2022 * XXXII * 1

CONTENTS

DIRECT LINK
https://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/contents/2022_1_contents.pdf

RESEARCH ARTICLES

CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS AND MEAT QUALITY OF BROILER CHICKENS FED DIETARY WHITE AND CAYENNE PEPPER POWDERS AS ADDITIVES
1
ABSTRACT
CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS AND MEAT QUALITY OF BROILER CHICKENS FED DIETARY WHITE AND CAYENNE PEPPER POWDERS AS ADDITIVES
ORCID logo Adeola Adegoke, ORCID logo Kehinde Sanwo, ORCID logo Lawrence Egbeyale, ORCID logo Munirat Abatan, ORCID logo Modupe Oluwasinmi, ORCID logo Oluwaseun Adebesin, ORCID logo Oluwaseun Williams
Department of Animal Production and Health, Federal University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2240 Abeokuta, Nigeria
A study was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary white pepper (wp) and cayenne pepper (cp) powders fed as additives on carcass characteristics and meat quality of broiler chickens. Fifty-six broiler chickens (two per replicate) were slaughtered (each close to average weight per replicate) from a total of 336 randomly allotted chickens given seven diets each apportioned to four replicates. Data obtained were subjected to a One-way Analysis of Variance with significant means separated at P <0.05. Results obtained reveal larger dressed and breast weights, as well as meat + skin:bone ratio was recorded among chickens fed addition of 200 g of cayenne pepper to the Control diet (C) (C+200cp). Notably, only chickens fed C+200wp and C+125wp+125cp diets had meat containing palmitoleic fatty acid; though the latter (1.28) had higher (P <0.05) linoleic than C+100wp+100cp (0.67). On the contrary, feeding C+125wp+125cp diet resulted in numerically least meat Index of Atherogenicity (IA) (0.49). Meat lipid cholesterol profile was preferred (P <0.05) in the meat of chickens fed C+200wp diet, though identical (P <0.05) to C+250wp diet. Feeding C+125wp+125cp diet resulted in a low (P <0.05) meat superoxide dismutase value (89.23). This study has shown that to gain a larger yield, C+200cp diet should be fed to chickens. Palmitoleic acid – a rare fatty acid occasionally consumed in Western diets was found only in the meat of chickens fed C+200wp and C+125wp+125cp diets, but for an overall balanced fatty acid profile - hazily depicted by Index of Atherogenicity, C+125wp+125cp diet is suggested as it indicates the impact of stress was minimized. Meat endogenous antioxidant profile reveals stress imposed on chickens in C+125wp+125cp group was lowered by antioxidant fed – a significance to poultry farmers.
Keywords: white pepper powder, cayenne pepper powder, carcass characteristics, lipid profile, enzymatic antioxidants, oxidative spoilage
Source: Agraarteadus, 2022, 33(1):1–10
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.22.18

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Adegoke, A., Sanwo, K., Egbeyale, L., Abatan, M., Oluwasinmi, M., Adebesin, O., Williams, O.  2022. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of broiler chickens fed dietary white and cayenne pepper powders as additives. Agraarteadus, 33(1):1–10. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.18.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
Department of Animal Production and Health, Federal University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2240 Abeokuta, Nigeria

 
Highlights: 
  • The addition of 200 or 250 g of cayenne pepper powder (cp) to the Control diet (C) fed broiler chickens resulted in significantly larger breast muscle, while 200 g 100 kg–1 cp additive yielded higher meat: bone ratio – a significant gain to poultry farmers and meat processors that sell meat according to its weight.
  • Meat linolenic and palmitoleic fatty acid were increased upon feeding chickens 2.5 g kg–1 white pepper (wp) additive to the Control.
  • Palmitoleic acid – a rare fatty acid occasionally consumed in Western diets was found only in the meat of chickens fed C+200wp and C+125wp+125cp diets.
  • Meat endogenous antioxidant pro­file reveals stress imposed on chickens was lowered by feeding C+125wp+125cp diet. Poultry farmers can take advantage of this level of pepper combination, especial­ly in tropical climates loaded with environmental stres­sors.
  • Overall profile promoting healthier cardiovascular function appears obtainable when chickens were given a C+125wp+125cp diet – depicted by its n3: n6 ratio and IA value.
  • Feeding broiler chickens 250 g 100 kg–1 additive is recommended for post-slaughter storage as meat obtained had lower spoilage from rancidity (oxidative spoilage) as refrigeration storage progressed, indicating white pepper possesses bioactive compounds that can function as preservatives.

EFFECT OF HUMIC ACIDS AND THE AMOUNT OF MINERAL FERTILIZER ON SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF SALINE SOIL, GROWTH AND YIELD OF BROCCOLI PLANT UNDER SALT STRESS CONDITIONS
11
ABSTRACT
EFFECT OF HUMIC ACIDS AND THE AMOUNT OF MINERAL FERTILIZER ON SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF SALINE SOIL, GROWTH AND YIELD OF BROCCOLI PLANT UNDER SALT STRESS CONDITIONS
ORCID logo Muneer N. A. Al-Falahi1, ORCID logo Kamal H. Al-Dulaimi2, ORCID logo Emad Telfah Abdel Ghani3, ORCID logo Duraid K. A. Al-Taey4, Khaleel J. Farhan2
1University of Anbar, Upper Euphrates Basin Developing Center, 31001, Al-Ramadi, Iraq
2University of Anbar, College of Agriculture, Department Soil Science and Water Resources, 31001, Anbar, Iraq
3University of Anbar, Upper Euphrates Basin Development Centre, Planning and Database Department, 31001, Anbar, Iraq
4AL-Qasim Green University, College of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, 00964, Iraq

A pots experiment was undertaken to determine the combined effect of humic acids and mineral fertilizer on some characteristics of saline soil, growth, and yield components of broccoli. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The first factor consists of two levels of humic acids, namely without humic acid (H0 = 0.00 g L–1) and humic acid application (H1 = 0.35 g L–1), while the second factor included nine fertilizer (92 kg N ha–1, 200 kg P2O5 ha–1, 150 kg K2O ha–1) application rates that were (100, 100, 100%), (120, 120, 120%), (120, 120, 100%), (80, 120, 120%), (100, 100, 120%), (80.100, 100%), (120, 80, 80%), (100, 80, 80%), (80, 80, 80%) which added as a percentage of original fertilizer recommendation taking the symbols of R1 to R9 respectively. The treatment R1 was designated as a control treatment. The results indicated that humic acid application (H1) and increasing the amount of applied mineral fertilizer (R2) reduced the hydraulic conductivity of the soil for different soil depths. Humic acid addition (H1) increased concentrations of calcium and magnesium while reducing sodium concentration compared to control (H0). Contrary to humic acid, increasing the supplied mineral fertilizer led to a reduction in concentrations of calcium and magnesium while increasing sodium concentration in the soil. The sodium adsorption in soil particles in the ground was decreased due to humic acid application while improving the mineral fertilizer. Humic acid (H1) combined with increasing the amount of chemical fertilizer (R2) gave the desirable results in decreasing the sulphate, chloride and bicarbonate in the soil profile. The addition of humic acid (H1) and increasing mineral fertilizer application (R2) led to a significant increase in plant height, leaf area and head weight of broccoli per plant. Similarly, the interaction between humic acids and chemical fertilizers (H1R2) led to a significant increase in plant height, leaf area and head weight of broccoli per plant.
Keywords: humic acids, saline irrigation water, broccoli, saline soil
Source: Agraarteadus, 2022, 33(1):11–20
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.22.24

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Al-Falahi, M.N.A., Al-Dulaimi, K.H., Ghani, E.T.A., Al-Taey, D.K.A., Farhan, K.J. 2022. Effect of humic acids and the amount of mineral fertilizer on some characteristics of saline soil, growth and yield of broccoli plant under salt stress conditions. Agraarteadus, 33(1):11–20. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.24.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1University of Anbar, Upper Euphrates Basin Developing Center, 31001, Al-Ramadi, Iraq
2University of Anbar, College of Agriculture, Department Soil Science and Water Resources, 31001, Anbar, Iraq
3University of Anbar, Upper Euphrates Basin Development Centre, Planning and Database Department, 31001, Anbar, Iraq
4AL-Qasim Green University, College of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, 00964, Iraq


 
Highlights: 
  • The experiment aims to find the best amount of mineral fertilizer and humic acids that can reduce the effect of irrigation water and soil salinity and improve the broccoli plant's growth and yield.
  • Humic acids and mineral fertilizers led to a reduction in the degree of electrical conductivity of the soil and the sodium adsorption ratio and a decrease in the concentration of sodium, sulfates, chloride and bicarbonate dissolved in the soil and an increase in the concentration of calcium and magnesium dissolved in the soil.
  • Furthermore, It led to a significant increase in the values of plant height, leaf area and head weight of broccoli plants.

RESEARCH OF MECHANIZED PROCESS OF ORGANIC WASTE COMPOSTING
21
ABSTRACT
RESEARCH OF MECHANIZED PROCESS OF ORGANIC WASTE COMPOSTING
ORCID logo Elchyn Aliiev1, ORCID logo Sergey Pavlenko2, ORCID logo Gennadii Golub2, ORCID logo Olena Bielka1
1Institute of Oilseed Crops of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Instituts’ka St, v. Sonyachne, Zaporizhzhya region, 69093, Ukraine
2National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 11 Heroyiv Oborony St, Kyiv, 03041, Ukraine
The article is devoted to mechanising composting based on energy-saving technical systems. The goal of the research is to determine the patterns that describe the impact of different drum-blade working bodies' design and technological parameters on their work energy performance, the homogeneity of the mixture components distribution and their structure in the formed composting pad of a certain height. The physical-mathematical model of the mechanized composting process of organic raw materials from agroecosystems by technical equipment with drum-blade working bodies has been theoretically substantiated and experimentally investigated. There has been developed the mathematical model that correlates the value of the mixing quality variation coefficient with the load factor and the kinematic indicator of the operating mode. It has been established that, if provided the composting pad layer height is the same, the use of a double-drum working body is more rational in terms of power loss in comparison with a single-drum one.
Keywords: mechanized composting, aerator-mixer, modelling, experiments, parameters, dependencies.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2022, 33(1):21–32
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.22.04

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Aliiev, E., Pavlenko, S., Golub, G., Bielka, O. 2022. Research of mechanized process of organic waste composting. Agraarteadus, 33(1):21–32. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.04.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Institute of Oilseed Crops of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Instituts’ka St, v. Sonyachne, Zaporizhzhya region, 69093, Ukraine
2National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 11 Heroyiv Oborony St, Kyiv, 03041, Ukraine


