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I. Jõudu, M. Henno, S. Värv, H. Viinalass, T. Püssa, T. Kaart, O. Kärt.  
  Ülevaade Eesti veiste piima laapumisomadustest ja seda mõjutavatest teguritest 3
Milk rennet coagulation properties in Estonian dairy cattle and factors affecting it. A review. This article summarises Ivi Jõudu’s PhD thesis: Effect of milk protein composition and genetic polymorphism on milk rennet coagulation properties. Milk rennet coagulation parametres were detected during the years 2001–2005 totally from 8,282 milk samples, collected simultaneously with milk recording from 1,269 cows represented all dairy breeds in Estonia (58.4% EHF, 29.5% ER and 9.9% EN). Percentages of noncoagulated and poorly coagulated (E30 < 20 mm) milks were 3.6%, and 16%, respectively. Milk rennet coagulation properties were influenced by stage of lactation, breed, milk composition, and milk protein genotypes. Milk coagulation properties were at their best at the beginning of lactation, deteriorated quickly during the first three months of lactation, were worst during midlactation, and subsequently improved during the second part of lactation. All measured rennet coagulation parameters were significantly better for the κ-Cn BB, and worse for the κ-Cn AA, AE, and EE genotypes. Cows of the Estonian Native and Estonian Red breeds, giving milk with better coagulation properties, had higher frequencies of the κ-Cn B allele. The frequency of the κ-Cn B allele, associated with better coagulation properties, has considerably decreased in Estonian Holstein cows. Higher contents of milk protein, casein and all the studied protein fractions (αS1-, αS2-, β-, κ-Cn and β-Lg), and the casein number reduced the rennet coagulation time and formed a firmer curd.
Keywords: milk rennet coagulation properties, noncoagulated milk, milk protein content, genotypes of milk proteins, Estonian dairy cattle breeds
R. Lauk, M. Noormets, M. Alaru.  
  Põllukultuurid energiataimedena 15
2007/2008 were investigated different field crops productivity in natural, mineral fertilizer and sludge treatments.The field crops productivity was studied in a case of pure and mixture sowings. The biomass chemical composition including heavy metals were studied. Aims for current research work were (i) to find out the species and the species mixtures, that could be cultivated in Estonian conditions for the energy biomass production; (ii) to estimate the species and cultivars suitability for burning or biogas production. The highest above ground biomass was obtained from variants with maize cultivars, which were fertilized with sludge.The percentage of maize in above ground biomass was over 50% only in variants fertilized with sludge and slush, in other variants the weeds formed the major part of above ground biomass. The above ground biomasses of maize + vetch mixes and hemp + vetch mixes were statistically equal to control variants N0. SPAD-meter readings determined in flowering stage of plants showed very low chlofophyll content in plants leaves. The availability of nitrogen by plants was in mix variants probably too low and chlorophyll content in leaves in flowering stage correlated significantly with above ground biomass at harvest time. The biological nitrogen bound by Rhizobaceae probably is not available for other plants in the first vegetation period, or the sowing rate of vetch was too high and competition between plants results in low above ground biomass.The content of heavy metals did not exceed the limit, but DM amount applied to the soil with wastewater sludge was too high and the using of this sludge in the same place will be possible after 3 years.
Keywords: maize, hemp, wastewater sludge, slush, above ground biomass
P. Piirsalu, T. Kaart.  
  Tõu mõju eesti tumedapealiste ja eesti valgepealiste tallede võõrutusmassile ja uttede pesakonna suurusele 19
Breed effect on the lamb weaning weight and ewe litter size of the Estonian Blackface and the Estonian Whiteface sheep. During the past 40 years, several imported breeds of sheep have been used to develop the Estonian Blackface and Estonian Whiteface sheep. In most cases these breeds have been in breeding programmes as the improvers of the Estonian Blackface and Estonian Whiteface sheep. The choice of breeds was based on the necessity to achieve a considerable improvement in performance data of those traits what is planed to improve. To effect genetic change through selection, the growth rate of lambs (lamb weaning weight) and ewe litter size have both been considered important factors affecting the profitability of sheep farming. During Soviet period the choice of breed was in some cases occasional. Over the past 40 years, the German Blackface, Latvian Blackface, Oxford Down and Suffolk have been used to develop the Estonian Blackface sheep. Ile de France, Dala, Texel, Dorset and Icelandic breeds have been introduced into the Estonian Whiteface Sheep. At the same time the Estonian Blackface sheep have been crossed with the Estonian Whiteface sheep as well as with other sheep breeds not included in the breeding programme as improvers of a certain breed at that period of time. Thus, due to using numerous different sheep breeds both the Estonian Blackface and the Estonian Whiteface sheep are nowadays considered to belong to the composite or synthetic breeds with contributions of many improvers. In Estonia, there are no so-called "pure-bred" sheep, possessing only the genes of the Estonian Blackface and Estonian Whiteface sheep. The contemporary statistical methods enable determine the genetic effect of long-term using of different breeds on most significant performance data, whereas all environmental factors, such as temporal and other effects, are excluded from the analysis. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of breed (breed type) on the lamb weaning weight and ewe litter size of the Estonian sheep and to rank different breeds and breed types by estimated breed effects on the weaning weight and ewe litter size.
