2012 * XXIII * 2

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J. Kuht, T. Tõrra, A. Makke, J. Kilgi, J. Kutti  
  Suvinisu väetamine lähtuvalt kasvukoha taimetoitainete sisaldusest 3
The aims of this study was to investigate the site-based fertilization effect on spring wheat yield and compare it with conventional fertilization system. The trial was carried out in 2011 in two locations: 1) on the experimental field of the Estonian University of Life Sciences near the Tartu in Eerika, and 2) on the farm field of Pilsu producting farm. In the trial two factors influence on spring wheat yield were investigated: 1) soil organic carbon content (high level (A) – 1.85% and low level (B) – 1.44%; and 2) fertilization system ( sitebased and conventional). In the Eerika experimental field the spring wheat cultivar (cv) “Manu” and in the Pilsu farm producting field cv “Specific” were used. The spring wheat yield was significantly influenced by soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and phosphorus content. The soil potassium content influence on the yield level was lower, but the influence on the yield uniformity was considerable. In dry climatic conditions in 2011 the best fertilization system for both A and B phons was the fertilization with mineral NPK fertilizers at sowing time and additonally during the growing season based on plants need. Wheat yield ranged between 1.7–4.0 Mg ha–1 in Eerika experimental field, which was in A phon 2.9–4.0 Mg ha–1, and in B phon 1.7–3.0 Mg ha–1. The highest yield level 4.0 Mg ha–1 was got from A phon fertilized with liquid manure. The highest yield level in Pilsu farm field was got from variant fertilized with mineral fertilizer by site-based information, additionally during growing period by information of plants need (4.3 Mg ha–1) followed by variant fertilized only with mineral fertilizer by sitebased information (4.2 Mg ha–1).

Keywords: spring wheat, soil nutrients, organic carbon, precision fertilization, liquid manure

K. Nigul, H. Korjus, A. Kangur  
  Vääriselupaikade kordusinvesteerimine Järvseljal 11
Current paper presents the re-inventory results of woodland key habitats in Järvselja Training and Experimental Forest Centre. The current status of the concept of woodland key habitats in Estonia is described and discussed. The status of 31 re-inventoried key habitats in Järvselja forests indicate that 29 out of the originally listed key habitats are well maintained, for two the status is more close to potential key habitat. In addition to re-inventory a full inventory of new key habitats on 21 forest compartments covering the area of 298.4 hectares was carried out. Three new key habitats and also one previously described key habitat were inventoried in detail with the total area of 8.41 hectares. The study results indicate that woodland key habitats need continuous monitoring of their protection values and purposes for sufficient habitat protection.

Keywords: woodland key habitat, forest inventory, Järvselja.

J. Olt, M. Arak  
  Motoplokk-tüüpi mustikakombaini korjehaspli konstruktsioon ja arendus 21
This paper approaches the features of designing the picking reel of blueberry harvester. The design of picking rake was based on the resistance of rake teeth to repeated bending during the work process. This quality was evaluated according to the plastic deformation rate of rake teeth material. Repeated bending experiments were performed to test the characteristics of the material of rake teeth, during which the aggressiveness of the bend was modified. An experiment under real-world conditions, i.e. a field experiment, was conducted to examine the results of laboratory experiments.

Keywords: product design, blueberry harvester, picking reel, rake teeth, plastic deformation.