 
Highlights: 
  • The physical-mathematical model of the mechanized composting process of organic raw materials from agroecosystems by technical equipment with drum-blade working bodies has been theoretically substantiated and experimentally investigated.
  • There has been developed the mathematical model that correlates the value of the mixing quality variation coefficient with the load factor and the kinematic indicator of the operating mode.
  • It has been established that, if provided the composting pad layer height is the same, the use of a double-drum working body is more rational in terms of power loss in comparison with a single-drum one.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ZN AND CD IN SOIL AND PLANT
33
ABSTRACT
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ZN AND CD IN SOIL AND PLANT
ORCID logo Mijbil Mohammad Aljumaily, ORCID logo Hudhaifa Maan Al-Hamandi, ORCID logo Mohammed Jarullah Farhan, ORCID logo Hiba Abdullah Kareem
Department of Soil Science and Water Resources, College of Agriculture, Tikrit University, 21006, Tikrit, Iraq
The relationship between Zn and Cd uptake by plants is somewhat controversial according to the lack of information about this subject. The objective of this study was to increase our scientific understanding of soil about plant factors controlling Zn and Cd bioavailability and uptake. This experiment was carried out in the winter season of 2019. It aimed to solve the mystery of the Zn and Cd relationship in soil and plant uptake. Five plant species were under observation (carrot – Daucus carota, radish – Raphanus sativus, wheat – Triticum aestivum L., lettuce – Lactuca sativa and bean – Vicia faba). Plants were planted in plastic pots containing 2 kg sandy loam soil with duplicate and exposure to six Zn:Cd ratios (1:0.5, 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1 and 5:1) with increasing elements molar ratio of Zn to Cd in soil. After 45 days, plants were harvested. Zn and Cd were determined in roots and shoots. Results showed, that at low molar ratios of Zn:Cd in soil, the relationship between these metals in soil is almost synergistic and both elements are accumulated easily in plant tissues, but at high molar ratios, the relationship between these metals is almost antagonistic where Cd be more competitive to Zn uptake by plants. It was concluded that the 2:1 Zn:Cd ratio in the soil is the border between synergistic and antagonistic relationships.
Keywords: synergistic, antagonistic, Zn to Cd molar ratio, plant species, bioavailability, uptake
Source: Agraarteadus, 2022, 33(1):33–42
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.22.19

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Aljumaily, M.M., Al-Hamandi, H.M., Farhan, M.J., Kareem, H.A. 2022. Relationship between Zn and Cd in soil and plant. Agraarteadus, 33(1):33–42. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.19.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
Department of Soil Science and Water Resources, College of Agriculture, Tikrit University, 21006, Tikrit, Iraq

 
Highlights: 

In Soil:

  • At low Zn:Cd ratios, Cd enhanced Zn availability and the relationship seems to be synergistic.
  • 2:1 Zn:Cd ratios represent the maximum value of the synergism relationship.
  • At high Zn:Cd ratios (3:1 and over) Zn enhanced Cd availability and their relationship seems to be antagonistic.
  • Freundlich equation is a fit model describing Zn and Cd adsorption in a binary system in the soil.

Plant uptake:

  • The base is Zn and Cd uptake by plants controlled by their relationship in soil
    solution.
  • Four of five plant species followed this base with  80%.
  • One of five plant species deviate from this base, so plant species' effect in Zn and Cd uptake is only 20%.

ORCID logo Duraid K. A. Al-Taey, Zahraa J. M. Al-Musawi
THE IMPACT OF NANO FERTILIZATION AND SALICYLIC ACID ON GROWTH, YIELD AND ANTI-OXIDANT CONTENTS IN ROCKET PLANT UNDER SALT STRESS
43
ABSTRACT
THE IMPACT OF NANO FERTILIZATION AND SALICYLIC ACID ON GROWTH, YIELD AND ANTI-OXIDANT CONTENTS IN ROCKET PLANT UNDER SALT STRESS
ORCID logo Duraid K. A. Al-Taey, Zahraa J. M. Al-Musawi
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of AL-Qasim Green, Babylon , Najaf road, Iraq
This investigation aimed to study the effect of organic fertilizers, nano-fertilizers and salicylic acid on the growth and yield of rocket (Eruca sativa L.) and the content of active compounds and antioxidants when the plants were exposed to salt stress. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design (RCBD) according to the split-plot system. The main factor was water quality (1.2 dS m–1 and 8 dS m–1). While the combination treatments of Nano fertilizer, Salicylic acid and poultry manure were distributed in sub-plots and each treatment included three replicates. The treatments irrigated with saline water showed a reduction of glucosinolate and ascorbate contents (58 µg g–1 and 105.71 µg g–1, respectively). Salinity led to an increase in glutathione and proline in the leaves (1146 and 2.2 µg g–1, respectively), while the fertilization treatments (poultry manure + nano-NPK; poultry manure + salicylic acid + nano-NPK) resulted in an increase in the glucosinolate content of the leaves under salt stress (85.6 and 89.2 µg g–1, respectively). The nano-NPK treatment achieved a high value of the leaves’ ascorbic acid content under the unstressed conditions (166.73 µg g–1), while the salicylic acid + nano-NPK treatment achieved the highest value of ascorbic acid under salt stress (137.4 µg g–1). The combination of salicylic acid + poultry manure + nano-NPK obtained the highest value of glutathione content in the leaves (1950 µg g–1) under the stress conditions. There is a positive correlation between salt stress and glutathione + proline, while the salt stress condition had a negative effect on glucosinolate, ascorbate and yield.
Keywords: glutathione, ascorbic acid, salt stress, nano fertilization
Source: Agraarteadus, 2022, 33(1):43–47
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.22.10

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Al-Taey, D.K.A., Al-Musawi, Z.J.M. 2022. The impact of nano fertilization and salicylic acid on growth, yield and anti-oxidant contents in rocket plant under salt stress. Agraarteadus, 33(1):43–47. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.10.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of AL-Qasim Green, Babylon , Najaf road, Iraq

 
Highlights: 
  • This investigation aimed to study the effect of organic fertilizers, nano-fertilizers, and salicylic acid on the growth and yield of rocket (Eruca sativa L.) exposed to salt stress.
  • Salinity had activated the non-enzymatic system against oxidative stress and reduced the other study parameters and yield. While the combination treatments (poultry manure + nano-NPK; poultry manure + salicylic acid + nano-NPK) alleviated the salinity effects.
  • There is a positive correlation between Salinity and glutathione + proline while reducing the Glucosinolate, Ascorbate, and yield.

INVESTIGATION OF PROPERTIES OF SUNFLOWER AND RAPESEED OILS OBTAINED BY THE SOXHLET AND MICROWAVE EXTRACTION METHODS
48
ABSTRACT
INVESTIGATION OF PROPERTIES OF SUNFLOWER AND RAPESEED OILS OBTAINED BY THE SOXHLET AND MICROWAVE EXTRACTION METHODS
ORCID logo Valentyna Bandura1, ORCID logo Larysa Fialkovska2, ORCID logo Petro Osadchuk3, ORCID logo Yuliia Levtrynskaia3, ORCID logo Аnna Palvashova3
1National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony St., 03041, Kyiv, Ukraine
2Vinnytsia Institute of Trade and Economics regional subdivision of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics, 87 Soborna St., 21050, Vinnytsia, Ukraine
3Odesa National University of Technology, 112 Kanatnaya St., 65039, Оdessa, Ukraine
The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the possibility of replacing hexane, which is traditionally used for the extraction of vegetable oils, with ethanol as a safer solvent when extracting oil from sunflower meals and rapeseed in the microwave field. Thus, the influence of the solvent type on physicochemical characteristics of oil and the low-fat meal was studied. The main indicators of the composition and quality of sunflower and rapeseed extraction oil were studied. The quality of oil and ways of its use in food products are mostly determined by its fatty acid composition. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of the oil was performed by the method of gas chromatography using a column HP-88 100 m* 0.25 mm*0.20 µm. The possibility of using oil in food was established by conducting pilot laboratory studies and investigating changes in physicochemical parameters during storage. The extraction by the Soxhlet method (hexane as a solvent) was compared with the method of extraction of raw materials in a microwave field (ethyl alcohol as a solvent). Studies of physicochemical parameters indicate the degree of oil oxidation (determi­nation of peroxide and anisidine values). The peroxide value is an indicator of the content of primary oxidation products. The peroxide value of the oil obtained by the method of Soxhlet extraction (hexane as a solvent) was 5.0 (½O mmol) kg–1. The peroxide value of the oil obtained by extraction in a microwave field (ethyl alcohol as a solvent) was 3.8 (½O mmol) kg–1. The anisidine value is an indicator of the content of aldehydes in vegetable oils (secondary oxidation products). The anisidine value of the oil obtained by the method of Soxhlet extraction (hexane as a solvent) was 0.3 s.u. The anisidine value of oil obtained by extraction in a microwave field (ethyl alcohol as a solvent) was 0.2 s.u. Comparing the data of peroxide and anisidine values, it can be argued that the oil obtained by extraction of raw materials in a microwave field (ethyl alcohol as a solvent) had the best indicators. The acid value is one of the main qualitative indicators that characterize the degree of oil freshness. The acid value of the oil obtained by the method of Soxhlet extraction (hexane as a solvent) was 3.1 (mg KOH) g–1. The acid number of the oil obtained by extraction in a microwave field (ethyl alcohol as a solvent) was 2.1 (mg KOH) g–1. A comparison of the acid values of oils extracted from the raw material by different extraction methods shows that the oil obtained by the method of extraction of raw materials in a microwave field using ethyl alcohol as a solvent has the best acid value. Studies have shown that the oil, which was obtained by extraction of raw materials in a microwave field using ethyl alcohol as a solvent, had the best resistance to oxidation during storage (three months).
Keywords: sunflower and rapeseed oil, extraction, microwave energy supply, Soxhlet, fatty acid composition of oils
Source: Agraarteadus, 2022, 33(1):48–58
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.22.17

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Bandura, V., Fialkovska, L., Osadchuk, P., Levtrynskaia, Y., Palvashova, A. 2022. Investigation of properties of sunflower and rapeseed oils obtained by the soxhlet and microwave extraction methods. Agraarteadus, 33(1):48–58. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.17.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony St., 03041, Kyiv, Ukraine
2Vinnytsia Institute of Trade and Economics regional subdivision of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics, 87 Soborna St., 21050, Vinnytsia, Ukraine
3Odesa National University of Technology, 112 Kanatnaya St., 65039, Оdessa, Ukraine


 
Highlights: 
  • The possibility of using oil in food was established by conducting pilot laboratory studies and investigating changes in physicochemical parameters during storage. The extraction by the Soxhlet method (hexane as a solvent) was compared with the method of extraction of raw materials in a microwave field (ethyl alcohol as a solvent).
  • The peroxide value of the oil obtained by the method of Soxhlet extraction (hexane as a solvent) was 5.0 (½O mmol) kg–1 and the peroxide value of the oil obtained by extraction in a microwave field (ethyl alcohol as a solvent) was 3.8 (½O mmol) kg–1.
  • The anisidine value of the oil obtained by the method of Soxhlet extraction (hexane as a solvent) was 0.3 s.u. and the anisidine value of oil obtained by extraction in a microwave field (ethyl alcohol as a solvent) was 0.2 s.u.
  • The comparison of the acid values of oils extracted from the raw material by different extraction methods shows that the oil obtained by the method of extraction of raw materials in a microwave field using ethyl alcohol as a solvent has the best acid value (2.1 (mg KOH) g–1 compare to 3.1 (mg KOH) g–1.)

