2001 * XII * 3

K. Annuk.  
  Lisanduvat viiskümmend viis aastat varem ilmunule 145
Supplements to research work published 55 years ago. A comprehensive survey about the agricultural research projects carried out within years 1920 to 1940 (“Eesti põllumajandusteadus põllumehe teenistuses”, Tartu, 1946) was compiled and edited by agronomist Jaak Ümarik. The present paper aims to provide some additional information about the staff of the research institutions, which could not be revealed by the author of the book back in 1946.
J. Kuum.  
  Carl Robert Jakobsoni mõtteid põllumajanduse arendamisel 145
Principles of C. R. Jakobson’s agricultural Development underlying. C. R. Jakobson, enlightener and democrat set out to reorganize Estonian peasant farming in 1868. He demanded that peasants should be given professional education and he organized agricultural societies for them. In the societies he made numerous reports, carried out demonstrations, ploughing competitions, etc. He used agricultural societies in his struggle against landlords.

C. R. Jakobson laid the foundation of the Estonian agricultural literature, publishing in 1869 the first farming handbook to be followed by a series of others textbooks. In 1848 at Viljandi he started to issue his newspaper “Sakala” in the supplement of which many agricultural articles appeard. C. R. Jakobson laid down first programme for the development of Estonian peasant farming in which he stressed that in our agriculture the basic branch of production should be dairy husbandry and butter-making, additional activities being pig breeding, gardening, etc. His work in the developing of agriculture was an extensive and successful one. C. R. Jakobson was the first cooperative agronomist-consultant in Estonia.

R. Kask, H. Samel.  
  Kaer ja oder kamar-karbonaat- ja kamarmuldade koosluse erinevatel erimitel 156
Oats and barley on different taxons of sod-calcareous and soddy soil associations. North-Estonian soils are characterised by a frequent alternation of soils based on limestone, pebble moraine and marine sediments. The field studied contain six different soils.

During 1992–1998 the average joint crop of oats and barley harvested from the studied field was (depending on the soil) 1.11–2.83 t/ha. The minimum crop was gathered from a thin limestone-based soil.

The 1000-grain mass of barley measured in 1994, 1996, 1998 and 1999 ranged from 23.9 to 44.5 g. The characteristic 1000-grain mass was in a positive correlation (r=0.53…0.90) with the crops, which in turn depended on the soils as well as on the weather conditions in each particular year.

As most of the variation of the crops (within a uniformly cultivated plot) can be accounted for by the basic characteristics of the soils, it is necessary to study their mineral and humus profiles, water regime etc. Studies of the agrochemical, agrophysical and meliorative condition of soils, however, as well as crop mapping without considering the basic characteristics of the soils can never provide a satisfactory survey of the reasons of the unevenness of field crops in each concrete case.

H. Kiiman.  
  Piima somaatiliste rakkude arvu vähendamise võimaluste analüüs 162
The analysis of the milk somatic cell count reducing possibilities. The somatic cell count (SCC) is commonly used as a measure of milk quality as well as udder health. Somatic cells are simply animal body cells present at low levels in normal milk. High levels of these cells in milk indicate abnormal, reduced-quality milk that is caused by an intramammary bacterial infection (mastitis). The majority of the cells in a somatic cell count are leukocytes (white blood cells), and some are cells from the udder secretory tissue (epithelial cells). The epithelial cells are part of the normal body function and are shed and renewed in normal body processes. The white blood cells serve as a defence mechanism to fight disease (infection), and assist in repairing damaged tissue. Somatic cell counts are based on the number of cells per milliliter (ml, about 10 drops) of milk.

High somatic cell count in milk is abnormal and undesireble. Elevated SCC levels may result from several factors or a combination of these factors.

The goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of some factors on somatic cell count in milk: sire of dairy cow, heritability, agricultural enterprise, milking technique, working operations performed by the milker, calving month, lactation number.

The experimental farms were chosen from agricultural enterprises applying different cow-keeping and milking technologies. Daughters of 21 bulls were studied. The data about ten-month milk yield, somatic cell count, fat and protein content of the milk of the daughters of each bull were collected. Cow' s sire, enterprise, lactation, milking equipment and milking operator were fixed in data-base. Monitoring of the working operations of the milkers were carried out. The duration of each element of the working process was recorded. SAS-program was used for data processing. Procedure REML was used to estimate the dispersion components and heritabilities. From these data analysis we can made following conclusions.

The milk somatic cell count increases with lactation number (P<0.01). In first lactation the milk somatic cell count was 285 000/ml, in second, third and fourth lactation 321 000/ml, 466 000/ml and 477 000/ml, respectively.

The milk somatic cell count correlation between the neighbour lactations was high: between first and second lactation (r=0.45***), between second and third lactation (r=0.49***) and between third and fourth lactation (r=0.51***).

