2003 * XIV * 5

E. Haak.  
  Kloonaluste ja vahepoogendite mõjust õunapuude kasvule ja saagikusele 251
The effect of clonal rootstocks and interstem (double-grafted trees) to the growth and yield of apple trees. The experiments at the Polli Horticultural Institute during 1985–2001 has shown that the rootstocks E53 and E56 are vigorous. The rootstocks E26, E37, E39, E63, 57-233, and 57-490 are, in most combinations, also vigorous; however, in some combinations they had medium growth. The rootstocks MM106, M7, E20, 54-118, 57-527 and 57-545 had medium growth. Dwarfing effect became evident by using the rootstocks B9, 62-396, 57-476, 57-491, and E75. Less-productive trees were grown on the rootstocks 57-545 and E75. The latter was the most dwarfing rootstock. The trees on the dwarfing rootstocks yielded one third lesser than the trees on the medium rootstocks. However, if to calculate the yield per a hectare, in the case of more dense distances between the trees, the hectare-yield will be twofold or more. The length of the interstem 20 cm in the rootstocks M9, B9, 62-396 and E75 in 10 cm length reduced the crown-volume and yield by one third and the trunk cross-sectional area even up to a half. The length of the interstem 10 cm in M9, B9, and 62-396 didn’t reduce substantially the vegetative growth of the trees. The smallest yield produced the trees on E75 interstem.

Keywords: apple tree, clonal rootstock, interstem, growth, yield.

R. Lauk, E. Lauk.  
  Lämmastikväetise mõjust viki-nisu segukülvides 260
The effect of nitrogen fertilisation on vetch-wheat mixed crops. The study carried out on the experimental fields of the Department Field Crop Husbandry of the Estonian Agricultural University at Erika in 2000, 2001 and 2003 showed that ammonium nitrate had a positive effect on the total yield of mixed seeding of common vetch and wheat. At a seeding norm of 300 germinating seeds per m2 (250 germinating wheat seeds and 50 germinating vetch seeds per m2) the average yield increase for three years was 206 kg ha-1 with N34 and 317 kg ha-1 with N68. The increase in the yield of mixed seeding under the effect of nitrogen fertiliser occurred at the expense of a significant increase in the yield wheat component (331 and 544 kg ha-1, respectively), while the yield of the vetch component decreased with fertilisation. The effect of nitrogen fertiliser on the 1000 grain mass of wheat was positive. The protein content in dry matter of vetch seeds was 30% and the use of nitrogen fertiliser did not influence the protein content of vetch. The protein content of wheat seeds was significantly affected by the proportion of vetch in the seed mix. The effect of nitrogen fertiliser had a considerably weaker effect on the protein content of wheat seeds. The protein yield of mixed seeding on unfertilised soil was about 530–580 kg ha-1 and it was not significantly influenced by the application of nitrogen fertiliser. The protein yield in the single crop of wheat with the use of nitrogen fertiliser (N68) amounted to a maximum of 419 kg ha-1, which was significantly less compared with the protein yield of mixed seeding of vetch and wheat on unfertilised soil.

Keywords: wheat, vetch, mixed crop, nitrogen fertilisation, ammonium nitrate, yield, protein yield.

K. Ling, H. Jaakson, J. Samarütel, A. Leesmäe.  
  Eesti Holsteini tõugu lehmade vere metaboliidid ja nende seos mõnede sigimisparameetritega 269
Blood metabolites of Estonian Holstein cows and their relation to some fertility parameters. The objective of the study was to analyse relationships between some metabolites associated with cows energy and/or protein status and fertility parameters on two Estonian commercial farms. Farm or stage of gestation and/or lactation were the factors affecting urea, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, ketone bodies, NEFA and total lipids concentrations and AST activity. Service period was longer on farm B but there was no difference between the farms in days to first service. Correlations with fertility parameters were positive in the case of AST, GLDH, cholesterol and total lipids. Negative correlations had urea, glucose, ketone bodies, triglycerides and NEFA. The data from the two farms indicate that increased urea and ketone body levels may be potential risk factors of impaired fertility. Further investigations including progesterone profile analysis are needed to differentiate factors influencing intervals from calving to first ovulation and from first ovulation to actual conception.

Keywords: Estonian Holstein cow, fertility, metabolic status, energy balance, blood metabolites, aspartate aminotransferase – AST, glutamate dehydrogenase – GLDH, urea - UREA, glucose – GLC, ketone bodies – KB, triglycerides – TG, non-esterified fatty acids – NEFA, cholesterol – CHOL, total lipids – TL .

