2001 * XII * 2

J. Kuum.  
  Jaan Tõnisson - 20 aastat (1893...1918) Tartu Eesti Põllumeeste Seltsi esimees 77
Jaan Tõnisson – 20 years (1887–1918) as the chairman of the Society of Estonian Farmers. The research gives a survey of Tõnisson’s activities in the middle of the 1920ies, when he was the chairman of the Society of Estonian Farmers.
M. Alaru, E. Jaama, Ü. Laur.  
  Talitriticale saagi stabiilsusest erinevates ilmastikutingimustes 83
About yield stability of winter triticale in different climatic conditions. Field trials were initiated in the experimental fields of the Dept. of Field Crop Husbandry, Estonian Agricultural University near Tartu (58023´N, 26044´E) on Stagnic Luvisol soil (WRB clasification) with the cultivar ‘Modus’ (Saaten Union GmbH). The investigation has been financially supported by the Estonian Science Foundation (Grant No. 1977 and 3393).

Field trials were conducted from September of 1996 to August of 2000. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of seeding rates from 200 up to 700 seeds m-2 (at an interval of 50 viable seeds m-2) and nitrogen rates from 0 up to 136 kg N ha-1 (at an interval of 34 kg N ha-1) on the yield structure and formation and yield quality of winter triticale ‘Modus’. Field trials were initiated according to the methodology of E. Lauk. Experimental disain was a split/plot with N-rates as main plots and seeding rates as sub-plots. Nitrogen was applied as ammonium nitrate top-dressed in the spring at the beginning of triticale regrowth. To investigate yield formation and structure, two parallel 1-m row sections in each plot were marked with stakes. Prior to harvest plants from the marked rows were dug out and bound separately. From these sheaves yield components (plants m-2, spike-bearing tillers m-2 and plant -1, tillers number plant -1, above-ground biomass, height of tillers, length of tillers and length of spikes, spikelets spike -1, and 1000-kernel weight) were measured or counted. Regression, correlation and dispersion analyses were performed on the data.

On the basis of the results of the trials the following conclusions can be drawn:

  1. Weather conditions impact to the results significantly. As the years 1998 and 2000 were extremely rainy the results for these years greatly differed from those of other (1997 and 1999) years.
  2. The ear-bearing tillers m-2 had the greatest influence on yield formation.
  3. 500…550 ear-bearing tillers m-2 gave the highest yield ha-1. The number of ear-bearing tillers m-2 above 550 caused lodging and decreased yield level. High seeding rates and nitrogen fertilizer increased lodging of winter triticale ‘Modus’ in moisture conditions in 1998 and 2000 and caused the pre-harvest sprouting.
  4. In Estonian climatic conditions the suitable seeding rate of winter triticale cv. ‘Modus’ is 350 viable seeds m-2.
  5. To prevent the lodging and pre-harvest sprouting of cv. ‘Modus’ we recommend to use up to 68 kg N ha-1.
A. Kaarma, E. Mägi.  
  Sigade ümarusstõbede mõningatest epizootoloogilistest iseärasustest Eestis 93
Some epizootological features of pig nematode invasions in Estonia. Swine breeding on Estonian large farms is carried out on concrete floors round the year. Separate age groups of piglets are located to isolated sections. The purpose of this work was to explain the spread of roundworm invasions on large pig farms with described breeding technology. The second aim was to investigate the dependence of invasion level from pig age in swine populations.

Helminthocoprological investigations were carried out on 9 large pig farms in last 10 years and the results of 150 separate swine populations were analysed.

On the basis of the results of our observations can be concluded:

  1. The main digestive tract parasites in swine are Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum spp. roundworms.
  2. Invasions caused by Strongyloides ransomi can be detected only in a few swine populations.
  3. Trichocephalus suis invasions with low extensity were registered as natural disease foci.
  4. Age dynamics has been observed by Ascaris suum invasions: extensity of invasion rose up to six months and after that spontaneous recovery was observed. Reinvasions were not detected because of developing immu-nity of older pigs.
  5. Age dynamics developed in Oesophagostomum spp. invasions: extensity of invasion occurred to be in correlation with swine age. Invasions of breeding sows indicate the absence of immunity.
  6. Invasion with Strongyloides ransomi is directly connected with age of pigs: high extensity of invasion was observed up to 4th months of age, after that the invasion extent diminished to 1,2% in breeding sows.
  7. Trichocephalus suis was diagnosed rarely. Extent of invasion rose with pig age, but according to our data, not exceeded 10% of total population.
E. Pärna, A. Meier.  
  Eesti holsteini geneetilise selektsiooniedu majanduslik väärtus 100
Economic value of the genetic response in Estonian Holstein breeding program. Genetic response of Estonian Holstein breeding program is 0.16σH (92.8 kg/year/cow). Economic value of genetic gain of the breeding program was estimated 11 million EEK. Genetic contribution for each of the 4 selection path is: in selection path DS 53.5%, SS 30.2%, SD 5.7% and DD 10.6%. Gain in response of the breeding program by using MOET amounts 10.9% (in selection path DS 20.5%). Based on economic value of different milk compo-nents and ETA of bulls introduced Profit Index gives relative weights of 0.978, 5.051 and 22.48 to milk carrier, fat and protein yield, respectively.
M. Roasto, I. Spiridonova.  
  Kampülobakterid Eesti toores kanalihas 111
The presence of Campylobacter organisms in Estonian raw chicken meat. The genus Campylo-bacter consists of about 14 species, and the one of primary importance in foods is C. jejuni subsp. jejuni (Jay, 1997). Campylobacter organisms have been recognized as an important cause of human illness for only the last 20 years (Notermans, 1994). The most commonly identified species Campylobacter jejuni was first isolated from human diarrheal stools in 1972 by applying a filtration technique.