Keywords: sheep breeding, breed effect, sheep breeds, lamb weaning weight, ewe litter size
R. Põldaru, J. Roots.  
  Modeling milk cost in Estonia: a stochastic frontier analysis approach 25
This paper presents a formulation of stochastic frontier models for milk cost in Estonia. Two distinct models of milk cost were investigated. A balanced panel of 45 Estonian farmers observed during the period 2001 to 2006 was used. For the models parameter estimation a computer program FRONTIER Version 4.1 was used. The results for various specifications were compared and discussed. The results from stochastic frontiers model analysis were compared with the results of OLS. Predicted cost efficiencies of the Estonian farmers were compared under the different model specifications. This analysis demonstrated that stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) can be implemented for parameter estimation of econometric models and for predicting the cost efficiency of milk cost in Estonian farms.
Keywords: stochastic frontier analysis, cost (economical) efficiency, panel data, milk cost
T. Sõõro.  
  Rapsiõli – diiselmootori üks alternatiivkütuseid 34
Rapeseed oil – one of alternative fuels of diesel engine. The need to find solutions for problems concerning engine fuels, like the limited oil resources and rise in fuel prices, growing environmental pollution and economic and political tensions, also the necessity not to depend on the energy market, have made alternative fuels, such as bio-fuels, increasingly attractive. The present article gives an outline of using pure rapeseed oil as a possible alternative fuel for diesel engines, its advantages and disadvantages, the technical problems involved; and also how reasonable it is to use them. Rapeseed oli is not a competitive alternative fuel for diesel engines neither now nor will be in the near future. If the state economic policies support production, small scale producing of rapeseed oil and limited use for diesel fuel may be considered. German technologies, rapeseed oil engines and tractors have to be used and experience taken into consideration then.
Keywords: diesel engine, fuel, rapeseed oil
H. Tikk, A. Lember, H. Kaldmäe, S. Kuusik, V. Tikk, J. Hämmal, M. Piirsalu, O. Reimand.
  Erinevate vutipopulatsioonide ristamise tulemusi 41
In professional literature on quail breeding, there are only a few data about the growth, feed intake and meat quality of quail populations and their crosses. In the present study, the growth, feed intake, slaughter yield, the proportion of breast and leg muscles in carcasse and the chemical and fatty acid content of the breast and leg muscles of six quail populations in three trials were compared. At the age of 42 days, the average body mass of White meat quails was 254.1 g, feed intake 3.29 kg/kg, slaughter yield 72.5% and proportion of breast muscle in carcasse 29.7%. Regarding growth, feed intake and meat characteristics, White meat quails were followed by Pharaoh quails, crossed quails (White meat quail × Estonian quail) and Estonian quails (egg-meat quail breed). The study indicated that under the classification typical of Europe White meat quails, Pharaoh quails and crosses aged 42 days suit well for the production of the so called heavy quail broilers, Estonian quails for the production of quail broilers of medium weight.
Keywords: Estonian, Pharaoh and White meat quails, meat quality
R. Värnik, R. Tamm, J. Leetsar, J. Krusealle, A. Moor.
  Põllumajanduspoliitika võimalused maamajandusliku ühistegevuse arendamiseks 48
Opportunities of agricultural policy for developing rural economic co-operation. The present article reviewes political opportunities for developing rural economic co-operation in Estonia. On the basis of conducted opinion surveys and other research activities several measures have been developed and presented. In authors opinion the implementation of the proposed measures at governmental level would remarkably impact rural development as a whole through the development of economic co-operation. Recommended political measures have been grouped by the authors and could be implemented as a solid complex or selectively at different levels of state authority.
Keywords: co-operation, agricultural policy, rural development, opinion survey, rural society
O. Saveli. 
  Akadeemilise põllumajanduse seltsi 20 aastat aastad 1989–2001 60