E. Mikson, E. Luik, Ü. Alaväli, B. Reppo.  
  Soojustamata lehmalauda talvisest sise- ja väliskliimast 277
Indoor and outdoor climate of uninsulated cowshed. In last decades in the world building of simply covered uninsulated (cold) cowsheds has been propagated. Animals are kept loosely in sheds on straw bedding (deep litter) or without bedding (resting boxes, cubicles). Popularity of these sheds is caused by smaller building costs.

As inside climate of an unheated shed is greatly influenced by outside climate, air temperature and relative humidity have been mainly studied; based on which ventilation systems of rooms are suggested. Researches have been made mainly on smaller sheds, but the tendency to build larger sheds has become actual.

The article presents methods and results of indoor climate parameters, observed during wintertime in uninsulated cowsheds with cubicles (180, 225 and 475 cows, respectively). Indoor temperature, relative humidity, air velocity and direction, oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia content were measured at the height of 1.5 m for twenty four hours in succession. At the same time outdoor air temperature and relative moisture were observed. During the investigation Data Logger, respective sensors and the PC AMR WinControl software were used.

Keywords: air temperature, ammonia, carbon dioxide, oxygen, relative humidity, ventilation, cubicles.

M. Raudseping, I. Bender.  
  Varajased sordid – tomatiaretuse peamine eesmärk Jõgeva Sordiaretuse Instituudis 286
Early varieties – the main target of tomato breeding at Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute. The need for the breeding of early varieties is linked to the natural and economic conditions in different geographic areas. By growing early varieties, it is possible to get a good crop even in a short and cool summer. Also, the main crop is formed before plant diseases have a chance to harm tomato plants.

Tomato breeding at Jõgeva commenced in 1945. Since that time, variations of cultivated tomato, semicultivated tomato and wild tomato have been used for tomato breeding. One of the main goals of breeding has been to find out the conditions suitable for the breeding of early varieties.

Parental choosing is very important in tomato breeding. For that, the parent plants must first pass provisory evaluation, i.e. first, guess-wise, without statistical analysis, how crossing parents, in different combinations, have passed on their economically valuable characteristics. After that, cyclic crossing is engaged. Parents with good characteristics are crossed with many varieties, and the combinational value of researched plants is determined. The economically valuable characteristics of resulting crossbreeds and their parents will be submitted to statistical analysis, and the outcome of the analysis is applied in choosing parents.

In early varieties breeding we cannot ignore the regularity containing interconnections between characteristics. This regularity testifies the fact, that increased early ripeness with tomatoes is generally linked to decrease in crops and fruit size.

To get an early crossbreed, one of the parents must be early, and the other at least mid-early and topproductive, because along with the increased early ripeness, crops decrease considerably. Early crossbreeds have a close characteristic to early originals – the location of first bunch on the stem of the plant.

In tomato breeding, we focus on hybrid breeding – and especially on the research of the regularity of parental choosing, to attain hybrid vigour, which depends on the combinational ability of cross-parents.

The Jõgeva-bred early variety ‘Koit’ has been used in further breeding, due to excellent combinational ability.

‘Koit’ is the male variety for the Jõgeva-breb and still cultivated varieties ‘Visa’ F1, ‘Erk’, ‘Vilja’ and ‘Mato’, which have inherited its early ripeness and sufficient fruit size. In the case of varieties like ‘Terma’, ‘Valve’, ‘Mai’ and ‘Malle’ F1, ‘Koit’ is one of ancestors.

Keywords: early ripeness breeding, parental choosing, hybrid varieties, heterosis.

O. Saveli, M. Voore.  
  Piimatootmiskulud Põlula katsefarmis 292
Milk production costs on Põlula experimental farm. The objective of this investigation was to find out the capacity of every cost category and the cost structure of milk production, using five trial groups. According to the breed, the animals were arranged in five different trial groups: (1) Estonian Native (EK), (2) Estonian Red (EPK), (3) Red-and-White Holstein (RHF), (4) Estonian Holstein (EHF) of mean breeding value (RBV<112), (5) Estonian Holstein (EHFt) of highest breeding value (RBV>112). The present investigation comprises two years – 2001 and 2002.

The veterinary costs of trial groups were on average 520 and 510 EEK per cow in 2001 and 2002, respectively. The highest cost per cow was observed in both years in Holstein groups. The insemination costs per cow varied by test groups – 387–956 EEK in 2001, and 371–771 EEK in 2002. The animals were fed energy and protein rich total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum. The test cows consumed 10.7 tons of TMR in 2001 and 12.1 tons of TMR in 2002. Taking into account the milk production, the feed expenses per one kg of milk were 1.10 and 1.25 kg, respectively. The highest production costs were in EK group – 3.83 and 3.71 EEK, the lowest in EHF group – 2.92 and 2.73 EEK. The procurement price was 3.09 EEK in 2001, and 2.74 EEK in 2002. The largest cost category was feed expenses (55–56%), both veterinary and insemination costs formed 2%. In both years, salary (+ taxes) constituted 10% and 9% on average. As for other cost categories, finance and other business expenses were more costly (2001 – 6% each, 2002 – 11 and 5%). Electricity and fuel costs constituted 5% in both years. Compared with the data obtained in Germany, the feed cost per kg milk was 25 pennies (2 EEK), which constituted less than 40% of production cost. The cost of feeds differs significantly. The ratio of selling price of concentrates to milk was 1:2 in Germany, while it was 1:1 in Estonia.

