2007 * XVIII * 1

H. Kaldmäe, A. Olt, M. Ots, O. Kärt, E. Songisepp.  
  Effect of biological additive on fermentation and nutritive value of red clover-timothy silage 9
Due to the low fermentation coefficient (27.5) of red clover-timothy mixture, it is necessary to use additives in order to make high-quality silage from it.
The objective of the study was to select a proper biological additive for ensiling red clover-timothy mixture. DM losses during silage fermentation, organic matter digestibility and fermentation quality were studied.
Test silages were ensiled in 3-litre jars. Four different biological silage additives I-1, I-2, I-3, I-4, and chemical additive AIV 2000 were used.
The use of biological or chemical additives decreased silage DM losses by 2.1 to 3.1 times. DM losses were the lowest (7.7%) when additive I-3 was used.
Treatment with biological additive with lactic acid bacteria concentration 8×109 cfu/g significantly improved the fermentation quality of clover-timothy silage: pH 4.0–4.1, ammonia-N in TN 1.1–2.0%, lactic acid content 43–71 g/kg and butyric acid content 0–3 g/kg in DM.
Organic matter digestibility of the treated silage improved up to 10% as compared to that of the untreated silage (P<0.0001).
All studied biological additives improved ensilability of the red clover-timothy mixture with low DM content. Biological additive I-3 appeared to be the most suitable for treating that kind of silage material.
Keywords: biological additive, silage, red clover, quality of fermentation.
K. Kolk, I. Linnik, R. Pällin, T. Püssa.  
  The content of cholesterol of Estonian yoghurt and ice cream 20
The people with elevated risk of coronary heart disease are advised to control their nutritional habits and limit the consumption of milk products, to decrease the amount of cholesterol in their diet. Although the recents results of investigation show that some milk products rather decrease than increase the blood cholesterol level, many people are reluctant to consume milk products because the content of cholesterol is not known. The article presents the results of measurement of the content of cholesterol of 8 yoghurts and 10 ice creams produced in Estonia, by gas chromatography. The concentration of cholesterol was also calculated by the fat percentage of the products. The experimentally determined contents of cholesterol were found in good agreement with the calculated values in case of yoghurts, while in ice cream the experimental values were lower, due to vegetable fats containing in the ice creams. Based on the linear correlation between fat percentage and cholesterol content of yoghurt, the cholesterol content of milk fat – 393 mg/100 g was found. Accordingly, the content of milk fat of ice creams can be determined by the concentration of cholesterol.
Keywords: cholesterol, nutrition, milk products, milk fat, gas chromatography.
R. Pällin, T. Püssa, R. Soidla, A. Tsahkna, S. Kuusik, M. Rei.  
  The use of herbal supplements for increasing the healthiness and storage stability of MDCM burgers 31
The storage stability of burgers made from mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) was investigated. Ten different types of burgers were subjected to the test. The main components of the burgers were mechanically deboned chicken meat, water, soy concentrate, breadcrumbs and salt. The effects of 3% and 6% of linseed oil or dodderseed oil with and without added seabuckthorn (SB) berry powder as in antioxidants on lipid oxidation were studied. The burgers were cooked in the microwave oven for three minutes in 800 W and stored at +6 °C. The rancidity was assessed by measuring of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) on the cooking day (0), on the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th day. It was concluded that the addition of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids accelerates the lipid oxidation measured by TBARS value and the addition of SB powder decreases the formation of oxidation products during 12 days of storage up to 3–5 times.
Keywords: mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM), functional food additive, linseed oil, dodderseed oil, sea buckthorn, TBARS.
E. Rihma, O. Kärt, K. Mihhejev, M. Henno, I. Jõudu, T. Kaart.  
  Effect of dietary live yeast on milk yield, composition and coagulation properties in early lactation of Estonian holstein cows 37
A total of 69 Estonian Holstein cows were assigned into treatment groups after calving. Groups were balanced by parity and milk yield of the previous lactation. Milk yield of the cows before the experiment was 30.5 ± 0.86 kg, on average. Treatments were either a control (C) diet or a diet supplemented with live yeast (LY). For 100 days all cows were fed a total mixed ration (TMR), containing 11.9 MJ ME and 173 g CP per kg DM. The cows of the treatment group were fed supplemental pure viable live yeast Levucell SC (CNCM I 1077) 0.5 g/d per cow, premixed with 50 g of chalk. The cows of the control group were fed 50 g chalk without LY.
