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J. of Agr. Sci. 2013 * XXIV * 1.
Lassen, B., Järvis, T., Mägi, E.
Parasites are important production-limiting diseases in livestock farming. Their proper treatment and control requires knowledge of their presence, epidemiology, and diagnostics. We investigated the presence of the GI parasites in pooled herd faecal samples from the islands Saaremaa (n=21), Hiiumaa (n=18), and Vormsi (n=7), collected in 2011-2012. The samples were investigated microscopically after quantitative flotation, acid-fast contrast staining for Cryptosporidium oocysts, and direct immunofluorescence for Giardia cysts. Findings included nematodes: Strongylida spp. (94.6%), Strongyloides spp. (70.7%), Trichuris spp. (9.8%); protozoans: Eimeria spp. (94.6%), Giardia spp. (69.6%), Cryptosporidium spp. (60.9%); cestodes: Moniezia spp. (22.8%); and trematodes: Dicrocoelium spp. (3.3%). E. spp. oocysts and Strongylida eggs were shed in levels that may indicate problems in some herds. The most dominant species of Eimeria was the pathogenic E. ovinoidalis (64.4%), but the other clinicallyimportant species, E. cranadallis did not dominate any samples. Based on the presented findings, it appeared that the herds had different parasitic problems needing evidence based treatments for sustainable control.
Keywords: sheep, parasites, protozoa, nematoda, cestoda, trematoda, prevalence
Addidional material: Figure 1; Figure 2
Source: Agraarteadus 2013 (24) 1:7-14
J. of Agr. Sci. 2014 * XXV * 1.
J. of Agr. Sci. 2012 * XXIII * 1.
In 2008–2011, field trials were carried out at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute in order to identify the possibilities of using the early red clover cultivar ‘Jõgeva 433’, Washington lupin with Jõgeva breeding number 4 and crimson clover of Italian origin as green manure. The fertilization value of the above species was studied after autumn ploughing in the year of sowing and on the second year from sowing, based on the yield and grain quality of spring wheat ‘Vinjett’ and barley ‘Inari’. The in-ploughed biomass as well as its composition were recorded. By the time of ploughing Washington lupin has produced the most abundant biomass. Of the studied species crimson clover had the lowest fertilization value, the stubble and roots of seed plants that were ploughed in resulted only in 6–7% of extra yield of spring wheat in the following year. Crimson clover had no fertilizing aftereffect in the second year. The fertilization values of red clover and Washington lupin were more or less equal. Their statistically significant positive effect on the increase of yield of spring wheat and barley lasted for 3 years, on the quality of grain for 2 years. Red clover that was ploughed into the ground in the year of sowing gave the maximum extra yield of 27% in spring wheat comparedwith o N 0 variant, and Washington lupin 23%, respectively. In the second year of aftereffect Washington lupin gave in barley an extra yield of 26.8%, red clover 10.1%, and in the third year 10.4 and 12.1%, respectively. Green manure increased the contents of crude protein and gluten in spring wheat and that of crude protein in barley.
The fertilization value of all studied species was higher in the case they were sown without a cover crop.
Keywords:Trifolium pratense L., Lupinus polyphyllus Lind., Trifolium incarnatum L., green manure, spring wheat, barley, yield, quality
Source: Agraarteadus 2012 (23) 1:3-11
J. of Agr. Sci. 2013 * XXIV * 1.
Kaldmäe, H., Kass, M., Leming, R., Ots, M.
Cold-pressed rapeseed cake are poor sources of ruminal undegraded protein (RUP), protein effective degradability were 85–89%. Heat treatment is one of the most common method use to reduce ruminal protein degradation. Changes of treatment temperature had the greatest effect on the solubility and ruminal degradability of rapeseed cake protein. The higher treatment temperature of the seeds resulted in lower and slower ruminal degradabilty of rapeseed cake protein. The results of defferent study show that heating temperature and duration of heating were both important in protecting rapeseed protein for ruminal degradation. It was concluded from that studies that heating rapeseed 100 °C for 20 min in the present case conditions is a viable method to reduce ruminal degradability of rapeseed cake protein without compromising the intestinal digestibility of RUP.
