1999 * X * 3

R. Kask.  
  102 years from the birth of Alfred Lillema 173
102 years from the birth of Alfred Lillema. Alfred Lillema (July 25, 1897 – Dec. 31, 1965) advanced from a dilettante soil researcher into acknowledged scientist of Estonia in the middle of the century. He composed the soil map of Estonia (1:400000), distinguished soil areas, initiated large-scale soil mapping in Estonia and participated in 100 point grade scale formation. His most important works are: Soil Map of the Estonian SSR (1:400000), Tallinn, 1946; Soils of Estonian SSR, Tallinn, 1958, 199 p.
J. Kuum.  
  About the names of Estonian ancient genealogical villages and people 181
A. Bender, R. Aavola.  
  Yield and herbage quality of North American alfalfa varieties in Estonian climatic conditions 184
Yield and herbage quality of North American alfalfa varieties in Estonian climatic conditions. Within the framework of cooperation programme between USA and Baltic states 18 varieties of USA and 12 of Canadian origin were tested at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute in 1993…1998, aiming at investigation of their winter survival, yield capacity and forage quality. The trial was established in five replications, sown in wide-apart (60 cm) rows. Forage was cut once in seeding year and three times in a year thereafter. To investigate the forage quality, crude protein content was assessed both in the entire herbage and crop fractions. The winters during the testing period were favourable for alfalfa, except the winters 1993/94 and 1998/99 when the stands of North American alfalfa varieties were injured, in the latter case even in an extent which resulted in termination of the trial one year earlier than planned.

Only two varieties were found among the American ones in the trial which turned out to be competitive in comparison with Estonian local varieties when dry matter yield and longev-ity of the stand, derived from winterhardiness were considered. These were variety 'MN GRN-14', originating from Minnesota state (mean dry matter yield of five production years accounted for 105.2%, compared with standard variety 'Jõgeva 118') and variety 'Denali' originating from Alaska (96.6%). Crude protein content and yield for both the varieties remained lower than that with of Estonian varieties.

Among the 12 Canadian varieties in the trial, six turned out to be outstanding by winter survival, persistence of the stand and dry matter yield. These were 'Alouette' (bred in the province of Quebec, mean dry matter yield of five production years accounted for 109.0%, compared with standard variety 'Jõgeva 118'), 'Caribou' (Ontario, 108.7%), 'Oac Minto' (Ontario, 103.5%), 'Apica' (Quebec, 103.3%), 'Peace' (Alberta, 102.3%) and 'Algonquin' (Ontario, 97.7%). Crude protein yields of the varieties 'Caribou', 'Alouette' and 'Peace' were equal to standard variety, the crude protein yields of the three remaining abovementioned Canadian alfalfa varieties were exceeded by the variety 'Jõgeva 118'.

Estonian variety 'Karlu', bred for grazing resistance, revealed to have superior winter-hardiness, productivity and yield stability. As an average of five years of use, it surpassed the dry matter yield of standard variety 'Jõgeva 118' by 7.3% and crude protein yield by 11.5%. The pasture varieties, sent from the American continent to the trial and characterized by vegetative spreading ability, significantly overcame by yield in Estonian conditions.

Assessed on the base of crude protein content in the herbage dry matter, the

E. Kallas.  
  Selection and intervarietal crossing in winter wheat breeding in Estonia from 1921 to 1998 194
Selection and intervarietal crossing in winter wheat breeding in Estonia from 1921 to 1998. At the beginning of winter wheat breeding in Estonia selection from local varieties was used. In 1850 the ‘Õisu’ variety of winter wheat was selected by A. Sivers.

During the period from 1880 to 1888 the variety ‘Sangaste’ was selected by Fr. Berg from the ‘Õisu’ variety.

In 1919 a variety ‘Parandatud Luunja’ (‘Improved Luunja’) was selected from the local ‘Luunja’ variety. From 1924 to 1935 in the Kuusiku Experimental Farm the ‘Kuusiku’ variety was selected; in Kehra Plant Breeding Station – the ‘Kehra’ variety.

From the year 1921 in the Jõgeva Breeding Farm they started to use intervarietal crossing for breeding new winter wheat varieties, in addition to selection.

From 1921 to 1998, within these 77 years 1593 intervarietal crossings were made for winter wheat breeding at Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 1388 of them (84%) were single crosses and 255 (16%) multiparental or sequential crosses.

The evaluation results and comparisons of crossing parents are described in the list below, no. 1 to 9.

The crossing parents were selected from different areas and had different countries of origin, including Germany, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Russia, Krasnodar, the Ukraine, England, the USA, Bulgaria, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia and others.

Table 1 and diagram 1 show data on the amount of realised crossings and about succes-sions and varieties gained through selection.

Within the last 77 years the following varieties and selection numbers have been bred in Estonia through selection and intervarietal crossing:

  1. ‘Jõgeva parandatud Luunja’ – selection from local variety
  2. ‘Kuusiku’ – selection from local variety
  3. ‘Kehra’ – selection from local variety
  4. ‘Puuk’ – crossing no. 302, no. 497
  5. ‘Universaal’ – crossing no. 425
  6. ‘Kalvi’ – crossing no. 700
  7. ‘Eka’ – crossing no. 863
  8. ‘Sani’ – crossing no. 1044
  9. ‘Joni’ – crossing no. 865, 1174, 1242
  10. Prospective breed – crossing no. 1407
  11. Prospective breed – crossing no. 1056
  12. Prospective breed – crossing no. 1039, 1172.
K. Kask.  
  Quality investigation of filbert nuts grown wild in Saaremaa 205
Quality investigation of filbert nuts grown wild in Saaremaa island. Nuts of 30 wild growing plants, selected for cultivation potentiality, and 6 whole samples were analysed in the period from (1973) 1976 till 1984. The average nut mass was 0.9–1.2 g, the limits being from 0.62 till 1.51 g (in one sample 2.05 g). In half of the samples, 91–100% of nuts were heavier than 0.7 g. In the other half of the samples, the mass of 50–100 % of nuts was over 1 g. The kernel mass was mostly 0.21–0.44 g (in one sample 0.81 g) and the kernel percentage was 26–41%. Protein content, per absolute dry matter, was 15.4–26.3% (the average 21.2%) and fat content was 49.5–59.1% (the average 53.5%) The differences in nut and kernel mass, and chemical composition were insufficient between the plants due to variability between the years. This result was surprising for breeding purpose.

Keywords: European filbert, Estonia, nut and kernel mass, protein and fat content.

J. Olt.  
  Study of the working process of the combined wide rows potato field processing machine 215
Study of the working process of the combined wide rows potato field processing machine. This paper presents the results of statistical treatment of the series of experiments, made by J. Olt with the combined wide rows potato field processing machine. It was found out that the thickness of soil, lifted to the top of potatoes furrow, is in cubic dependence on angle of attack and on the velocity of machine and has always the maximum value. All dependencies are illustrated by graphs.