Yeast supplementation significantly (P = 0.0082) accelerated the increase in milk yield during early lactation and compared to the pre-experimental period, the cows of the LY group achieved significantly (P=0.0165) higher milk yield than those of the control group. Feeding viable LY had no significant effect on milk composition or coagulation properties.
Keywords: Estimated Breeding Values (EBV), Estonian Holstein (EH), curd firmness (E30), live yeast (LY), rennet coagulation time (RCT).
Ü. Tamm, H. Küüts.  
  Agronomic and grain quality characteristics of new European malting barley varieties 45
The field experiments were carried out in 2003–2005 at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute in Estonia to investigate the agronomic and quality characteristics of the European malting barley varieties. 14 malting barley varieties of Northen region of European Brewery Convention (EBC) were included in the trials. Grain yield, 1000 grain weight, grading rate, protein content and germination at the 3rd day were measured in the malting barley trial. Most of the varieties showed lower grain yield than standard. The average grain yield of German variety ‘Cruiser’ was significantly superior compared to standard variety 'Scarlett' and Danish variety 'Power' was on the same level as standard variety. Majority of the varieties indicate high level of 1000 grain weight. The average grading was sufficient. The protein content met the requirements of malting barley. The germination at 3rd day was very good in 2003–2005.
Keywords: malting barley varieties, grain yield, grain quality.
H. Tikk, A. Lember, V. Tikk.  
  The possibilities of enriching the lipids of Estonian quail broiler meat with ω-3 fatty acids 57
In the trials carried out at Järveotsa quail farm (Estonia) the suitable amounts of linseed oil and linseed cake in the feed of quail chicks and the duration of feeding linseed oil and linseed cake to quail broilers were investigated.
During the I stage of the experiment, 200 Estonian quail were used (5 trial groups with 40 quail in each); during the II stage, 4 additional trial groups were added with 20 quail in each. Thus, 280 young quail in total participated in the experiment.
The quail chicks were kept in similar conditions, but their feeding differed, depending on the trial group. Mixed concentrated quail feed was used which contained either 1.5 or 3.0% linseed oil or 15 or 30% linseed cake for the trial groups. Linseed cake contained 10% linseed oil. There was no linseed oil or linseed cake in the mixed concentrated feed of the control group. The mixed concentrated feed contained 24.2% raw protein and 12.96 MJ metabolizable energy.
The chicks of the I, II, IV, VI and VIII trial group were weighed on their 21st day of life and from each group 5 quail cocks and 5 quail hens with average body mass were slaughtered.
The quail chicks from the trial groups III, V, VII and IX were raised together until their 21st day of life, after which groups were formed, consisting of 20 young quail. The trial birds were weighed on their 42nd day of life, after which 5 cocks and 5 hens from each group were slaughtered. After slaughtering the carcasses were weighed and the dressing percentage was calculated. The breast muscles and liver were weighed. The content of ω-3 fatty acids in the breast muscle lipids was measured.
Keywords: quail broilers, linseed oil, linseed cake, meat productivity of quail broilers, fatty acid composition of quail meat.
A. Tsahkna, T. Tähtjärv.
  Cultivation of potato varieties in different locations in Estonia 72
Due to different conditions and requirements in various locations, many potato varieties exist all over the world. Some varieties can be grown in many places and have a wide range of usability, while others are meant for very specific purposes or for specific environmental conditions.
The aim of this paper was to find out how the same potato variety may be affected by different soil and weather conditions.
Higher plausible yields of tuber were at three locations in Tartu, except the variety 'Maret', affected by more moisture retaining soil. Kuusiku and Jõgeva tests did not have any credible differences between the varieties 'Anti', 'Piret' and the breed 1182-97.
Most of the varieties and breeds tested at Jõgeva, except the breed 649-94, had credibly the highest weight of tuber; the lowest was in Tartu. At the same time the amount of tubers per plant was the lowest at Jõgeva and the highest in Tartu. There was no credible difference in the average weight of tuber or it was minimal at Jõgeva and Kuusiku. The same tendency could be noticed about the amount of tubers per plant.
The variety 'Piret' and the breed 1182-97 did not have any credible differences in marketable tubers. The biggest difference in marketable tubers between different locations had the variety 'Maret', in which case for example in Kuusiku it had 18% less marketable tubers than in Tartu and 16% less than at Jõgeva.
The varieties at Kuusiku had credibly the highest starch content.
The results of tests show that the same variety planted in different locations in Estonia also has differences in yield factors.
Keywords: potato variety, precipitation, soil, location, yield of tuber, weight of tuber, tubers per plant, marketable tubers, starch content.