2019 * XXX * Special Issue 2

AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY 100

CONTENTS

DIRECT LINK
http://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/contents/2019_si2_contents.pdf

RESEARCH ARTICLES

Anni Enn, Eda Merisalu
THE PREVALENCE OF WORK ACCIDENTS IN ESTONIAN AGRICULTURE IN 2008–2017
23–31
Abstract
THE PREVALENCE OF WORK ACCIDENTS IN ESTONIAN AGRICULTURE IN 2008–2017
Anni Enn, Eda Merisalu
Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Biosystems Engineering, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu
Occupational accidents in agriculture are a problem all over the world. The costs of accidents are high to the employer and to the national economy as a whole. Work-related ill-health and injury is costing the European Union 3.3% of its GDP. In Estonia, the estimates of the costs of work accidents (WA) in 2012 showed €2.4 billion per year and due to permanent lost workability €25 billion costs in total for society. Even if the most sectors become more automated, there are also self-employed farmers, who cannot always use the newest technologies. At the same time, family members and farm workers are facing risks higher than in most other occupations. Many accidents involve the handling of machinery or animals. The objective of the study was to analyse fatal and non-fatal work accidents by demographic parameters, severity, type, causes and body location of injuries in Estonian agriculture in 2008–2017. Method. The database of accidents in agriculture was obtained from the Estonian Labour Inspectorate and the data by absolute numbers, percentages and incident rates have described. Results. The total number of accidents at work in agriculture was 1696, which formed 4% from the total economic sector. The average incident rate in the past decade was 678 accidents per 100 000 workers. Predominantly minor accidents and usually among male workers have taken place. There are mainly 3 types of injuries – wounds and superficial injuries (40.4% of the total), bone fractures (25.6%) and concussion and internal injuries (16.2%). The most common causes of work accidents are lack of internal control (20.3%), poor instruction (18.5%) and other factors (18.1%). The most often locations of the injuries throughout the years were upper or lower limbs (35.7% and 33.0% respectively). The biggest number of accidents was taken place at Järva county.
Keywords: work accidents, agriculture, gender, severity, location, regional distribution.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2019, 30(SI1):23–31
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.19.11

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Enn, A., Merisalu, E. 2019. Tööõnnetuste levimus eesti põllumajanduses aastatel 2008–2017. Agraarteadus, 30(SI2):23–31. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.11
Enn, A., Merisalu, E.
2019. The prevalence of work accidents in Estonian agriculture in 2008–2017. Agraarteadus, 30(SI2):23–31. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.11 (In Estonian)
  
AUTHOR CONTACT
Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Biosystems Engineering, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu, Estonia

  
Highlights: 
  • The incidence rate of work accidents in agronomy sector is higer in some years, than in all the economic sectors together.
  • The total number of work accidents is highest in the sub-sector crop and animal production.
  • Predominantly minor accidents and usually among male workers have taken place but in the crop and animal production more among female workers.
  • There has also been many severe and fatal work accidents, than could have been avoided with cause analysis.
  • Most oftenly wounds and superficial injuries take place in the upper and lower limb as a location. Severe work accidents take place with men and in the foresty sub-sector.
  • The biggest incidence rate of accidents was taken place at Järva county.

Valerij Karpov1, Artem Nemtsev1, Toivo Kabanen2, Alo Allik2, Andres Annuk2
DETERMINATION OF EFFICIENCY IN THE DESIGN PHASE OF THE ENTERPRISE BY THE METHOD OF FINITE RELATIONS
32–38
Abstract
DETERMINATION OF EFFICIENCY IN THE DESIGN PHASE OF THE ENTERPRISE BY THE METHOD OF FINITE RELATIONS
Valerij Karpov1, Artem Nemtsev1, Toivo Kabanen2, Alo Allik2, Andres Annuk2
1Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian University, Pushkin-1, Box No 1, 196600, St.-Petersburg, Russia
2
Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Energy Application Engineering, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu, Estonia

The algorithm for estimating engineering solutions at the design stage in terms of the relative energy intensity by the method of finite relations (MFR) has been considered. The description and diagram of an energy consumption system serving as the base object in the analysis of energy efficiency for the manufacturing of products have been given. The basic features of using the method of finite relations at the design stage have been investigated. Based on energy estimation, the usefulness of the integrated approach to design for improving the energy efficiency of industrial enterprises has been proved. The aim of this paper is to describe the current approaches to solving energy-saving issues arising at the enterprise design stage to substantiate the possibility of using MFR to optimize design solutions in terms of energy efficiency. To achieve the aim set at the beginning of the paper, we consider an example from the book 'Industrial pumping systems' (Stasinopoulos et al., 2012, p. 165) with the basic formulas and design values preserved. The main design tasks are to select the pump power P and determine the diameter of the pipeline D. The analysis of the given design solutions with the help of the MFR has clearly demonstrated the significant advantages of the integrated design approach over the traditional one. As a result, the use of the integrated approach to design made it possible to reduce the consumed design energy by 88% and the relative energy intensity QPe(project) from 10.468 to 1.215.
Keywords: energy efficiency, energy intensity, the energy consumption system, method of finite relations.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2019, 30(SI2):32–38
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.19.12