Keywords: rapeseed cake, heat treatment, protein degradation
Source: Agraarteadus 2013 (24) 1:3-6
J. of Agr. Sci. 2015 * XXVI * 2.
A.-H. Viira, R. Omel, R. Värnik, H. Luik, B. Maasing, R. Põldaru
Historically, the dairy sector has been one of the most important and competitive branches of the Estonian agriculture and food industry. Since the beginning of the transitional period 25 years ago, Estonian society and its economy have gone through significant institutional, political and societal changes, which have also affected the dairy sector. This paper provides a review of the competitiveness of the Estonian dairy sector. The competitiveness of dairy farms, the dairy processing industry and dairy exports are discussed from several perspectives applied in the studies of competitiveness. Also, the context of the transition to a market economy and institutional, policy and market changes are considered. In the past 20 years, the Estonian dairy sector has maintained its competitiveness in export markets. However, there are several aspects that need to be addressed in order to maintain competitiveness in the long term. Estonian dairy farms need to increase their total factor productivity. The negative trends in the declining lifespan of dairy cows and declining content of milk components should be stopped. The Estonian dairy processing industry needs to increase labour productivity and value per kg of processed milk. To avoid the negative effects of specialisation on certain products and markets, the portfolio of export markets and products should be expanded. The EU dairy market is going through deregulation, and farm payments in Estonia fell in 2014. This is not the first time in 20 years that agricultural policy has not been overly protective of the dairy sector. Therefore, the future competitiveness of the Estonian dairy sector depends mainly on its adaptive capacity in the light of changing markets, policies and institutions.
Keywords: competitiveness, dairy sector, productivity, revealed compa¬rative advantage, export, Estonia
Source: Agraarteadus 2015 (26) 2:84-104
J. of Agr. Sci. 2014 * XXV * 1.
R. Kõlli, I. Tamm
By Estonian Soil Sciences Society for the year 2014 soil the leached soils as one of the best arable soils of Estonia was elected. After WRB these soils embrace mainly Haplic & Endogleyic Cambisols (calcaric, endoskeletic). The area of leached soils forms 7.7% from whole Estonian soil cover or a little bit more than 3250 km2. In overview on Estonian year 2014 soil the morphology, genesis, classification, humus status and different properties (chemical, physical, hydro-physical) are treated on detail level of Estonian Soil Classification, for which are soil species (identified by soil genesis) and soil varieties (divided on the basis of soil texture). Besides abovementioned characteristics the productivity, environment protection ability in dependence upon soil functioning and properties, usage in agriculture and forestry, and distribution in Estonia of leached soils is analysed.
Keywords: leached soils, year 2014 soil, cambisols, soil properties
Source: Agraarteadus 2014 (25) 1:30-38
J. of Agr. Sci. 2013 * XXIV * 1.
Ling, K., Ilves, A., Jaakson, H., Olt, A., Ots, M.
Based on earlier soil, forage and animal studies, Estonia is considered a Se-deficient country where Se supplementation of dairy cows has been routine practice for more than 10 years. To evaluate the current Se status of Estonian dairy cows, bulk tank milk samples (n = 218) from farms (n = 110) producing over 60% of the milk purchased in the counties of Estonia, were analysed for the Se concentration. Milk Se content ranged from 5 – 34 μg/kg. The mean Se content of all the samples was 16 μg/kg, indicating dairy cows’ Se status was from high-marginal to adequate depending on the reference level used. The results of the study provide evidence that the Se status of dairy cattle in Estonia has improved. Although Se status was satisfactory on 99 farms (90.8%) there were 10 farms (9.2%) with a milk Se concentration of less than or equal to 10 μg/kg where attention should be given to Se supplementation of the animals.
Key-words: bulk milk, trace elements, silage, nutrient deficiency
Source: Agraarteadus 2013 (24) 1:15-20
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J. of Agr. Sci. 2014 * XXV * 1.
Reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) is a naturally widespread grass in Estonia, which so far has successfully been used as a dominant species in the stands of cultural meadows on reclaimed alluvial and peat soils. Because of high and stable dry matter yield through years, in the past decades the species has been started to be used in addition to fodder production also as raw material for cellulose and energy pro-duction. Compared to other grasses, reed canarygrass is characterized by a moderate and unstable seed yield. In the years 2008–2013 a number of experiments was conducted at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute in order to investigate the effect of seeding rate (4, 6, 8, 10 kg ha-1), row spacing (15, 30, 45, 60 cm), nitrogen fertilizer rate (N 70, 105, 140 kg ha-1) and cutting time of stubble hay (July, October, April) on the seed yield of reed canarygrass. The trial results indicated that when the seed field was established with narrow spacing (15 cm), seeding rate of 4–6 kg ha-1 and nitrogen was applied at the rate of N 140 kg ha-1, the reed canarygrass "Pedja" yielded in the first two years of use up to 430 kg of seed per hectare. In the following years of use the seed yield dropped drastically. It was expedient to cut the stubble hay at the end of the vegetation period (October) or even next spring (April). Besides the seed yield, it was possible to harvest from the trials 5–8 t ha-1 of dry matter the energetic value of which was 140 GJ. The moisture content of straw harvested in July was 14.5–20.3%, of stubble hay harvested in April 14.3–15.2%. The straw of reed canarygrass as well as the stubble hay harvested in April can be used as energy hay, the sales revenue of which made 12% of the total estimated sales revenue.
Keywords: reed canarygrass, seeding rate, row spacing, nitrogen fertilizer, harvest time of stubble hay, seed yield, biofuel
Source: Agraarteadus 2014 (25) 1:3-16
J. of Agr. Sci. 2015 * XXVI * 1
In the years 2012–2014, a field trial was conducted at the Estonian Crop Research Institute in order to investigate the effects of the seeding rate and nitrogen fertilizer rate of two-row barley 'Inari' on the stand formation and seed yield of the under-sown red clover tetraploid cultivar 'Varte' (4n), in the first and second years after establishment. The trial had four basic variants, with different seeding and fertilization rates of cover crop and four different seeding rates of red clover. The trial results indicated that both the seeding rate and the nitrogen fertilizer rate of the cover crop had an impact on the development of the red clover stand and its later seed yield. The effect of fertilizer rate was greater. Of the red clover seeding rates the variant with 4 kg of 100% pure live seeds (PLS) per hectare yielded, as a total of the two years, 79–142 kg ha-1 (8–16%) more clover seed than the variant half the seeding rate. The red clover seeding rates of 6 and 8 kg ha-1 were more recommended under the conditions, where the cover crop was seeded at the rate of 500 viable seeds per m2 and nitrogen applied at a rate of 90 kg ha-1. Neither the seeding and fertilization rates of the cover crop, nor the seeding rates of red clover, had any effect on the 1,000 seed weight and germination rate. Based on the received income from the sales of the grain yield of the cover crop and the seed yields over the two years, it is recommended to establish the red clover seed field by sowing under a cover crop by reducing the seeding rate and nitrogen fertilizer rate of cover crop by one third.
Keywords: seeding rate of cover crop, nitrogen fertilizer level, seeding rate of red clover, seed yield, economic profitability
Source: Agraarteadus 2015 (26) 1:3-11
J. of Agr. Sci. 2014 * XXV * 1
H. Kaldmäe, A. Olt, R. Leming, M. Ots
The silage quality estimated by chemical composition and fermentation parameters, but awareness of the composition of mycotoxins is of great importance. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of the mycotoxins (deoxinivalenol (DON) and zearalenon (ZEA)) in silage produced on Estonian farms (n=56), in the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. A total of 596 grass, 55 maize and 10 whole-crop silage samples were collected for analyses. The silages were found to contain mycotoxins. In grass silage, 92% of samples were found to be positive for DON and 100% for ZEA, while in maize silage samples 95.7% were positive for DON and 100% for ZEA in 2013. The mean concentration of DON of grass silage was 209 ppb while the concentration of ZEA was 329 ppb. In maize silage the mean concentrations of DON and ZEA were 227 ppb and 292 ppb respectively. ZEA concentration in first-cut grass silage was a mean of 257.4 ppb, the second cut 245.0 ppb and the third cut 224.4 ppb, while the figures for DON concentrations were 214.7 ppb, 190.8 ppb and 166.3 ppb respectively. Silage with a dry matter content of <25% contained fewer of the analysed mycotoxins compared to silages with dry matters of 35–45%. During the growing period grass forage was contaminated with mycotoxins, most of all by DON and ZEA. Mycotoxin concentrations increased in the field before the forage was cut for silage making. The ZEA and DON concentrations increased by with increased growth time of the forage. The maximum levels of mycotoxin contents of the grass were recorded at the time of harvest. DON and ZEA concentrations in the summer period depended on the grass species and the weather conditions.
Keywords: grass silage, maize silage, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, mycotoxins
Source: Agraarteadus 2014 (25) 1:23-29