C. jejuni occurs frequently and in high number in the intestinal tract of healthy pigs and poultry. During slaughter, the organisms are transferred from the intestines to meat surfaces, and in this way the consumer can be reached, particularly if poultry is involved. Campylobacter appears to be very sensitive to dry conditions. Poultry carcasses are usually chilled with the aid of water, so that Campylobacter on poultry meat can remain viable and cause human infections (Oosterom, 1994).

Detection of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis in raw chicken meat and bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents were the main objects of present investigation.

Laboratory analyses were passed at the Tartu Veterinary and Food Laboratory. NMKL Method 119:1990 was used for detection of Campylobacter species in foods and Kirby-Bauer disc-difusion method was used for determine of antibiotic sensitivity pattern.

The number of investigated samples were 63. Twenty two samples were collected directly from meat plant and others from markets. We found out that the number of Campylobacter positive samples were 25 (39.7%), from witch C. jejuni was presented in 20 cases and C. coli in five cases. Among the tested antibiotics (erythro-mycin, doxycycline, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, oxytetracycline) the number of C. jejuni resistant strains was zero. C. coli strains from two samples were resistant to doxycycline. Raw chicken meat in Estonia is contaminated with the Campylobacter organisms.

U. Tamm, S. Tamm, A. Põlluste.  
  Saagi ja toiteväärtuse muutused lutserni kasvatamisel segus põldtimutiga 116
Cultivating alfalfa mixed with timothy: Changes in harvest and nutritive value. The cultivation area of alfalfa has expanded in Estonia. The hybrid alfalfa breeded in Jõgeva (Medicago varia Mart.) and the imported alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) are being cultivated in unmixed sowings as well as in the mixed sowings with grasses. The complex experiment aimed at the determination of the optimum proportion of timothy in the alfalfa mixture and the investigation of changes of the nutritive value was carried out in the Juuliku Experimental Farm on the soddy-calcarous sandy clay soil from 1999–2000.

The timothy was added to the unmixed sowings of the alfalfa varieties from Estonia and United States in the quantities of 0, 2, 4 or 6 kg ha-1 (according to the experimental variation) in order to achieve the proportion of timothy of 20–40% in the harvest.

The weather conditions did not favour the growth of alfalfa in 2000. The cool, dry period with the night frosts lasted until the middle of May. The September was also dry and with the night frosts. Thus the first and the third harvests of the three-mowing utilisation were grown under droughty and cool weather conditions.

The zootechnical analysis (Weende scheme) was carried out; the digestibility of organic matter was determined in sacco; the content of Metabolizable Energy (ME) and the Protein Balance Value (PBV) were calculated on the basis of the measured parameters.

The results indicated that the addition of timothy 2 kg ha-1 resulted in the 80% share of alfalfa in the harvest of the first mowing in case of all used alfalfa varieties. The timothy addition 4 kg ha-1 led to the 70% content of Estonian varieties and 75% content of American varieties in the harvest respectively. The addition of 6 kg ha-1 this figure was <60% for Estonian varieties and 70% for American varieties. The effect of timothy sowing ratio on the botanical composition was smaller in the harvest of the second and third mowing.

The addition of timothy to the seed mixture increased the yield of dry matter by 37% in case of Estonian varieties (timothy 4 kg ha-1) and by 36% for American varieties (timothy 2 kg ha-1). The third harvest of American varieties constituted 20% of total harvest, the Estonian varieties practically lacked the third harvest.

The analysis of the chemical composition showed no credible difference between the alfalfa varieties. The increase of the sowing ratio of the timothy reduced the protein and Ca content while not affecting the crude fibre, P and K content.

The variation of the sowing ratio of timothy did not influence the dry matter ME content. The varieties Karlu and WL 252 HQ had the first harvest with the higher nutritive value and the variety WL 324 had the lower nutritive value respectively.

In order to estimate of the protein value was calculated the PBV. It was positive. The increase of the timothy sowing ratio decreased the PBV and it approached nil in case of 25–30% proportion of timothy in the harvest of the first mowing. The PBV of the harvest of the third mowing was 2–3 times that of previous mowings and the effect of timothy sowing ratio was absent.

V. Pileckas.  
  Sperma kasutamine materjali toksilisuse kontrolliks 125
All new batches of materials used for manufacture of straws, inseminating sheaths and instruments that are in contact with semen should be tested for the toxicity to spermatoza. The reagents used for evaluation of semen may affect physiological responses of semen and give erroneous results.
J. Alaots.  
  Miks Eestis loobutakse suu- ja sõrataudi ennetavast vaktsineerimisest? 129
Miks Eestis loobutakse suu- ja sõrataudi ennetavast vaktsineerimisest?
R. Kask.  
  Arvamus mullastiku kaardistamisühikute nimestikust ja selle alusel muldade rühmitamisest 131
Arvamus mullastiku kaardistamisühikute nimestikust ja selle alusel muldade rühmitamisest