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Karpov, V., Nemtsev, A., Kabanen, T., Allik, A., Annuk, A. 2019. Determination of efficiency in the design phase of the enterprise by the method of finite relations. Agraarteadus, 30(SI2):32–38. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.12
  
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian University, Pushkin-1, Box No 1, 196600, St.-Petersburg, Russia
2
Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Energy Application Engineering, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu, Estonia


  
Highlights: 
  • The analysis of the given design solutions with the help of the method of finite relations has clearly demonstrated the significant advantages of the integrated design approach over the traditional one.
  • The introduced additional indicator of energy efficiency – relative (dimensionless) energy intensity of the process according to the project data made it possible to evaluate the energy efficiency of the process at the design stage with the help of the method of finite relations.
  • The algorithm proposed in the paper allows the use of the method of finite relations  to evaluate the examples of design decisions discussed in the here by the relative energy intensity index and to select the most optimal solution from the energy efficiency aspect.
  • To achieve the highest possible energy efficiency indicators of the enterprise's technical system, it is necessary to optimise the energy indicators of an enterprise at the stage of its creation and design study.

Valerij Karpov2, Jevgenij Zhguliov2, Toivo Kabanen1, Alo Allik1, Andres Annuk1
ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF CONSUMPTION – METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION
39–43
Abstract
ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF CONSUMPTION – METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION
Valerij Karpov2, Jevgenij Zhguliov2, Toivo Kabanen1, Alo Allik1, Andres Annuk1
1Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Energy Application Engineering, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
2
Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian University, Pushkin-1, Box No 1, 196600, St.-Petersburg, Russia

Technical, economic, and social need to define and control the efficiency of energy usage – consumer energy efficiency implies the necessity to determine the exact contents of this new concept. A deeper analysis of a consumer energy system in order to support the consumer energy efficiency value appropriate for the contents should be carried out to find the factors that affect the value. This article shows that for the purposes of advanced energy consumption analysis, the consumer energy system becomes an integral part of the whole energy system (starting with the energy generation facility) which forms the demand for the produced energy and its usage efficiency. The consumer energy system is so important that in the course of developing and improving the electric supply and consumption systems, it questions the traditional priority of the first component (energy supply) and adaptive dependence of the second one. This article proves, inter alia, that manufacturers can raise their consumer energy efficiency by improving the production technology, using materials with new properties, modernizing the energy equipment, switching to automatic enterprise design systems and using other means commonly known as scientific and technical progress.
Keywords: energy saving, finite relations method, energy efficiency, product energy contents, energy differentiation, the structure of energy contents.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2019, 30(SI2):39–43
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.19.13

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Karpov, V., Zhguliov, J., Kabanen, T., Allik, A., Annuk, A. 2019. Energy efficiency of consumption – methods of analysis and evaluation. Agraarteadus, 30(SI2):39–43. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.13
  
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Energy Application Engineering, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
2
Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian University, Pushkin-1, Box No 1, 196600, St.-Petersburg, Russia
 

  
Highlights: 
  • To get a comprehensive presentation of the variety of the processes and the types of energy and equipment involved in farming, it is sufficient to divide the processes into static and mobile.
  • This article shows that for the purposes of advanced energy consumption analysis, the consumer energy system becomes an integral part of the whole energy system (starting with the energy generation facility) which forms the demand for the produced energy and its usage efficiency.
  • As common handling energetic processes proceeded evaluation from an input energy to through efficiency to end used energy.
  • This approach allows recognizing usefully used energy in the process and then find ways to arise efficiency of the process(es).

Veli Palge1, Andres Grigor2
CASE REPORT: ANALYSIS OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION AT PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION BY USING AN AUTOCLAVE ON A FARM
44–50
Abstract
CASE REPORT: ANALYSIS OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION AT PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION BY USING AN AUTOCLAVE ON A FARM
Veli Palge1, Andres Grigor2
1Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Energy Application Engineering, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
2Filter Ltd, Ilmatsalu 1, 50412 Tartu, Estonia
The purpose of this article is to analyze the causes and distribution of autoclave energy consumption between the various stages of the technological process and identify ways to reduce energy costs. It was found that the recovery of waste heat is the most effective way to reduce energy consumption.
Keywords: energy cosumption, autoclave, food product
Source: Agraarteadus, 2019, 30(SI2):44–50
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.19.14

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Palge, V., Grigor, A. 2019. Case Report: Analysis of energy consumption at processing of agricultural production by using an autoclave on a farm . Agraarteadus, 30(SI2):44–50. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.14
Palge, V., Grigor, A. 2019. Juhtumianalüüs: Energiakulu analüüs põllumajandustoodangu väärindamisel talus autoklaavi abil . Agraarteadus, 30(SI2):44–50. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.14 (In Estonian)
  
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Energy Application Engineering, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
2Filter Ltd, Ilmatsalu 1, 50412 Tartu, Estonia


  
Highlights: 
  • On farms, the autoclave is preferable to other products because of the ability to heat different products and packaging of different designs and materials. 
  • Although the technology involved in the autoclave is energy-intensive and there are intensive energy transfers, this does not mean that the power sources used must be high in power. The energy needed to heat the product in the autoclave can be collected in the form of superheated steam in a steam collector.
  • Autoclave work can be organized by heat recovery, which allows the use of lower power sources.
  • The steam can be produced using bio, wind or solar energy, which will make the work of the autoclave carbon neutral.