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CHARCOAL AND NITROGEN ON GROWTH AND YIELD TRAITS OF BROCCOLI
59
ABSTRACT
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CHARCOAL AND NITROGEN ON GROWTH AND YIELD TRAITS OF BROCCOLI
ORCID logo Prayusha Bhattarai1, ORCID logo Babita Lamichhane1, ORCID logo Puja Subedi1, ORCID logo Amit Khanal1, ORCID logo Saroj Burlakoti1, ORCID logo Jiban Shrestha2
1Department of Horticulture and Plant Protection, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Lamjung Campus, Sundarbazar Municipality, Ward No. 07, Lamjung, 33600, Nepal
2Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Plant Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Khumaltar, Lalitpur Metropolitan City, Ward No. 15, Lalitpur, 44700, Nepal
Charcoal is a carbon-rich organic matter, which serves as a soil conditioner when applied to agricultural fields. When used in combination with nitrogen fertilizers, it has a synergistic effect that boosts plant growth. However, charcoal application alone or in combination with nitrogen fertilizer on vegetable crops is not fully understood. Therefore, a pots experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of charcoal and nitrogen levels on the growth and yield of broccoli. The variety of broccoli used was Centauro. The experiment was laid out in a two-factor Completely Randomized Design with five replications during the winter season of 2019–2020 at Sundarbazar, Lamjung, Nepal. Treatments consisted of four levels of charcoal (0%, 2.5%, 5%, and 7.5% per weight of soil) and three levels of nitrogen (0, 187.5 and 375 kg N ha–1). Results revealed that increasing nitrogen levels from 0 to 375 kg N ha–1 significantly increased the number of leaves, leaf area, head diameter, head weight and aboveground biomass. The maximum head weight per plant (258.77 g) was found by applying a nitrogen level of 375 kg N ha–1 and the lowest value at 0 kg N ha–1. The application of increasing levels of charcoal significantly improved root length, leaf area and head diameter. It was concluded from the results that the optimum nitrogen level for broccoli production could be 375 kg N ha–1.
Keywords: Brassica oleracea L. var. italica, soil conditioner, nitrogen fertilizers, nutrition
Source: Agraarteadus, 2022, 33(1):59–66
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.22.02

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Bhattarai, P., Lamichhane. B., Subedi, P., Khanal, A., Burlakoti, S., Shrestha, J. 2022. Effect of different levels of charcoal and nitrogen on growth and yield traits of broccoli. Agraarteadus, 33(1):59–66. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.02.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Department of Horticulture and Plant Protection, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Lamjung Campus, Sundarbazar Municipality, Ward No. 07, Lamjung, 33600, Nepal
2Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Plant Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Khumaltar, Lalitpur Metropolitan City, Ward No. 15, Lalitpur, 44700, Nepal






 
Highlights: 
  • The application of increasing nitrogen levels from 0 to 375 kg N ha–1 significantly increased the number of leaves, leaf area, head diameter, head weight and above-ground biomass in broccoli.
  • The application of increasing levels of charcoal from 0 to 7.5 % by soil weight significantly improved root length, leaf area and head diameter in broccoli.
  • The broccoli production can be maximized by applying 375 kg N ha–1.

RESEARCH OF A CONTACT STRESSES IN SWIVEL ELEMENTS OF FLEXIBLE SHAFT IN SCREW CONVEYOR FOR TRANSPORTATION OF AGRICULTURAL MATERIALS
67
ABSTRACT
RESEARCH OF A CONTACT STRESSES IN SWIVEL ELEMENTS OF FLEXIBLE SHAFT IN SCREW CONVEYOR FOR TRANSPORTATION OF AGRICULTURAL MATERIALS
ORCID logo Volodymyr Bulgakov1, ORCID logo Jüri Olt2, ORCID logo Semjons Ivanovs3, ORCID logo Oleksandra Trokhaniak1, ORCID logo Jaroslav Gadzalo4, ORCID logo Valerii Adamchuk5, ORCID logo Mykhailo Chernovol6, ORCID logo Simone Pascuzzi7, ORCID logo Francesco Santoro7, ORCID logo Margus Arak2
1National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroiv Oborony St., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
2Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Engineering, 56 Kreutzwaldi St., 51006 Tartu, Estonia
3Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, 5 Cakstes Blvd., LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
4National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 9, Mykhailo Omelyanovych-Pavlenko St., UA 01010, Kyiv, Ukraine
5Institute of Mechanics and Automation of Agricultural Production of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 11 Vokzalna St., Glevakha Stl., Vasylkivsky Dist., UA 08631, Kyiv Region, Ukraine
6Central Ukrainian National Technical University, University Ave., 8, UA 25006 Kropivnitskyi, Kirovograd region, Ukraine
7University of Bari Aldo Moro, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science, Via Amendola 11 165/A, 70126 Bari, Italy
The paper presents the new design of the rotating part with ball-bearing swivel joints between its sections for flexible screw conveyors. The new design provides for the improvement of the operation efficiency and loading capacity, the enhancement of the technological capabilities and the reduction of the admissible curvature radius. The contact stresses in the swivel element as the most loaded area in the rotating part have been analysed. It has been established that the maximum contact stresses arise at the points of contact between the ball and the flat surface of the slot in the cylindrical bushing. The recommended design limitation range for the cavity cone angle is within about 30–50°. The relation between the loads and the stresses depending on the operating conditions has been modelled with the use of computer modelling. The comparison of the computer modelling results and the obtained calculation data has proved that the difference between the respective values varies within the range of 11–26%.
Keywords: bulk agricultural material, contact stress, flexible screw conveyor, pipe, section
Source: Agraarteadus, 2022, 33(1):67–73
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.22.12

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Bulgakov, V., Olt, J., Ivanovs, S., Trokhaniak, O., Gadzalo, J., Adamchuk, V., Chernovol, M., Pascuzzi, S., Santoro, F., Arak, M. 2022. Research of a contact stresses in swivel elements of flexible shaft in screw conveyor for transportation of agricultural materials. Agraarteadus, 33(1):67–73. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.12.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroiv Oborony St., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
2Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Engineering, 56 Kreutzwaldi St., 51006 Tartu, Estonia
3Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, 5 Cakstes Blvd., LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
4National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 9, Mykhailo Omelyanovych-Pavlenko St., UA 01010, Kyiv, Ukraine
5Institute of Mechanics and Automation of Agricultural Production of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 11 Vokzalna St., Glevakha Stl., Vasylkivsky Dist., UA 08631, Kyiv Region, Ukraine
6Central Ukrainian National Technical University, University Ave., 8, UA 25006 Kropivnitskyi, Kirovograd region, Ukraine
7University of Bari Aldo Moro, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science, Via Amendola 11 165/A, 70126 Bari, Italy


 
Highlights: 
  • The calculation of contact stresses has been carried out for the most heavily loaded part in the swivel joint of the auger.  
  • The maximum contact stresses p arise at the points of contact between the ball and the flat surfaces of the slot in the cylindrical bushing.  
  • The maximum effect on the magnitude of the contact stresses р generated in the components of the swivel-joint sectioned auger is produced by the torque Т
  • The magnitude of the contact stresses also depends on the cavity cone surface generatrix angle g

PRODUCTIVITY AND STABILITY OF FOOTHILL MEADOW SPECIES IN THE BALKAN MOUNTAINS CONDITIONS
74
ABSTRACT
PRODUCTIVITY AND STABILITY OF FOOTHILL MEADOW SPECIES IN THE BALKAN MOUNTAINS CONDITIONS
ORCID logo Natalia Georgieva1, ORCID logo Valentin Kosev1, Dimitar Mitev2, ORCID logo Ina Stoycheva1
1Institute of Forage Crops (IFC), 89 Gen. Vladimir Vazov St, 5800 Pleven, Bulgaria
2Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture (RIMSA), 281 Vasil Levski St, 5602 Mladost, Troyan, Bulgaria
The creation of grasslands with the participation of species of local origin, suitable for the climatic conditions of the region and with increased productivity and stability of yield is an important condition for ensuring sustainable or organic feed production. For ecological assessment of meadow species in the semi-mountainous regions of Balkan Mountains according to indicators and parameters related to productivity and stability, an experiment is carried out in the period 2011–2019 in the following variation: Festuca rubra L., Lolium perenne L., Dactylis glomerata L., Arrhenatherum elatius P.B., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Briza maxima L., Trisetum flavescens L., Agrostis alba L. The experiment is performed by the block method, and the methods of regression, variance and nonparametric analysis are used to assess the stability. According to the values of most of the calculated stability parameters (bi, Si2, λi, σ2i, PP, W2, S⁽³⁾, S⁽⁶⁾, NP⁽¹⁾) Dactilis glomerata shows good ecological stability. Dactilis glomerata and French ryegrass are characterized by high stability and yield close to the average for the group. These species are suitable for growing in a wide range of environmental conditions.
Keywords: meadow grasses, evaluation, productivity, stability parameters.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2022, 33(1):74–80
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.22.03

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Georgieva, N., Kosev, V., Mitev, D., Stoycheva, I. 2022. Productivity and stability of foothill meadow species in the Balkan mountains conditions. Agraarteadus, 33(1):74–80. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.03.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Institute of Forage Crops (IFC), 89 Gen. Vladimir Vazov St, 5800 Pleven, Bulgaria
2Research Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture (RIMSA), 281 Vasil Levski St, 5602 Mladost, Troyan, Bulgaria

 
Highlights: 
  • The present study aims to assess 8 meadow species (Festuca rubra, Lolium perenne, Dactylis glomerata, Arrhenatherum elatius, Festuca arundinacea, Briza maxima, Trisetum flavescens, Agrostis alba), which are typical for the semi-mountainous regions in the Balkan Mountains conditions, by indicators and parameters related to productivity and stability.
  • According to the values of most of the calculated stability parameters (bi, Si2, λi, σ2i, PP, W2, S⁽³⁾, S⁽⁶⁾, NP⁽¹⁾) Dactilis glomerata L. shows good ecological stability. The most unstable, but with a high yield of fresh mass is Festuca arundinacea Schreb. (bi = 1.62; 21.00 t ha–1).
  • Complex evaluation by GGE biplot analysis identifies Festuca rubra L. as a species that favourably combines high productivity with relative stability. Also, Dactilis glomerata L. and Arrhenatherum elatius P.B. are characterized by high stability and yield close to the average for the group.

ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF SWEET CORN GROWING WITH NUTRITION OPTIMIZATION
81
ABSTRACT
ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF SWEET CORN GROWING WITH NUTRITION OPTIMIZATION
ORCID logo Yaroslava Hryhoriv1, ORCID logo Valentyna Nechyporenko2, ORCID logo Andrii Butenko2, ORCID logo Margarita Lyshenko2, ORCID logo Maksym Kozak3, ORCID logo Iryna Onopriienko2, ORCID logo Olena Shumkova2, ORCID logo Viktoriia Shumkova2, ORCID logo Lyudmyla Kriuchko2
1Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, 57 Shevchenko St, UA7601841, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine
2Sumy National Agrarian University, 160 H. Kondratieva St, UA40021, Sumy, Ukraine
3Kamianets-Podіlskyi National Ivan Ohiienko University, 61 Ohiienko St, Kamianets-Podilskyi, UA32300, Ukraine
The efficiency of sweet corn production for grain has been studied; economic advantages of cultivation in comparison with other crops have been highlighted. The article presents the results of research on issues of improving the economic efficiency of technology elements for growing sweet corn of the variety Moreland F1 under conditions of Precarpathians of Ukraine. Taking into account the production strategy, have been outlined cost-effective resource-saving and intensive technologies which provide the stable yielding capacity of early-ripening hybrid of sweet corn under conditions of Precarpathians at the level of 4.99–6.65 t ha–1 accordingly with the profit of 370–500 € ha–1 and grain production profitability 112–135%. It is established that under the conditions of application of mineral fertilizers at the dose of N135P90K125 + N60 + N30 in two stages the grain yield of corn increases compared to the absolute control (by 2.26 t ha–1, or 30.3%) with increasing costs per 1 ha of sown area 68.23 €, or 26.4%). In proportion to the increase in yield, the amount of profit, which is 192.42 € ha–1, also increased significantly.
Keywords: corn, cultivation technology, yielding capacity, grain cost, profit, profitability.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2022, 33(1):81–87
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.22.07

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Hryhoriv, Y., Nechyporenko, V., Butenko, A., Lyshenko, M., Kozak, M., Onopriienko, I., Shumkova, O., Shumkova, V., Kriuchko, L.  2022. Economic efficiency of sweet corn growing with nutrition optimization. Agraarteadus, 33(1):81–87. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.07.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, 57 Shevchenko St, UA7601841, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine
2Sumy National Agrarian University, 160 H. Kondratieva St, UA40021, Sumy, Ukraine
3Kamianets-Podіlskyi National Ivan Ohiienko University, 61 Ohiienko St, Kamianets-Podilskyi, UA32300, Ukraine


 
Highlights: 
  • The aim of the research based on an economic evaluation is to establish the efficiency of corn cultivation technologies for grain depending on the level of fertilization.
  • Determine the most appropriate of them to realize the potential of crop productivity with maximum use of agro-climatic and industrial resources.
  • It has been found that the economic efficiency of sweet corn growing technologies depends on the level of their intensity and is determined by the crop reaction to individual agricultural measures and their complex application in a single technological cycle.
  • The results of the economic analysis of sweet corn agrotechnical showed that the best economic efficiency of crop production is ensured by applying mineral fertilizers standard N135P90K125 + N60 + N30, and plant density 60 000 plants ha–1.
  • This agro-technical complex provided the maximum profitability of cultivation of 135%.

CONTENT OF REDUCING SUGARS IN MOSTLY GROWN VEGETABLES IN ESTONIA AFTER HARVESTING AND AFTER STORAGE
88
ABSTRACT
CONTENT OF REDUCING SUGARS IN MOSTLY GROWN VEGETABLES IN ESTONIA AFTER HARVESTING AND AFTER STORAGE
ORCID logo Sirje Jalakas1, ORCID logo Mati Roasto1, ORCID logo Tanel Kaart2, ORCID logo Kristi Praakle1, ORCID logo Mihkel Mäesaar1, ORCID logo Terje Elias1
1Estonian University of Life Sciences Maaülikool, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Chair of Veterinary Biomedicine and Food Hygiene, Tartu
2Estonian University of Life Sciences Maaülikool, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Animal Breeding and Biotechnology, Tartu
The study examined the content of reducing sugars in various varieties of potato, beetroot, turnip and pumpkin most commonly grown in Estonia. This study aimed to determine the varieties of vegetables with the lowest levels of reducing sugars after harvesting and after storage at two different temperatures (3 and 8 °C). In the present study it was found that the potato variety with the lowest content of reducing sugars after harvesting and after six months of storage was potato variety 'Birgit' with 0.19 g 100 g–1after harvesting, 0.98 g 100 g–1 after storage at 3 °C and 0.38 g 100 g–1 after storage at 8 °C, respectively. All three varieties of the beetroot, after harvest, contained a similar amount of reducing sugars. After six months of storage, the lowest content of reducing sugars was determined for variety 'Boro' with 1.22 g 100 g–1 at 3 °C and 0.96 g 100 g–1 at 8 °C, respectively. The lowest average concentrations of reducing sugars from turnips were after harvest in the variety 'Kohalik sinine' with 3.38 g 100 g–1. Also after storage, the same variety had the lowest content of reducing sugars with 8.36 g 100 g–1 at 3 °C and 3.76 g 100 g–1 at 8 °C, respectively. From the pumpkin varieties, the lowest reducing sugars contents were determined for variety 'Gold Medal' with 2.64 g 100 g–1after harvesting, 2.40 g 100 g–1 after storage at 3 °C and 1.90 g 100 g–1 after storage at 8 °C. It can be concluded that all studied vegetables stored at 3 °C contained higher amounts of reducing sugars than those stored at 8 °C.
Keywords: potato, beetroot, turnip, pumpkin, reducing sugar content, storage
Source: Agraarteadus, 2022, 33(1):88–94
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.22.05

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Jalakas, S., Roasto, M., Kaart, T., Praakle, K., Mäesaar, M., Elias, T. 2022. Content of reducing sugars in mostly grown vegetables in Estonia after harvesting and after storage. Agraarteadus, 33(1):88–94. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.05.
Jalakas, S., Roasto, M., Kaart, T., Praakle, K., Mäesaar, M., Elias, T. 2022. Redutseerivate suhkrute sisaldus Eestis enimkasvatatud köögiviljades saagikoristusjärgselt ja pärast säilitamist. Agraarteadus, 33(1):88–94. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.05.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Estonian University of Life Sciences Maaülikool, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Chair of Veterinary Biomedicine and Food Hygiene, Tartu
2Estonian University of Life Sciences Maaülikool, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Animal Breeding and Biotechnology, Tartu


 
Highlights: 
  • The study aimed to determine the varieties of vegetables with the lowest levels of reducing sugars after harvesting and after storage at two different temperatures (3 and 8 °C).
  • The varieties with the lowest content of reducing sugars was potato variety 'Birgit', the beetroot variety 'Boro', the turnip variety 'Kohalik sinine' and pumpkin variety 'Gold Medal'
  • All studied vegetables stored at 3 °C contained higher amounts of reducing sugars than those stored at 8 °C.

EARTHWORMS (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) AND HEAVY METALS: CONTENT AND BIOACCUMULATION IN THE BODY
95
ABSTRACT
EARTHWORMS (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) AND HEAVY METALS: CONTENT AND BIOACCUMULATION IN THE BODY
ORCID logo Mzia Kokhia, ORCID logo Manana Lortkipanidze, ORCID logo Oleg Gorgadze, ORCID logo Madona Kuchava, ORCID logo David Nebieridze
Institute of Zoology, Ilia State University, 3/5 K. Cholokashvili Ave, 0162, Tbilisi, Georgia
Nowadays, when one of the most significant problems for mankind is saving the soil from pollution. It is well-known that one of the most important means of soil rehabilitation and remediation are soil inhabitants, their biodiversity and products of their life activity. Given the significant role of soil inhabitants in soil formation processes, it is important to consider their role in the processes of reprocessing and bioaccumulation of heavy metals. That especially concerns the earthworms, whose role in soil formation and maintenance of natural fertility is well-known and causes the interest of soil scientists and ecologists. The paper shows the degree of bioaccumulation of heavy metals (copper, zinc and lead) in the body of earthworms. Study involved three species of earthworms, which were collected in the vicinity of Tbilisi – Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826), Eisenia veneta (Rosa, 1886) and Allolobophora chlorotica (Savigny, 1826) – showed that earthworms of different species accumulate different amounts of heavy metals – copper, zinc and lead and, depending on the species, after being placed in heavy metals solutions, they demonstrate the different intensity of movement. The amount of heavy metals in the body of an earthworm depends on the structure of the body tissues and maybe on the structure of the skin-muscular sac.
Keywords: earthworms, heavy metals, copper, zinc, lead, Aporrectodea rosea, Eisenia veneta, Allolobophora chlorotica
Source: Agraarteadus, 2022, 33(1):95–100
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.22.20

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Kokhia, M., Lortkipanidze, M., Gorgadze, O., Kuchava, M., Nebieridze, D. 2022. Earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) and heavy metals: content and bioaccumulation in the body. Agraarteadus, 33(1):95–100. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.20.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
Institute of Zoology, Ilia State University, 3/5 K. Cholokashvili Ave, 0162, Tbilisi, Georgia