P. Piirsalu, J. Samarütel, S. Tölp, I, Nutt, M. Vallas  
  Mahelammaste söötmine, uttede toitumus ning jõudlus sigimistsükli erinevatel perioodidel 27
Feeding organic ewes, ewe body condition and production over the reproduction cycle. Sheep have different nutritional requirement over the production cycle depending on the stage they are going through. Needs for energy are high at the end of gestation (especially for ewes carrying multiple lambs) and at beginning of the lactation. Ewe body condition scoring is a tool for evaluation feeding status in farm.
In 2010–2012, field trial were carried out in three different sheep farm. On each of the organically farmed test farms (Farm A, B and C) rations were prepared and samples of feeds were analysed to check that they met nutritional requirements. Ewe’s body condition scores were measured at weaning, at tupping and at lambing and production data (ewe litter size, lamb birth weight and lamb 100 day weight) were obtained from the Estonian sheep recording database "Pässu".
During the free period between weaning and tupping, while at pasture, the ewes all improved their condition scores (0.93). It was estimated that the ewes consumed from 6–8 kg of forage per day. Most of the ewes at tupping had body condition scores between 3–4 (in farm A 91.2% of ewes; in farm B and in farm C respectively 97.8% and 94.1%). This shows that the pasture area and pasture quality was sufficient for maintenance. During gestation, on all of the test farms, the ewes were fed hay for the first four months. From the fourth month they were fed a mix of hay and silage (farm A, B) or hay and whole oats (farm C).
There was a mean loss in body condition score from lambing to tupping of 0.42, and on each farm were losses in condition. To cover the energy demands energy is mobilised from body tissue. Offering only forage during this period cannot support the nutritional demands of gestation. In farm C oats were also fed during this period, and the loss in condition score was less than on the other farms (0.35). The greatest loss was on the farm A (0.47). Adding silage to the ration can satisfy the protein demand. Our analyses has shown that the most problematic period for nutritional status on organic farms is the gestation period.
During the beginning of the suckling period ewes were kept inside in the barn and fed with the winter ration. The diet consisted of hay and silage (farm B) silage only (farm A) or a mix of hay and oats (farm C). There were moderate mean body condition losses on the test farms (0.27 points) in the suckling period, when more energy is needed for milk production. Feeding oats (0.3 kg per ewe per day) during the suckling period covered energy demand but not the protein demand. As there were so few thin ewes there was insufficient data on these for meaningful statistical analysis and therefore there were no clear relationships found with the ewe litter size. On farm A, ewes with a score below three had fewer lambs per lambing than ewes with a score of 3–4. The same tendency was seen for the total of all farms. There were no significant linear correlations between ewe body condition scores and litter size. This is because some may be too thin, some may be too fat and the litter size will decline. The ewes of a score of three and less were grouped and within this group there was a significant correlation between ewe body condition score at tupping on the ewe litter size (+ 0.21).
The influence of ewe body condition score (on tupping) on the lamb birth weight and 100 day body weight was analysed. There wasn’t a clear tendency with the ewe body condition score and lamb birth weight in ewes with body condition between 3–5, but ewes with body condition score less than 2.5 have lighter lambs on birth (single lambs 7% and multiple born 11.3% less compared with ewes scored 3).
However, it seems that a better birth weight of lambs was obtained from ewes with body condition score 3 at tupping rather than from ewes with scores 3.5 and between 4–5.
Also, the data showed that the weaker-fed ewes (body condition score ≤ 2.5 at mating) reared lambs with lower 100 days body weight.
There wasn’t a clear tendencies between well fed and overfed ewes (score 3–5) and their lambs body weight at 100 day in all three farms, as the trends were different in separate farms. However, on the average, it appeared that the optimal ewe body condition score was 3 and 3.5 at the tupping, because their lambs had higher growth rate than from ewes having body condition score 2.5 or 4–5.

Keywords: sheep feeding, rations for organic ewes, evaluation ewe body condition scores, lamb birth weight, lamb 100 day weight, ewe litter size.

R. Põldaru, J. Roots 36
  Eesti toiduainetega isevarustamise võimaluste modelleerimine  
Environmental crises, warfare, trade disruptions and the supply shocks in the global food markets are all potential threats to national food security in developed countries. In order to cope with various crisis scenarios sufficient domestic food production capacity is particularly important. Using the
mathematical programming model of food supply, we investigate the possibility for improving the food selfsufficiency in Estonia. The objective function of the linear programming model is to minimize the sown area of field crops. The problem can be formulated as follows: produce the necessary amount of agricultural commodities, food and feeding stuffs, given the constraints of calories and proteins consumption per day per capita per food item. The Estonia's food supply and demand system accommodates food commodity flows from various supply regions (farms) to final demand sectors (population of Estonia). The model consists of 161 variables and 176 constraints (equations). By using the mathematical programming model, we obtained the following results for the improvement strategies of food self-sufficiency of Estonia. The total optimal sown area of field crops equals to 337.6 thousand ha. There should be 85.4 thousand dairy cows and 387.2 thousand pigs. Numerical results show that Estonia's self-sufficiency could get to 100% if production of domestic products instead of import holds, given the constraints of calories and proteins consumption per day per capita per food item. MS Excel’s Solver was used to solve the model.

Keywords: food security, food self-sufficiency, linear programming model, Estonian agriculture.

