018. Effect of additional oat supplementation in forage-based feeding during gestation and lactation periods on ewe body condition, performance, blood glycose and β-hydroxybutyrate concentration in organic farm. Agraarteadus, 29(2):106–114. doi: 10.15159/jas.18.13 (In Estonian)
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Estonian University of Life Science, Chair of Animal Feeding, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 62, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
2Estonian University of Life Science, Chair of Animal Breeding and Biotechology, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 62, 51006 Tartu, Estonia

Highlights: 
  • Additional feeding of oats (220 g per ewe for 45–60 days before lambing and 300 g per ewe during 45 days after lambing) in forage-based feeding increased the ewes body condition score (BCS) at 130–140 day of pregnancy and on the 45–60th suckling day, but did not affect BCS of ewes at the end of experiment (at weaning).
  • Production traits (LBA, LBW, L100DW), nor ewes blood glycose and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations at the 130–140 day of pregnancy and 7–10 days after lambing were not affected by supplementation of oat to ewes' diet.
  • Ewe blood glycose concentration was on 130–140 day of pregnancy 76.8 mg dl-1 in experimental group (with oat supplementation) and 76.7 mg dl-1 in control group (without oat supplementation), β-hydroxybutyrate concentration was respectively 0.51 mmol l-1 and 0.72 mmol l-1 (p=0.35).

Aziz Mahdi Abd Al-Shammari1, Mohammed Ali Abood2, Ghassan Jaafar Hamdi1
TECAMIN FLOWER® FOLIAR APPLICATION TO ALLEVIATE WATER DEFICIT EFFECTS ON GROWTH, YIELD AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF TOMATO
115–120
Abstract
TECAMIN FLOWER® FOLIAR APPLICATION TO ALLEVIATE WATER DEFICIT EFFECTS ON GROWTH, YIELD AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF TOMATO
Aziz Mahdi Abd Al-Shammari1, Mohammed Ali Abood2, Ghassan Jaafar Hamdi1
1Department of Horticulture and Landscape, College of Agriculture, University of Diyala, Iraq
2Department of Soil Science and Water Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Diyala, Iraq

During drought chemical elements in a dry fertilizer go into solution in the soil with difficulty and the nutrients are less available to the plant. Foliar fertilization with Tecamin flower®, could compensate for nutrient deficiency due to water deficit. This study was designed to observe the effects of different application rates of foliar application of Tecamin flower® on growth, yield and field water use efficiency (CWUE) of tomato under water deficit. The field experiment was conducted from March till July 2016 at the teaching and research farm of Diyala University, Iraq. Performance of tomato genotype 'Bobcat', 'Finenss' and 'Hadeer' was assessed by foliar application of Tecamin flower® at (0 and 2.5 mL L-1) and two irrigation levels (50 and 100% based on field capacity). The results showed that chlorophyll content, fruit weight, yield per plant, total yield and CWUE were significantly affected by genotype and irrigations levels and application of Tecamin flower®. 'Bobcat' genotype has the highest value of plant yield (3.39 kg) and total yield (90.19 t ha-1). 'Finenss' has the highest values for number fruit per plant (40.75), CWUE (75.37 kg m-3) and the minimum leaf proline content (2.584 mg g-1). Plant irrigated at 100% had the highest value of number fruit (35.27 fruit), most yield per plant (3.53 kg), total yield (94.02 t ha-1) and minimum leaf proline content (2.557 mg g-1). The highest CWUE (84.50 kg m-3) were at 50% level. Plant treated at 2.5 mL L-1 Tecamin flower® had most fruit/plant (37.61) yield per plant (3.73 kg), total yield (99.16 t ha-1), CWUE (85.22 kg m-3) and minimum leaf proline content (2.437 mg g-1).
Keywords: Solanum lycopersicum, genotype, foliar application, Tecamin flower®, water stress.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2018, 29(2):115–120
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.18.10

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Al-Shammari1, A. M. A., Abood, M. A., Hamdi, G. J. 2018. Tecamin flower® foliar application to alleviate water deficit effects on growth, yield and water use efficiency of tomato. Agraarteadus, 29(2):115–120. doi: 10.15159/jas.18.10
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Department of Horticulture and Landscape, College of Agriculture, University of Diyala, Iraq
2Department of Soil Science and Water Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Diyala, Iraq