 
Highlights: 
  • The investigation is devoted to the earthworms, whose role in soil formation and maintenance of natural fertility causes the interest of soil scientists and ecologists.
  • The paper shows the degree of bioaccumulation of heavy metals (copper, zinc and lead) in the body of earthworms.
  • Research provided with three species of earthworms – Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826), Eisenia veneta (Rosa, 1886) and Allolobophora chlorotica (Savigny, 1826).
  • Statistical analysis showed that there are no significant differences between earthworm species in terms of the content of heavy metals.
ORCID logo Raimo Kõlli, Enn Leedu
TECHNOSOLS IN ESTONIAN SOIL CLASSIFICATION: NOMENCLATURE, ESTABLISHMENT AND DIFFERENCES-SIMILARITIES WITH NORMALLY DEVELOPED SOILS
101
ABSTRACT
TECHNOSOLS IN ESTONIAN SOIL CLASSIFICATION: NOMENCLATURE, ESTABLISHMENT AND DIFFERENCES-SIMILARITIES WITH NORMALLY DEVELOPED SOILS
ORCID logo Raimo Kõlli, Enn Leedu
Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Chair of Soil Science, 5 Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi St., 51006 Tartu, Estonia
Technogenic soils (TS) or Technosols are year 2022 soils of Estonia. In Estonian Soil Classification (ESC) totally 17 technogenic soil species is listed (Table 1). By way or mode of their forming or establishing almost four TS groups (formed on heaps of wastes, instead of removed soil cover, on mixed soil horizons with parent materials and buried soil covers) have been separated. In dominating cases by technological elaborating works much more than only humus cover are enfold. In the vertical profile of different development stages TS the humus cover, consisting from fine earth subsoil and parent material may be presented (or occur). In the work separately the formed on mineral and organic (mostly peats) origin parent material TS are treated. Among mineral TS by their moisture conditions the automorphic, moist and wet soils are distinguished. Among peaty TS the formed on fen (sapric) and bog (fibric) peats soils are prevailed. The main difference between grounds (non-soil) and TS is their functioning. The real TS is as sustainably functioning assemblage of soil and plant covers or soil-plant system. The concordance or matching of presented in ESC TS’ taxa with World Reference Bases for Soil Resources (WRB) and Polish Soil Classification taxa was elucidated by comparable analysis. The distribution and forming of soils associations with normally developed soils and non-soils (grounds) is characterised by mean of excerpts from digitalized large-scale soil map (1:10,000) and schematic distribution maps. In the work as well the peculiarities of establishing technologies of mineral and peaty TS is treated.
Keywords: technogenic soil or technosol, bare ground or non-soil, humus cover, subsoil, parent material, establishment, productivity
Source: Agraarteadus, 2022, 33(1):101–117
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.22.22

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Kõlli, R., Leedu, E. 2022. Tehismullad Eesti muldade klassifikatsioonis: nomenklatuur, rajamine ja erinevused-sarnasused normaalselt arenenud muldadega. Agraarteadus, 33(1):101–117. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.22. [In Estonian]
Kõlli, R., Leedu, E. 2022. Technosols in Estonian soil classification: Nomenclature, establishment and differences-similarities with normally developed soils. Agraarteadus, 33(1):101–117. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.22. [In Estonian]
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Chair of Soil Science, 5 Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi St., 51006 Tartu, Estonia

 
Highlights: 
  • Technogenic soils or Technosols are the year 2022 soils of Estonia
  • By the mode of Technosols establishing totally four Technosols, types have been separated; they may be formed (1) on heaps of wastes, (2) instead of removed soil cover, (3) on the mixture of soil horizons with parent materials, and (4) as buried soil covers
  • In Estonian Soil Classification totally of 17 Technogenic soil species are listed
  • By moisture conditions the mineral Technosols may be automorphic, moist and wet; the peaty Technosols have been formed on fen (sapric) and bog (fibric) peats
  • The main difference between grounds (non-soil) and Technosols is their functioning; the main property of Technosols is the sustainably functioning assemblage of soil and plant covers
  • As a rule by technological works in elaborating Technosols parent materials much more than only humus cover is enfolded

APPLICATION EFFICACY OF NEWLY RELEASED PRE-MIXED HERBICIDE IN WINTER WHEAT: JOYSTICK®
118
ABSTRACT
APPLICATION EFFICACY OF NEWLY RELEASED PRE-MIXED HERBICIDE IN WINTER WHEAT: JOYSTICK®
ORCID logo Ebrahim Mamnoie1, ORCID logo Mohammad Reza Karaminejad2, ORCID logo Akbar Aliverdi3, ORCID logo Mehdi Minbashi Moeini2
1Plant Protection Research Department, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Janbazan Blvd, Shiraz, 7155863511, Iran
2Department of Weed Research, Plant Pest and Disease Research Institute, AREEO, Yaman St, Tehran, 1985813111, Iran
3Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Shahid Mostafa Ahmadi Roshan St, Hamedan, 6516738695, Iran
In a field experiment, the efficacy of the newly released pre-mixed herbicide, Joystick®, in comparison with other pre-mixed herbicides was evaluated in winter wheat, Iran. The treatments included: weedy check, weed-free check (hand-weeded), Bromicide®MA at 600 g a.i. ha–1 + Axial® at 60 g a.i. ha–1, Othello® at 96 g a.i. ha–1, Axial One® at 55, 65, 75, and 85 g a.i. ha–1, Joystick® at 80, 94, and 108 g a.i. ha–1. The latter three treatments mentioned were applied with and without non-ionic surfactant Citogate® at 0.1% v v–1. The results revealed that all treatments significantly decreased the density and dry biomass of each weed species and increased the grain yield and biological yield of wheat. The highest performing treatment was Bromicide®MA + Axial®, followed by Joystick® at 108 g a.i. ha–1 plus Citogate®. The application of Joystick® at 108 g a.i. ha–1 plus Citogate® decreased the biomass of Malva neglecta, Lolium rigidum, Hirschfeldia incana, Centaurea pallescens, Veronica persica, and Carthamus oxyacantha up to 96.2, 78.1, 100, 91.0, 91.0, and 96.1%; respectively; with an 88% reduction in total weed dry biomass. Because of Joystick® at 108 g a.i. ha–1 plus Citogate® activity against weed species, the grain and biological yields of wheat improved up to 28% as compared to weedy check treatment.
Keywords: chemical control, herbicide mixtures, surfactant
Source: Agraarteadus, 2022, 33(1):118–123
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.22.13

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Mamnoie, E., Karaminejad, M.R., Aliverdi, A., Moeini, M.M. 2022. Application efficacy of newly released pre-mixed herbicide in winter wheat: Joystick®. Agraarteadus, 33(1):118–123. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.13.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Plant Protection Research Department, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Janbazan Blvd, Shiraz, 7155863511, Iran
2Department of Weed Research, Plant Pest and Disease Research Institute, AREEO, Yaman St, Tehran, 1985813111, Iran
3Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Shahid Mostafa Ahmadi Roshan St, Hamedan, 6516738695, Iran



 
Highlights: 
  • Tank-mixing Bromicide®MA + Axial® can be effectively applied in wheat.
  • Joystick® applied at the labelled dose did not effective compared with Othello®.
  • The greater the WCE of herbicides, the more the number of spikes m2 –1 and grains spike–1 of wheat.
  • Joystick® was less effective against L. rigidum.

SHORT COMMUNICATION: GUTTATION OF OAT AND WHEAT AND THE RESULTS OF ITS COMPARISON WITH THE YIELD
124
ABSTRACT
SHORT COMMUNICATION: GUTTATION OF OAT AND WHEAT AND THE RESULTS OF ITS COMPARISON WITH THE YIELD
ORCID logo Edvin Nugis1, ORCID logo Jaan Kuht2
1Estonian Crop Research Institute, J. Aamisepa 1, 48309 Jõgeva, Jõgeva vald, Estonia
2Estonian University of Life Sciences, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
The present paper aims to give an overview of results collected in the Estonian Crop Research Institute related to the comparison between guttation and yield in grain crop cereals. The objects of research were oat variety 'Eugen' and wheat 'Manu', which went through the stages of germinating their seeds (in vitro), set them by sprouts down into the soil, and the emergence of sprouts under conditions of a hydrothermostat. Since transpiration in a hydrother­mostat at an air temperature of 23 °C, and an extremely high value of air relative humidity was limited, therefore, due to this, the plant sprouts have begun to exude guttation fluid. As result, we have found that the amount of isolated gutted fluid correlates significantly with the grain yields of field trials indicators. The comparison between relative guttation and relative yield was described by a straightforward relationship. The entire experiment took about one week, and the first results of droplet prints on filter paper can be obtained after 60 hours. This was the novelty of our approach which provides the prerequisites for both increasing the reliability of conclusions regarding the yield obtained and its forecast.
Keywords: relative guttation, relative yield, laboratory tests, spring wheat, oat.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2022, 33(1):124–127
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.22.06

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Nugis, E., Kuht, J. 2022. Short communication: Guttation of oat and wheat and the results of its comparison with the yield. Agraarteadus, 33(1):124–127. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.06.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Estonian Crop Research Institute, J. Aamisepa 1, 48309 Jõgeva, Jõgeva vald, Estonia
2Estonian University of Life Sciences, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia


 
Highlights: 
  • Results of comparison between guttation and yield in grain crop cereals.
  • The objects of research were oat (variety “Eugen”) and spring wheat (variety “Manu”) which went through the stages of germinating their seeds (in vitro).
  • The laboratory experiments were carried out (2015–2016) in the Saku Sector laboratory of the Estonian Crop Research Institute (ECRI).
  • The comparison between relative guttation and relative yield is described by a straightforward relationship.
  • The entire experiment takes about one week, and the first results of droplet prints on filter paper can be obtained after 60 hours.
  • This is the novelty of our approach which provides the necessary prerequisites for both increasing the reliability of conclusions regarding the yield obtained and with its forecast.

EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT ADJUVANTS ON EFFICACY OF STELLAR (TOPREMAZONE PLUS DICAMBA) APPLIED AT REDUCED RATES IN MAIZE (Zea mays L.)
128
ABSTRACT
EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT ADJUVANTS ON EFFICACY OF STELLAR (TOPREMAZONE PLUS DICAMBA) APPLIED AT REDUCED RATES IN MAIZE (Zea mays L.)
ORCID logo Zvonko Pacanoski1, ORCID logo Alirami Saliji2, ORCID logo Arben Mehmeti3
1Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Food, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, 16-ta Makedonska brigade 3, Skopje, R.N. Macedonia
2Faculty of Agriculture and Biotechnology, University of Tetova, Ilinden St., nn. 1200 Tetovo, R.N. Macedonia
3Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary, University of Prishtina, Bill Clinton St, nn. 10000, Prishtinë, Republic of Kosovo
Field experiments were carried out in 2017 and 2018 on two individual farms that grew maize for grain, in Tetovo and Skopje locality, to determine the effectiveness of different adjuvants on the efficacy of Stellar applied at reduced rates. Herbicide treatment selectivity and influence on grain yield were estimated, as well. Both sites were naturally infested with a high population of Polygonum lapathifolium L., Chenopodium album L., Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. and Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. Overall efficacy of herbicides in control of weeds 28 DAT was ranged of 77% (Stellar + White oil applied at 0.125 + 0.2 L ha–1) to 98% (Stellar + Trend applied at 0.75 + 1.0 L ha–1) in Tetovo locality, and 64% (Stellar + White oil applied at 0.125 + 0.2 L ha–1) to 99% (Stellar + DASH applied at 0.75 + 2.0 L ha–1) in Skopje locality, respectively. In both localities, the efficacy of the full rate of Stellar (90 and 80%, respectively) was on the level of Stellar + White oil applied at 0.25 + 0.2 L ha–1 (90 and 78%, respectively). Herbicide efficacy 56 DAT was similar to the previous period of estimation. Efficacy of herbicide and herbicide plus adjuvants treatments in control of prevailing weeds 28 and 56 DAT ranged from 22–100% in Tetovo locality and 30–100% in Skopje locality, respectively. No visual maize injured was determined by any herbicide treatments in both localities for both years. Maize grain yields for each treatment in both localities generally reflected overall weed control.
Keywords: herbicide, adjuvant, maize, weeds
Source: Agraarteadus, 2022, 33(1):128–138
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.22.15

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Pacanoski, Z., Saliji, A., Mehmeti, A. 2022. Effectiveness of different adjuvants on efficacy of stellar (topremazone plus dicamba) applied at reduced rates in maize (Zea mays L.). Agraarteadus, 33(1):128–138. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.15.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Food, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, 16-ta Makedonska brigade 3, Skopje, R.N. Macedonia
2Faculty of Agriculture and Biotechnology, University of Tetova, Ilinden St., nn. 1200 Tetovo, R.N. Macedonia
3Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary, University of Prishtina, Bill Clinton St, nn. 10000, Prishtinë, Republic of Kosovo


 
Highlights: 
  • The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of different adjuvants on the efficacy of Stellar applied at reduced rates and to determine its effect on maize weed control and grain yield. 
  • Efficacy of herbicide and herbicide plus adjuvants treatments in control of prevailing weeds 28 and 56 DAT ranged from 22–100% in Tetovo locality and 30–100% in Skopje locality, respectively. 
  • It is quite interesting that no visual maize injured was determined by any herbicide treatments in both localities for both years. 
  •  Maize grain yields for each treatment in both localities generally reflected overall weed control.

EFFECT OF FUNGICIDES ON MYCOSIS PROGRESSION AND POTATO YIELDS
139
ABSTRACT
EFFECT OF FUNGICIDES ON MYCOSIS PROGRESSION AND POTATO YIELDS
ORCID logo Oleksandr Sayuk, ORCID logo Natalia Plotnytska, ORCID logo Ruslan Troyachenko, ORCID logo Olga Ovezmyradova
Faculty of Agronomy, Polissia National University, 7 Staryi Blvd, Zhytomyr, UA10008, Ukraine
The efficiency of crop cultivation technologies, including potatoes, can decrease under the influence of pests, especially in the case of untimely or low-quality protective measures. Pathogens parasitizing the vegetative surface of plants have a significant impact on the quality and yield of potato tubers. Such pathogens are fungi Phytophthora infestans (Mont) de Bary, Alternaria solani Sorauer and Alternaria alternata Keis, which are the causative agents of late blight and early blight. Early manifestation and significant development of these diseases during the growing season can lead to losses, which are estimated at 4 billion euros per year. Studies by many scientists reveal a significant positive result from the use of fungicides during the growing season of plants, harvesting and storage of crops. This article investigated the efficacy of fungicides against late blight and early blight and their effects on yield and tuber quality of the early maturing potato variety Bellarosa. The research was conducted from 2018 to 2020 at the PE Zherm of the Zhytomyr region Ukraine. The experiment scheme consisted of the following variants: Control – spraying of plants with water; Variant 1. Ridomil Gold MC 68 WP, (mancozeb, 640 g kg–1 + metalaxyl M, 40 g kg–1) – 2.5 kg ha–1 – the reference variant; Variant 2. Infinito 61 SC, 68.75% (fluopycolide, 62.5 g L–1 + propamocarb hydrochloride, 625 g L–1) – 1.5 L ha–1; Variant 3. Quadris TOP 325 SC, 32.5% (azoxystrobin, 200 g L–1 + difenoconazole, 125 g L–1) – 0.8 L ha–1. It has been established that the application of fungicides in the potato plantings against late blight and early blight reduces the spread of the leaf spot by 1.4–2.0 times at the end of the vegetation period, and its development – by 1.8–2.9 times in comparison with the Control variant. An increase in yield of potato tubers of Bellarosa variety due to the application of fungicides against leaf spot disease was within 4.5–10.9 t ha–1 in comparison with the Control variant. Among the studied preparations, the best indicators were obtained when using the fungicide Infinito 61 SC, 68.75% in potato plantings against late blight and early blight. Application of this preparation helped to reduce the spread of the studied diseases by 2.0 times, the development of diseases by 2.9 times, and increase the yield by 1.4 times compared to the variant without fungicides application. Application of fungicides also contributed to the improved quality of the tubers; in particular, we observed an increase of the dry matter content in tubers by 0.1–0.6%, ascorbic acid – by 0.2–1.1 mg% 100 g–1 compared to the variant without using the preparations.
Keywords: potato, late blight, early blight, fungicides, disease spreading, disease development, technical efficiency, yield
Source: Agraarteadus, 2022, 33(1):139–145
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.22.16

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Sayuk, O., Plotnytska, N., Troyachenko, R., Ovezmyradova, O. 2022. Effect of fungicides on mycosis progression and potato yields. Agraarteadus, 33(1):139–145. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.16.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
Faculty of Agronomy, Polissia National University, 7 Staryi Blvd, Zhytomyr, UA10008, Ukraine

 
Highlights: 
  • Investigated the efficacy of fungicides  Ridomil Gold MC 68 WP, (mancozeb, 640 g kg–1 + metalaxyl M, 40 g kg–1),  Infinito 61 SC, 68.75% (fluopycolide, 62.5 g L–1 + propamocarb hydrochloride, 625 g L–1) – 1.5 L ha–1,  Quadris TOP 325 SC, 32.5% (azoxystrobin, 200 g L–1 + difenoconazole, 125 g L–1) against late blight and early blight and their effects on yield and tuber quality of the early maturing potato variety Bellarosa.
  • Application of fungicides in the potato plantings against late blight and early blight reduces the spread of the leaf spot by 1.4–2.0 times at the end of the vegetation period, and its development – by 1.8–2.9 times in comparison with the Control variant.
  • The use of fungicides against leaf spot promotes an increase in the yield of Bellarosa potato tubers in the range of 4.5–10.9 t ha–1
  • The best indicators were obtained when using the fungicide Infinito 61 SC, 68.75% in potato plantings against late blight and early blight.
  • The use of fungicides also contributed to the growth of dry matter and ascorbic acid in the tubers.

RETROSPECTIVE: DURATION AND EFFICIENCY OF DAIRY COWS PRODUCTIVE LIFESPAN DEPENDING ON AGE AT FIRST CALVING AND FIRST LACTATION MILK PRODUCTIVITY
146
ABSTRACT
RETROSPECTIVE: DURATION AND EFFICIENCY OF DAIRY COWS PRODUCTIVE LIFESPAN DEPENDING ON AGE AT FIRST CALVING AND FIRST LACTATION MILK PRODUCTIVITY
ORCID logo Vitalii Siriak1, ORCID logo Yuriy Polupan1, ORCID logo Ruslana Stavetska2
1Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics nd. a. M.V. Zubets of National Academy of Agrarian Science of Ukraine, 1 Pogrebniaka, Chubynske, Boryspilskyi rayon, Kyivska oblast, 08321, Ukraine
2Department of Genetics, Breeding and Selection of Animals, Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, pl. 8/1 Soborna, Bila Tserkva, Kyivska oblast, 09117, Ukraine
The retrospective analysis involved 562 Holstein cows, 545 Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy cows and 100 Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy cows in Breeding Station Terezyne, Kyiv region. The influence of age at first calving and first lactation milk yield on the duration and efficiency of the productive lifespan of cows was studied. The results showed that with the increase of age at first calving from less than 22 to more than 34 months there was a steady tendency to reduction in the longevity and lifetime productivity of cows. There was found a statistically significant (P <0.001) inverse correlation between the age at first calving and indicators of duration and efficiency of productive lifespan
(r = –0.177…–0.459). The age at first calving determines 3.0–21.2% of the phenotypic variability of the considered indicators of duration and efficiency of the productive lifespan of cows (P <0.001). According to the set of features, the most rational is the planning of age at first calving before 26 months, i.e. heifers need to be served before 15 months of age. With the first lactation milk yield increases and the duration and efficiency of the productive lifespan of cows increase curvilinearly. Higher longevity is typical for cows with an average 305-d milk yield in the first lactation of 6 001–8 000 kg, and higher lifetime productivity – with the highest milk yield in the first lactation (over 9 000 kg). There was found a relatively low positive correlation between 305-d milk yield in the first lactation and the parity and lifespan (r = 0.087…0.164, P <0.001) and a moderately significant relationship – with lifetime productivity and lifetime daily milk yield (r = 0.327…0.504, P <0.001). The milk yield of primiparous cows has a relatively low impact on the variability of lifespan, productive lifetime and total lactation length (ηx2 = 3.6–5.6%, P <0.001) and a higher impact on the indicators of lifetime milk productivity and milk productivity per one day of life, productive lifetime and lactation (ηx2 = 12.5–35.6%, P <0.001). The productive lifespan of cows with first lactation milk yield over 6 000 kg can be considered quite effective.
Keywords: dairy cows, longevity, lifetime productivity, age at first calving, first lactation milk productivity
Source: Agraarteadus, 2022, 33(1):146–153
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.22.14

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Siriak, V., Polupan, Y., Stavetska, R. 2022. Retrospective: duration and efficiency of dairy cows productive lifespan depending on age at first calving and first lactation milk productivity. Agraarteadus, 33(1):146–153. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.14.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics nd. a. M.V. Zubets of National Academy of Agrarian Science of Ukraine, 1 Pogrebniaka, Chubynske, Boryspilskyi rayon, Kyivska oblast, 08321, Ukraine
2Department of Genetics, Breeding and Selection of Animals, Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, pl. 8/1 Soborna, Bila Tserkva, Kyivska oblast, 09117, Ukraine


 
Highlights: 
  • The influence of age at first calving and first lactation milk yield on the duration and efficiency of the productive lifespan of cows was studied.
  • The results showed that with the increase of age at first calving from less than 22 to more than 34 months there was a steady tendency to reduction in the longevity and lifetime productivity of cows. According to the set of features, the most rational is the planning of age at first calving before 26 months, i.e. heifers need to be served before 15 months of age.
  • With the first lactation milk yield increases and the duration and efficiency of the productive lifespan of cows increase curvilinearly. The productive lifespan of cows with first lactation milk yield over 6 000 kg can be considered quite effective, as long as provides a lifetime milk yield of more than 24 tons and a lifetime milk fat and milk protein yields of more than 1.7 tons.
  • The age at first calving determines 3.0–21.2% of the phenotypic variability of the duration and efficiency of productive lifespan of cows (P <0.001), the milk yield of primiparous cow – 3.60–35.6% (Р <0.001).