S. Tölp
  90 aastat loomakasvatusalast katse- ja uurimistööd – katsejaamad, katselaudad, katsemajandid 45
90 years of scientific research in the field of animal husbandry – experiment stations, experimental livestock units, experiment farms. The beginning of research on animal husbandry in Estonia dates back to year 1921, when the Animal Breeding Experiment Station (Zootehnika Katsejaam) was established at Raadi. The Experiment Station consisted of an experimental cowshed, where during 18 years a total of 170 long-term feeding trials were carried out under the supervision of Professor Jaan Mägi. The Experiment Station was involved in studying local feeds as well as providing practical training opportunities for the students.
In 1937 another animal research facility was built at Raadi – the Small Animal and Poultry Breeding Experiment Station (Väikelooma- ja Linnukasvatuse Katsejaam), founded and supervised by Professor Elmar Liik. Despite the fact that the new cowhouse of the Experiment Station was destroyed in 1944, its short-time activities positively contributed to the development of research in the field of small animal and poultry breeding.
For nearly 20 years (1971–1990) the Räni experimental cowshed (Räni katselaut) served as the basis for scientific research performed by the Chair of Animal Nutrition of the Estonian Agricultural Academy. Optimal use of protein feeds, possibilities of covering the protein requirement of dairy cows, and feeding chopped roughage to cattle were investigated under the supervision of Professor Ülo Oll. In the result of the longterm research work, the recommended dietary allowances for metabolizable energy, digestible protein and mineral elements for local breeds of cattle were established.
The research activities of the Eerika experimental cowshed (Eerika katselaut), built in 1971, were focused on elaboration and implementation of effective milk production technologies. Possibilities of automation of different labour tasks in dairy farming were investigated. In 1992–2008 digestibility trials and physiological investigations were conducted by the researchers as well as Master's and PhD students of the Department of Nutrition. The experimental cowshed also served as the basis for students' practical training.
The Põlula Research Farm (Põlula Katsefarm) was founded as an autonomous unit at OÜ Maasikamäe Piimakari. Trials were carried out on the farm from 4 November 2000 to 31 May 2005. The TMR feeding system was introduced, and the effectiveness of feed consumption and factors affecting renneting properties of milk of different breeds of cattle were studied. Metabolic investigations revealed the relationships between cow's body condition score at parturition and the metabolic profiles, production performance and fertility parameters.
Besides the experimental livestock units of the University, research in the field of animal husbandry was also performed at the Kuusiku Testing Station (Kuusiku Katsejaam), the Õisu Experimental Dairy Farm (Õisu Piimanduse Katsejaam), the Kuremaa Pig Testing Station (Kuremaa Seakasvatuse Katsejaam), the Tori Stud (Tori Hobusekasvandus) and the Kuusalu Experimental Apiary (Kuusalu Katsemesila).
In 1947, the Institute of Animal Breeding and Veterinary Medicine was founded as a subordinate institution at the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR. The Institute was comprised of nine research departments and two laboratories, whereas the structure of the Institute changed constantly throughout its existence. In 1956, the Institute was subordinated to the Ministry of Agriculture of the Estonian SSR, and renamed the Estonian Research Institute of Animal Breeding and Veterinary Science. Over the years, several experiment farms were established at the Institute. The major task of the Institute was to advance and improve pedigree breeding of cattle. Different research projects related to improving the keeping technology of cattle as well as developing and operating large-scale dairy farms have been conducted. In 1994, the Institute of Animal Husbandry at the Estonian Agricultural University was established through the merger of the Institute of Animal Husbandry of the Estonian Agricultural University and the animal research departments of the Estonian Research Institute of Animal Breeding and Veterinary Medicine. At that time the Institute was the only leading research institution for animal sciences in Estonia. On January 1, 2005 the Estonian Research Institute of Animal Breeding and Veterinary Medicine was merged with the Veterinary Faculty of the Estonian University of Life Sciences.
Currently, animal research is being carried out in the Märja Experimental Dairy Cow House (Märja Katselaut). Opened in 2008, the modern experimental facility meets the research and training needs of the Estonian University of Life Sciences.

Keywords: experiment station, experimental cowshed, experiment farm, research.

A. Joandi  
  Lepakose lugemised  
R. Simson, V. Miller  
  100 aastat aianduse tippjuhi Gerhard Hansmani sünnist 59
Gerhard Hansman was born on 17th December in 1911 in Tallinn. He graduated from University of Tartu in 1941. In the same year, he was mobilized into Second World War. From 1945 through 1976, Gerhard Hansman was chief leader in Estonian horticulture and his assignment was to manage and arrange it for several decades. After harsh winters and the war in the 1940s, he firstly organized production of nursery stock for planting new orchards. Likewise, he organized seed production of vegetables and building of horticultural constractions (greenhouses, storages, irrigation systems, etc.). He was also prolific in publishing books and book chapters and was well-known editor of many other books. To sum it up, he was very prominent and powerful person being able to lead successfully these crucial fields for long term. He died on 22nd September in 1983 in Tallinn.

Keywords: chief leader, Second World War, Soviet Era.

R. Simson, L. Meensalu  
  100 aastat väljapaistva teadlase Alide-Johanna Pajoma sünnist 62
This article summarizes biography and most important subjects of her research. She was one of most prominent Estonian researcher in horticulture for long period of time. She was born on the 27th February in 1911. at first, she worked as a teacher at several schools but she became reseacher in 1945. Since then AJ Pajoma studied many species of vegetables, e.g cucumber, white cabbage, radish, carrot, and cropping practises. New era commenced in the late 1950s when some lot of polyamide film was imported into Estonia. Some years later polythene film became available. Plastic films provided an effective technique for cucumbers to be grown everywhere in Estonia in spite of differences in climate. By using plastic film, mainly polythene as covers or mulch, it was feasible to achieve high and stable cucumber yields under Estonian conditions. Based on these findings, AJ Pajoma received PhD degree in 1968. She also investigated some vegetables grown on a small scale such as black salsify and sweet pepper. She often published results of the research in many publications (in total about 50 articles and several chapters in handbooks) and was well-known lecturer. She retired in 1976 and died on 25th January in 1985.

Keywords: vegetables, plastic films, cultural practises.

A. Bender  
  Akadeemik Hans Küüts – 80  
M. Piirsalu  
  Viive Tikk 80  
R. Simson, T. Univer  
  Elsa Kukk – in memoriam  
P. Piirsalu  
  Vilma Raudsepp – in memoriam  
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