Highlights: 
  • Foliar application of Tecamin flower® played a role in alleviating negative impact of water deficit, and improved plant growth, yield and CWUE.
  • Plant irrigated at 100% level had the largest number fruit per plant, yield per plant, total yield and minimum leaf proline content, compared with other treatment.
  • Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum from the Solanaceae family) is an important, popular and nutritious vegetable all over the world. It plays a vital role in providing a substantial quantity of vitamins C, A and lycopene in human diet, and is also an effective anti-oxidant exhibiting high quenching ability for singlet oxygen.
  • Plant irrigated at 100% had the highest value of number fruit (35.27 fruit), most yield per plant (3.53 kg), total yield (94.02 t ha-1) and minimum leaf proline content (2.557 mg g-1).
  • The highest CWUE (84.50 kg m-3) were at 50% level.
  • Plant treated at 2.5 mL L-1 Tecamin flower® had most fruit/plant (37.61) yield per plant (3.73 kg), total yield (99.16 t ha-1), CWUE (85.22 kg m-3) and minimum leaf proline content (2.437 mg g-1).

Budi Winarto1 and Samijan2
AXILLARY SHOOTS DERIVED FROM SHOOT TIPS IN IN VITRO MASS PROPAGATION OF ANOECTOCHILUS FORMOSANUS HAYATA
121–130
Abstract
AXILLARY SHOOTS DERIVED FROM SHOOT TIPS IN IN VITRO MASS PROPAGATION OF ANOECTOCHILUS FORMOSANUS HAYATA
Budi Winarto1 and Samijan2
1Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute, Jln. Raya Ciherang, Pacet-Cianjur 43253, West Java Indonesia
2Central Java Assessment Institute for Agriculture Technology, Jl. Soekarno Hatta KM.26 No.10, Kotak Pos 124, Tegalsari, Bergas Lor, Bergas, Semarang, 50552 Central Java, Indonesia

Axillary shoot proliferation in in vitro mass propagation of Anoectochilus formosanus was successfully established via selection of different explant types, accessions and culture media to plantlet acclimati­zation. In the initiation stage, shoot tips and Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 1.5 mg l-1 N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.25 mg l-1 α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) were determined as high potential explant and medium for axillary shoot regeneration of A-1 and A-2 accessions of A. formosanus compared to others. High axillary shoots up to 7.0 shoots per explant with 1.0 cm shoot height and 9.8 leaves per explant derived from shoot tip explants of A-1 accession were signify­cantly induced and proliferated in MS medium supplemented with 1.25 mg l-1 BAP and 0.25 mg l-1 NAA. Higher root formation up to 2.4 roots per shoot and 1.0 cm root length of A-1 accession was easily prepared on Hyponex medium (2 g l-1 20N:20P:20K) containing 150 ml l-1 coconut water (CW). While high survival rate of acclimatized plantlets as high as 90.4 % was successfully done by planting them in plastic boxes containing a mixture of burned rice-husk and organic manure (1:1, v/v) after 2 months. In the study, it was also revealed that in in vitro culture of A-1 accession of A. formosanus showed higher response compared to A-2 accession in all in vitro culture stages. The successful established protocol expected can be applied for preparing high-quality planting materials for commercial purposes and developing new route of in vitro mass propagation for other species of A. formosanus.
Keywords: accession, explant, medium, tissue culture, Anoectochilus formosanus.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2018, 29(2):121–131
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.18.11

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Winarto, B., Samijan. 2018. Axillary shoots derived from shoot tips in in vitro mass propagation of Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata. Agraarteadus, 29(2):121–131. doi: 10.15159/jas.18.11
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute, Jln. Raya Ciherang, Pacet-Cianjur 43253, West Java Indonesia
2Central Java Assessment Institute for Agriculture Technology, Jl. Soekarno Hatta KM.26 No.10, Kotak Pos 124, Tegalsari, Bergas Lor, Bergas, Semarang, 50552 Central Java, Indonesia

Highlights: 
  • In vitro mass propagation of Anoectochilus formosanus is important tool to support development of the plant commercially
  • Each accession of the A. formosanus has specific response and behavior in in vitro culture
  • Establishment of initial culture affected by explant types, accession responses and culture media were a critical point for A. formosanus.
  • Each step of the in vitro culture needed specific culture medium.

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