FORTIFICATION OF MEAT PRODUCTS OF GEESE FARMING WITH LITHIUM BY INTRODUCING IT INTO POULTRY MIXED FEED
154
ABSTRACT
FORTIFICATION OF MEAT PRODUCTS OF GEESE FARMING WITH LITHIUM BY INTRODUCING IT INTO POULTRY MIXED FEED
ORCID logo Olexander Sobolev1, ORCID logo Olexander O. Borshch1, ORCID logo Ihor Riznychuk2, ORCID logo Olena Kyshlaly2
1Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, Department of Biotechnology, Pl 8/1, Soborna Sq, 09117 Bila Tserkva, Ukraine
2Odessa State Agrarian University, 99 Kanatna St, 65039 Odessa, Ukraine
We studied the possibility of fortification of goslings’ products with lithium and peculiarities of its depositing in the organs and tissues of goslings concerning lithium level in the mixed feed. Experimental studies have been conducted on the goose breed Legart. 320 one-day-old goslings were divided on the principle of analogues into four groups, 80 heads each. The goslings of the first control group did not receive the lithium supplement with the feed mix. Experimental groups were fed with the feed where additionally was supplemented with different doses of lithium by the scheme of the experiment. After 70 days of rearing, three birds were randomly selected from each group and control slaughtered. The lithium content in the representative samples of muscle tissue and organs of goslings was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). It was established that feeding the growing goslings with mixed feed containing lithium supplements in doses of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mg kg–1, contributed to the increase (P <0.001) of the concentration of this trace element in the muscles of the thigh and drumstick 789.5, 1589.5 and 3447.4%, in the muscles of the breast 1096.8, 2080.6 and 3948.4%, liver are 455.4, 824.6 and 1440.8% respectively, compared to goslings that did not receive lithium supplements. Significant high values of lithium accumulation factors in organs and tissues of gosling (3.21–14.44) indicated that this element has a substantial accumulating capacity. The meat of goslings enriched with lithium can be considered a natural product with bio-corrective action that can be used in human nutrition. These meat products can be particularly useful for people that are living in regions with a low environmental level of lithium.
Keywords: lithium, goslings, accumulation, meat
Source: Agraarteadus, 2022, 33(1):154–161
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.22.11

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Sobolev, O., Borshch, O.O., Riznychuk, I., Kyshlaly, O. 2022. Fortification of meat products of geese farming with lithium by introducing it into poultry mixed feed. Agraarteadus, 33(1):154–161. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.11.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, Department of Biotechnology, Pl 8/1, Soborna Sq, 09117 Bila Tserkva, Ukraine
2Odessa State Agrarian University, 99 Kanatna St, 65039 Odessa, Ukraine


 
Highlights: 
  • The features of lithium accumulation in the muscle tissue and liver of young goslings are revealed and the possibility of enrichment of meat products with this trace element is proved by its level regulation in mixed feed.
  • With the increase in the level of lithium in the feed mix for geese its concentration in muscle tissue and liver of poultry was increasing correspondently.
  • Тhe concentration of lithium in tissues and organs of gosling increases in the following range: the muscles of the thigh and drumstick < muscles of the breast < liver.
  • The fairly high values of lithium in the biological accumulation coefficients in organs and tissues of gosling (3.21–14.44) indicated that this element has a substantial accumulating capacity.
  • The consumption of lithium-enriched goslings’ meat within the recommended physiological norms in Ukraine can cover up to 14.0% of the daily requirement of an adult in this trace element.
  • The meat of young goslings can be significantly enriched with lithium, and consequently can be considered a natural functional product that may be included into daily the diet of the human.

ORCID logo Marina Stamatopoulou, Irini Tzimitra-Kalogianni
CONSUMERS' PROFILE ANALYSIS FOR CHICKEN MEAT, DURING THE FIRST WAVE OF COVID-19 PANDEMIC: CASE OF NORTHERN GREECE
162
ABSTRACT
CONSUMERS' PROFILE ANALYSIS FOR CHICKEN MEAT, DURING THE FIRST WAVE OF COVID-19 PANDEMIC: CASE OF NORTHERN GREECE
ORCID logo Marina Stamatopoulou, Irini Tzimitra-Kalogianni
Department of Agricultural Economics, School of Agriculture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
During the years of 2015–2016 in Greece, an increase of imports of poultry meat has been occurred on a level of 10.2%, whereas in the years of 2018–2019 the increase has only reached the level of 1.9%. On the contrary, a reduction on a level of 14.2% on poultry meat imports, in Greece, between the years of 2019–2020 have shown the possible implications of the COVID-19 pandemic to poultry meat consumption and possibly to chicken meat consumption. Moreover, the Food related lifestyle (FRL) can be defined as a system of consumers' cognitive categories and relationships that connect a set of food-related behaviours, with a set of personal values of each consumer. Hence, this paper aims to segment Greek consumers according to their food-related lifestyles values and is tried to identify the aspects that may determine consumers' behaviour towards chicken meat preference, during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Four consumer segments appeared: "Sociable and safety seekers", "Light concerned and cooks", "Unconcerned and price seekers", "Innovative and moderate concerned". Uni- and multivariate statistical techniques have been used. Consumers' profiles that demonst­rated different food-related attitudes towards the pandemic were analysed with the use of variables: gender, age, marital status, educational level, monthly income and chicken meat quality cues. Significant differences were found between the four segments in terms of gender, age and income. Moreover, "Light concerned and cooks" and "Innovative and moderate concerned" consumers revealed to consider the place of purchasing as a dominant extrinsic quality cue of chicken meat. Furthermore, these consumers appeared to trust butcher in terms of the safety of chicken meat that they purchased, whereas only the consumers of the segment of "Light concerned and cooks" showed a willingness to pay a higher amount for chicken meat that is produced by animal welfare standards.
Keywords: food-related lifestyle, chicken meat, COVID-19 pandemic.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2022, 33(1):162–175
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.22.01

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Stamatopoulou, M., Tzimitra-Kalogianni, I. 2022. Consumers' profile analysis for chicken meat, during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic: Case of Northern Greece. Agraarteadus, 33(1):162–175. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.01.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
Department of Agricultural Economics, School of Agriculture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece

 
Highlights: 
  • This study aims to segment Greek consumers according to their food-related lifestyles values and tries to identify the aspects that may determine consumers' behaviour towards chicken meat, during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Uni- and multivariate statistical techniques have been used.
  • Consumers' profiles were analysed with the use of variables: gender, age, marital status, educational level, monthly income and chicken meat quality cues.
  • Four consumer segments appeared: "Sociable and safety seekers", "Light concerned and cooks", "Unconcerned and price seekers", "Innovative and moderate concerned'.

ESTIMATION OF SPECIES ALLELOPATHIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TO PERENNIAL WEEDS BY DETAILING THE FORMATION PERIOD OF GERMINATED SEEDS OF OILSEED RADISH (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiformis Pers.) AS THE TEST OBJECT
176
ABSTRACT
ESTIMATION OF SPECIES ALLELOPATHIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TO PERENNIAL WEEDS BY DETAILING THE FORMATION PERIOD OF GERMINATED SEEDS OF OILSEED RADISH (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiformis Pers.) AS THE TEST OBJECT
ORCID logo Yaroslav H. Tsytsiura
Faculty of Agronomy and Forestry, Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3 Sonyachna St, 21008, Vinnytsia, Ukraine
The allelopathic impact of 23 perennial weed species on oilseed radish by petri dish and soil bioassays was studied. Weed extracts were prepared at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 16.0%. The influence of the weed extract on germination and seedling growth of oilseed radish was analyzed according to several germination indexes. The "speed of germination", "coefficient of the velocity of germination" and the resulting levels of allelopathic potential in terms of seed germination (APG) were used to assess the allelopathic effect of the researched weed species. The application of indicators allowed determining the specific features of the influence of extracts of perennial weeds on the duration of the germination period, the effects of germination delay and the general prolongation of the period of formation of similar seeds with typification on classification groups. Conducted daily surveys for the calculation of these indices allowed to obtain a graphical interpretation of the reaction of the seeds of the test object to the extract of each weed species. This allowed identifying species of weeds for which the use of oilseed radish in the system of its biological control will be effective.
Keywords: allelopathic impact, germination, growth processes, oilseed radish, weed extracts.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2022, 33(1):176–191
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.22.09

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Tsytsiura, Y.H. 2022. Estimation of species allelopathic susceptibility to perennial weeds by detailing the formation period of germinated seeds of oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiformis Pers.) as the test object. Agraarteadus, 33(1):176–191. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.09.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
Faculty of Agronomy and Forestry, Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3 Sonyachna St, 21008, Vinnytsia, Ukraine

Phone: +380 675 854 008
 
Highlights: 
  • The allelopathic reaction of oil radish at the stage of germination to aqueous extracts of the main perennial weeds of the dynamic range of concentrations 0.25–16.0% was identified.
  • Binary germination methodology (filter paper and soil) was used.
  • The efficiency of oilseed radish competitiveness to perennial weeds on the basis of periodization and prolongation of the formation of the share of germinated seeds in the daily accounting is determined.