Boris Reppo, Jüri Kuzmin
PULSAVI: A METHOD FOR DETERMINING AND ASSESSING THE WORKLOAD AND ENERGY EXPENDITURE OF WORKERS
51–55
Abstract
PULSAVI: A METHOD FOR DETERMINING AND ASSESSING THE WORKLOAD AND ENERGY EXPENDITURE OF WORKERS
Boris Reppo, Jüri Kuzmin
Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Biosystems Engineering, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
Human-centred evaluation of technology and work techniques requires the determination of the workload category and the internal workload, which is the internal response of the worker to exposure to external load factors in the work environment. The aim of this paper is to present a method for a human-centred analysis of the work process. The method requires the worker's physiological data, which is used to process their wirelessly transmitted heart rate. The processed heart rate is combined with a video feed and displayed in real time on a computer. This allows monitoring the worker's actions and the corresponding workload category, total energy expenditure, work-related energy expenditure, and base metabolic rate. Using the method does not interrupt the work process and it is possible to save the data for further analysis. The method has been recognised as an invention and is protected with patent EE 05807 B1.
Keywords: heart rate, workload, work process, patent.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2019, 30(SI2):51–55
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.19.15

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Reppo, B., Kuzmin, J. 2019. PULSAVI: a method for determining and assessing the workload and energy expenditure of workers. Agraarteadus, 30(SI2):51–55. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.15
Reppo, B., Kuzmin, J. 2019. PULSAVI meetod töötaja töö raskusastme ja energeetilise koormatuse määramiseks ja hindamiseks. Agraarteadus, 30(SI2):51–55. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.15 (In Estonian)
   
AUTHOR CONTACT
Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Biosystems Engineering, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu, Estonia

  
Highlights: 
  • The PULSAVI method belongs to the field of ergonomics and allows determining the difficulty level of work and the total energetic workload of a person based on their heart rate and physiological data.
  • This is required for analysing and assessing the working processes, technologies, and techniques and is achieved by recording the physical and physiological data of the worker on a computer, transmitting changes in heart rate, recording the person’s activity with a camera, processing the data on a computer with an application program, and displaying the results in real time using a computer screen interface, while assessing (in real time or later, based on recorded footage) the suitability of working technologies (techniques, postures) for the
    person without interrupting them.

Vladimir Shkrabak1, Sergei Levashov1, Roman Shkrabak1, Vasily Kaljuga1, Eda Merisalu2, Toivo Kabanen2
ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERVENTIONS FOR PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS
56–61
Abstract
ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERVENTIONS FOR PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS
Vladimir Shkrabak1, Sergei Levashov1, Roman Shkrabak1, Vasily Kaljuga1, Eda Merisalu2, Toivo Kabanen2
1Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian University, Pushkin-1, Box No 1, 196600, St.-Petersburg, Russia, E-mail:
2
Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Energy Application Engineering, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu, Estonia

Transition to the concept of professional risk management assumes the transfer of focus from measures of response to accidents after they have happened to activities for preventive measures, i.e. risk management of workers' health. The strategy of "reactive" response within the framework of the traditional system of managing occupational safety of workers focused primarily on compensating for the negative consequences of accidents. However, it does not focus on eliminating the systemic causes of their occurrence and, as a result, does not lead to positive changes in reducing traumas and injuries. The results of the analysis of the socio-economic efficiency of this strategy suggest the need for a transition to a different type of occupational safety management – which is "proactive", therefore the priorities are not the management of "occupational environment", but the management of "employee work safety", based on identification and assessment of professional risks. The calculation of the economic efficiency of measures for employee protection and the prevention of industrial injuries on the example of agricultural workers in the Kurgan region was the aim of the present study.
Keywords: work safety, traumas, efficiency of safety management.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2019, 30(SI2):56–61
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.19.16

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Shkrabak, V., Levashov, S., Shkrabak, R., Kaljuga, V., Merisalu, E., Kabanen, T. 2019. Analysis and evaluation of effectiveness of interventions for prevention of occupational accidents. Agraarteadus, 30(SI2):56–61. doi: 10.15159/jas.19.16
  
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian University, Pushkin-1, Box No 1, 196600, St.-Petersburg, Russia, E-mail:
2
Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Energy Application Engineering, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu, Estonia


  
Highlights: 
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Published 11-29-2019