The agricultural enterprise and the milker were essential to milk somatic cell count (P<0.001).

The adequate premilking cow preparation was essential to milk somatic cell count as well as over-milk-ing (P<0.001).

The delay in application of the milking unit increased milk somatic cell count.

The calving month and the milking equipment were not statistically significant to the milk somatic cell count.

The heritabilities in the first, second, third and fourth lactation were accordingly 0.11, 0.16, 0.23 and 0.23.

O. Kärt, M. Ots, E. Rihma, H. Kaldmäe.  
  Odrajahu mõju lüpsilehmade kuivaine söömusele, allantoiini ekskretsioonile ja mikroobse proteiini sünteesile lutsernisilo ad libitum söötmise korral 175
Odrajahu mõju lüpsilehmade kuivaine söömusele, allantoiini ekskretsioonile ja mikroobse proteiini sünteesile lutsernisilo ad libitum söötmise korral. Katse korraldati vatsafistulitega varustatud holsteini tõugu lehmadega 4×4 ladina ruudu põhimõttel. Katse eesmärgiks oli selgitada odrajahu mõju lutserni-silo ad libitum söötmise korral silo söömusele, allantoiini ekskretsioonile ja mikroobse proteiini sünteesile. Lehmadele söödeti lisaks lutsernisilole odrajahu kas 25, 40, 55 või 70% nende metaboliseeruva energia tarbest. Katseloomi söödeti kaks korda päevas, hommikul kell 5.00 ning õhtul kell 17.00. Katse eelperiood kestis 8 päeva ja katse põhiperiood 6 päeva. Vatsavedeliku proovid võeti viiendal ja kuuendal katsepäeval, neli tundi pärast hommikust söötmist. Uriin koguti kuuendal katsepäeval 12 tunni jooksul põiekateetriga. Odrajahu osatähtsuse suurenemise korral ratsioonis 25%-lt kuni 70%-ni vähendas iga täiendavalt söödaratsiooni võetud odrajahu kilogramm silo kuivaine söömust 1,02 kg võrra. Uriiniga eritatud allantoiini kogus korreleerus statistiliselt usutavalt kuivaine (r=0,553; P<0,05), metaboliseeruva energia (r=0,665; P<0,001) ja kiuvabade süsivesikute – NFC (r=0,662; P<0,001) söömusega, vatsas seedunud orgaanilise ainega – DOMR (r=0,664; P<0,01), uriini üld-N sisaldusega (r=0,562; P<0,05) ning päevas eritatud üldlammastiku kogusega (r=0,0,601; P<0,01). Iga kilogrammi vatsas seedunud orgaanilise aine kohta sünteesiti mikroobset N vastavalt katsevariandile 24,7; 23,2; 28,3 või 29,8 g ja iga MJ metaboliseeruva energia kohta 1,03; 0,96; 1,14 või 1,22 g. Lutsernisilo ad libitum söötmise korral ei taga odrajahu lisasöötmine maksimaalset mikroobse proteiini sünteesi lüpsilehmade vatsas.
V. Loide.  
  Magneesiumitarbest Eesti põllumuldades 182
Magnesium requirement of Estonian soils. Of Estonian soils 52% require magnesium and 21.5% are extremely poor in magnesium. In spite of the quite high demand for this element, magnesium-containing fertilizers are applied in relatively small amounts. The aim of this study was to find out how plants are supplied with magnesium through the magnesium content of plants and through the magnesium content of soils, using ammonium lactate (AL-method) and 0.025N CaCl2-extract (Schactschabel method) for extration of soil solutions.

It was established that in optimum N, P, K and Ca nutrient conditions, cereals (winter wheat, spring barley) suffer for magnesium deficit (Figures 1, 2). Magnesium deficit was extremely severe in plants grown on calcium rich soils (Figure3).

Also, it was established that in calcium rich soils, available magnesium, extracted from ammonium lactate, is not always assimilable by plants. Therefore the suitability of using this extract for determination of magnesium requirement is questionable.

Ü. Pavel, J. Kumar, A. Karus, T. Schattschneider.  
  Sea peaajukoore neuropeptiidid suurendavad varajases sünteesi faasis antikehade moodustumist vaktsineeritud hiirtel 189
Sea peaajukoore neuropeptiidid suurendavad varajases sünteesi faasis antikehade moodustumist vaktsineeritud hiirtel. Töös uuriti sea peaaju neuropeptiidide mõju immuunsüsteemile valge hiire popu-latsioonis. Tuvastati neuropeptiidide, eriti Pld, manustamisel antikehade tiitri suurenemine vereseerumis anti-kehade varajases sünteesi faasis.