CHANGES IN THE NITROGEN COMPOUND TRANSFORMATION PROCESSES OF TYPICAL CHERNOZEM DEPENDING ON THE TILLAGE SYSTEMS AND FERTILIZERS
192
ABSTRACT
CHANGES IN THE NITROGEN COMPOUND TRANSFORMATION PROCESSES OF TYPICAL CHERNOZEM DEPENDING ON THE TILLAGE SYSTEMS AND FERTILIZERS
ORCID logo Oleksiy Tsyuk1, ORCID logo Mykola Tkachenko2, ORCID logo Andrii Butenko3, ORCID logo Yurii Mishchenko3, ORCID logo Iryna Kondratiuk2, ORCID logo Dmytro Litvinov1, ORCID logo Yuliia Tsiuk4, ORCID logo Yurii Sleptsov1
1National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroiv Oborony, Kyiv, 03041, Ukraine
2National Scientific Center, Institute of Agriculture of NAAS, Kyiv, Ukraine
3Sumy National Agrarian University, 160 H. Kondratieva St., UA40021, Sumy, Ukraine
4Central Testing State Laboratory of the State Food with Consumer Service in Kyiv region and Kyiv, 26 Balukova St., Vyshneve, Kyiv region
The analysis of efficiency’s research of interrelation between soil’s biomass and tillage systems and fertilizers is done. The number of microorganisms responsible for the transformation of nitrogen compounds and their state in typical black soil was studied. There is evidence-based scientific and practical research on the effectiveness of these microbiological processes and the improvement of environmental performance through the various fertilizer systems and soil tillage. The use of an organic-mineral fertilizer system increases the total number of soil microorganisms and exponential mobilization processes, compared to the variant without fertilizers. This pattern is clear in the variants of shelf tillage for row crop rotation. The number of microorganisms that absorb mineral compounds of nitrogen decreased by 24%, bacteria ammonification by 1.5–5.7% compared to plough tillage. The ratio between the number of microorganisms accounted for the nutrient laboratory solutions for organic-mineral fertilizer system, compared to variants without fertilizers, is greater by 20–26% for differentiated and 14–35% for shallow tillage.
Keywords: typical chernozem, soil microcoenosis, fertilizers, tillage, mineralization-immobilization coefficient
Source: Agraarteadus, 2022, 33(1):192–198
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.22.23

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Tsyuk, O., Tkachenko, M., Butenko, A., Mishchenko, Y., Kondratiuk, I., Litvinov, D., Tsiuk, Y., Sleptsov, Y.  2022. Changes in the nitrogen compound transformation processes of typical chernozem depending on the tillage systems and fertilizers. Agraarteadus, 33(1):192–198. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.23.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroiv Oborony, Kyiv, 03041, Ukraine
2National Scientific Center, Institute of Agriculture of NAAS, Kyiv, Ukraine
3Sumy National Agrarian University, 160 H. Kondratieva St., UA40021, Sumy, Ukraine
4Central Testing State Laboratory of the State Food with Consumer Service in Kyiv region and Kyiv, 26 Balukova St., Vyshneve, Kyiv region


 
Highlights: 
  • The number of microorganisms responsible for the transformation of nitrogen compounds and their state in typical black soil was studied.
  • The use of an organic-mineral fertilizer system increases the total number of soil microorganisms and exponential mobilization processes, compared to the variant without fertilizers.
  • The ratio between the number of microorganisms accounted for the nutrient laboratory solutions for organic-mineral fertilizer system, compared to variants without fertilizers, is greater by 20–26% for differentiated and 14–35% for shallow tillage.
  • A study of the impact of the transformation of nitrogen compounds of chernozem typical of tillage and fertilizer systems showed that without the use of fertilizers microorganisms that use mineral forms of nitrogen, their number increased by 27%, and the organo-mineral system – by 1.6 times.
  • There was a decrease in ammonifying bacteria in non-shelf tillage by 1.5–5.7% compared to shelf tillage.
  • The coefficient of mineralization – immobilization of nitrogen is significantly reduced by 3–13% with shallow tillage compared to differentiated.

THE MODEL FOR RANDOM PACKAGING OF SMALL-SEEDED CROPS’ SEEDS IN THE RESERVOIR OF SELECTION SEEDERS SOWING UNIT
199
ABSTRACT
THE MODEL FOR RANDOM PACKAGING OF SMALL-SEEDED CROPS’ SEEDS IN THE RESERVOIR OF SELECTION SEEDERS SOWING UNIT
ORCID logo Vitalii Yaropud1, ORCID logo Inna Honcharuk1, ORCID logo Dmytro Datsiuk1, ORCID logo Elchyn Aliiev2
1Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3 Sonyachna St, Vinnytsia, 21008, Ukraine
2Institute of Oilseed Crops of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Institutskaya St, v. Sonyachne, Zaporozhye region, 69093, Ukraine
The sowing unit is one of the most important working bodies of the drill. It is used to select from the total mass of a certain number of seeds and the formation of their output flow with the specified parameters. Therefore, the advantages and disadvantages of seeders, in terms of the quality of seed distribution in a row and general in the sown field, are mainly determined by the work of sowing machines. The research was carried out to develop a model of random packing of seeds of small-seeded crops in the tank of the sowing apparatus of the selection drill. The research was conducted based on numerical simulation in the software package of the CAE-system Simcenter STAR-CCM +. Because of research, the mathematical model of casual packing of seeds of small-seeded cultures in the capacity of the sowing device of a selection seeder is developed that allowed defining the equation of regression of its density from the effective diameter of seeds and coefficient of variation of this diameter. As a result of research of process of work of the batcher of the sowing device of a selection seeder regularity of change of its throughput from an angle of inclination of a gate, type of a form of executions (triangle, semicircle, rectangle) in the form of a polynomial of the third degree are received. It is established that the choice of the triangular shape of the dispenser allows for ensuring the highest accuracy of seed dosing.
Keywords: seeds, sowing unit, model, random packing, parameters, efficiency.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2022, 33(1):199–208
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.22.08

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Yaropud, V., Honcharuk, I., Datsiuk, D., Aliiev, E. 2022. The model for random packaging of small-seeded crops’ seeds in the reservoir of selection seeders sowing unit. Agraarteadus, 33(1):199–208. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.08.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
1Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3 Sonyachna St, Vinnytsia, 21008, Ukraine
2Institute of Oilseed Crops of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Institutskaya St, v. Sonyachne, Zaporozhye region, 69093, Ukraine


 
Highlights: 
  • Because of research, the mathematical model of casual packing of seeds of small-seeded cultures incapacity of the sowing device of a selection seeder is developed that allowed defining the equation of regression of its density from an effective diameter of seeds and coefficient of variation of this diameter.
  • As a result of research of process of work of the batcher of the sowing device of a selection seeder regularity of change of its throughput from an angle of inclination of a gate, type of a form of executions (triangle, semicircle, rectangle) in the form of a polynomial of the third degree are received.
  • It was established that the choice of the triangular shape of the dispenser allows for ensuring the highest accuracy of seed dosing.
THE EFFECT OF SUPERABSORBENT AND DIFFERENT RATES OF THE LOCAL FERTILIZER ON GARLIC PRODUCTIVITY IN THE FOREST-STEPPE OF UKRAINE
209
ABSTRACT
THE EFFECT OF SUPERABSORBENT AND DIFFERENT RATES OF THE LOCAL FERTILIZER ON GARLIC PRODUCTIVITY IN THE FOREST-STEPPE OF UKRAINE
ORCID logo Viacheslav Yatsenko, ORCID logo Serhii Poltoretskyi, ORCID logo Ivan Mostoviak, ORCID logo Nataliia Vorobiova, ORCID logo Oleh Lazariev, ORCID logo Vitalii Kravchenko
Uman National University of Horticulture, Instytutska 1, 20301, Uman, Ukraine
This study aimed to determine the effect of different rates of topical fertilizers on the background of superabsorbent polymers (absorbents; SAP) on plant growth, pigments content in leaves and activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves and soil, yield and nutritional value of products. For this purpose, an absorbent at the rate of 15 kg ha–1 and fertilizers were applied, spread on the soil surface 100% (control), and locally in the furrows when planting at the rate of 25, 50, 75, and 100% of the recommended rate were applied. The results showed that the use of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) and the local application of fertilizers with increasing their rate, a significant increase in chlorophyll b and the number of chlorophylls. However, the use of SAP reduced the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the leaf (superoxide dismutase by 9.5–23.2%; glutathione S-transferase by 7.4–13.4%; peroxidase by 8.4–19.0%). The bulb’s weight with the absorbent increased by 31.2–45.4% compared to similar options without the introduction of absorbent. The local fertilizer without absorbent increased garlic yield by 3.5–13.9% relative to control. With the introduction of the absorbent, the local application of fertilizers contributed to the increase of yield by 4.2–25.4%. The application of fertilizers at the rate of 50 and 75% separately and together with the absorbent contributed to the improvement of nutritional value (dry matter, ash, proteins and carbohydrates, fat and caloric content of products). In conclusion, the combination of SAP with local fertilization in crop production technology can be used in today's dynamic climate conditions, due to their beneficial effects on plant productivity and savings and efficient use of water and fertilizers. Further research consists of a more detailed study of the rate of application of absorbents, the duration of their effective action, and the rate and ratio of nutrients.
Keywords: bulb weight, enzymes, nutritional value, pigments, plant growth, yield
Source: Agraarteadus, 2022, 33(1):209–221
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.22.21

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Yatsenko, V., Poltoretskyi, S., Mostoviak, I., Vorobiova, N., Lazariev, O., Kravchenko, V. 2022. The effect of superabsorbent and different rates of the local fertilizer on garlic productivity in the forest-steppe of Ukraine. Agraarteadus, 33(1):209–221. DOI: 10.15159/jas.22.21.
 
AUTHOR CONTACT
Uman National University of Horticulture, Instytutska 1, 20301, Uman, Ukraine

 
Highlights: 
  • The results showed that the use of SAP and local application of fertilizers with increasing their rate, a significant increase in chlorophyll b and the amount of chlorophylls. However, the use of SAP reduced the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the leaf (SOD by 9.5–23.2 %; GST by 7.4–13.4 %; POD by 8.4–19.0 %).
  • The weight of the bulb with the use of absorbent increased by 31.2–45.4 % compared to similar options without the introduction of absorbent. The local application of fertilizers without absorbent increased the weight of the bulb by 18.4–22.6 % relative to control.
  • The local fertilizer without absorbent increased garlic yield by 3.5–13.9 % relative to control. With the introduction of the absorbent the local application of fertilizers contributed to the increase of yield by 4.2–25.4 %.
  • The application of fertilizers at the rate of 50 and 75 % separately and together with the absorbent contributed to the improvement of nutritional value (dry mater, ash, proteins, carbohydrates, fat and caloric content of products).

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