Keywords: expenses, feeds, structure of expenses, milk production, profitability.

M. Sudakov, J. Kumar, S. Kokassaar, L. Häkkinen.  
  Mittetuberkuloossete mükobakterite (ntm) poolt põhjustatud infektsioonide epidemioloogiast kodu- ja metsloomadel Eestis 303
Epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections of domestic- and wild animals in Estonia. Epidemiological investigation of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections in swine and cattle showed remarkably high prevalence of this infection in Estonia, the most important role possesses Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Selective examinations made in slaughterhouses – during period of 1996–2002 – detected tuberculosis-like lesions of lymph nodes in 3,8% of examined swine and in 2,4% of cattle.

67 cultures of mycobacteria were isolated. As a result of PCR-identification 52 (77.6%) strains are referred to M. avium and two to M. intracellulare. Exotic zoo animals and species of wild animals, susceptible to NTM, are the ecological reservoir of given infection and can play an important role in selection of virulent types of opportunistic mycobacteria.

We have determined sporadic cases of avian tuberculosis in chickens and avian mycobacteriosis in wild boar and badger. Special interest offer cases of mycobacterioses, diagnosed in various animal species in Tallinn Zoo, including two Bukhara deer’s, giving a precedent of isolation of M. avium in pathological material from wild animals (mammals) in Estonia. A causative agent of avian tuberculosis was isolated from a peacock, pheasant and Japanese crane. Other atypical mycobacteria were isolated from yak and from reptiles – boa and anaconda.

Keywords: epidemiology of mycobacterioses, NTM-infection, tuberculosis in animals, Mycobacterium avium complex, PCR-diagnostics.

U. Tamm, P. Lättemäe, S. Tamm.  
  Puhas- ja segukülvi lutsernisilo toiteväärtuse erinevusi 312
Different nutritive values of alfalfa silages based on mixed and unmixed sowings. This study was aimed at investigating to which extent the fermentation and the protein quality of the silages are influenced by the grasses grown in the mixture with alfalfa. The cultivated alfalfa was grown in unmixed and mixed sowings with grasses. Ensiling of the herbage and the nutritive value of silages based on mixed and unmixed sowings were compared, and the feeding experiment with dairy cows was carried out. Silages were with equal digestibility, but with different botanical composition. Big bale silages were made without using additives.

During the feeding experiment all silages had satisfactory fermentation quality. The high fibre content of silages reduced their metabolizable energy content below the standard of high quality silage. However, the fermentation of alfalfa-grasses silage proceeded more favourably. The silage based on the unmixed alfalfa sowings had a low acid content and a relatively high ammonia nitrogen content. The silages did not contain any fermentation products harmful to cattle.

The silages were fed ad libitum. In order to balance the feeding ration, 7 kg of concentrate (ME 13.0 MJ/kg DM) were added to the feed of dairy cow (the average cow’s daily milk production was 25 kg per cow). The silage based on the unmixed sowings of alfalfa had a low dry matter content, and high fibre and lignin contents. Therefore, the consumption of dry matter (12.3 kg) did not reach to the expected (calculated) level. Feeding of the alfalfa silage led to a lower energy content of the feeding ration than expected. Thus, rumen microbes were unable to utilise the ammonia released from protein and the milk carbamide content exceeded 300 mg/l.

The results of feeding the alfalfa-grasses silage were better than those of feeding the silage based on unmixed sowings. The dry matter consumption was higher (13.5 kg), and despite the lack of plausible difference in milk production, the energy and protein were in balance in the mixed sowing silage feeding ration. The carbamide content of milk was normal (267 mg/l) and the fat content high (4.5%).

The alfalfa silage covered 57.8% and the alfalfa-grasses silage 61.0% of the energy needs of the cows. Simultaneously, the cows received respectively 2.3 and 1.6 times more calcium than needed, but only 67% of the needed phosphorus.

The results of the study characterise the growing of alfalfa in mixed sowings with grasses as an effective method for increasing the nutritive value of fodder and the efficiency of feeding.

Keywords: alfalfa, silage, chemical composition, silage quality, intake, nutritive value.