Avaldamisel

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ACCELERATED BIOTHERMAL COMPOSTING OF MANURE-COMPOST MIXTURE
In Press
Abstract
ACCELERATED BIOTHERMAL COMPOSTING OF MANURE-COMPOST MIXTURE
ORCID logoElchyn Aliiev1, ORCID logoSergey Pavlenko2, ORCID logoOlga Aliieva1, ORCID logoOlesia Morhun3
1Institute of Oilseed Crops of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Institutskaya St, v. Sonyachne, 69093 Zaporozhye region
2National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 11 Heroyiv Oborony St, 03041 Kyiv
3National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 9 Mikhail Omelyanovich-Pavlenko St, 01010 Kyiv
The aim of the research was to observe the technological processes of accelerated biothermal composting of manure-compost mixture and to determine the dynamics of its temperature regime. Because of experimental research of conditions of biothermal processes of composting of manure-compost mix the mathematical laws describing dynamics of change of a temperature field in the composting pad of a different configuration for various mechanized conditions are received. It is established that mechanized composting of raw materials provides growth of internal temperatures to the maximum temperature of 65–71 °С (at height of the composting pad of 1.5 m) for 2–3 days after laying of the composting pad. In 15–17 days, the temperature is up to 50 °С, which does not correspond to the thermophilic mode of bacterial activity and the processes gradually pass into the mesophilic mode – up to 40 °С. As a result of experimental studies of biothermal processes of composting manure, it was found that during the fermentation of raw materials in the composting pad without treatment (36 days) the weight of the composting pad (at the composting pad height of 1.5 m) decreased by 20% (raw material moisture decreased by 5%). In the composting pad with mechanical treatment and addition of water, the weight of the composting pad varied from the amount of water introduced, which led to an increase in the moisture content of the raw material. There was a significant decrease in organic matter from 47–50 to 32–35% in the raw material against 50–52 to 40–41%.
Keywords: composting, manure-compost mixture, composting pad, mechanical aeration, parameters.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):In Press
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.30

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VIITAMINE
Aliiev, E., Pavlenko, S., Aliieva, O., Morhun, O. 2021. Accelerated biothermal composting of manure-compost mixture. Agraarteadus, 32(2):In Press. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.30.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Institute of Oilseed Crops of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Institutskaya St, v. Sonyachne, 69093 Zaporozhye region
2National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 11 Heroyiv Oborony St, 03041 Kyiv
3National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 9 Mikhail Omelyanovich-Pavlenko St, 01010 Kyiv


 
Highlights: 
  • Because of experimental research of conditions of biothermal processes of composting of manure-com-post mix the mathematical laws describing dynamics of change of a temperature field in the composting pad of a different configuration for various mechanized conditions are received.
  • It was established that mechanized composting of raw materials provides growth of internal temperatures to the maximum temperature of 65–71 °С (at height of the composting pad of 1.5 m) for 2–3 days after laying of the composting pad.
  • As a result of experimental studies of biothermal processes of composting manure, it was found that during the fermentation of raw materials in the composting pad without treatment (36 days) the weight of the composting pad (at the composting pad height of 1.5 m) decreased by 20% (raw material moisture decreased by 5%).

CASE STUDY: DYNAMICS OF SUNFLOWER SEED MOVEMENT IN THE VIBRATING TRAY OF THE INFRARED DRYER AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE DRYING PROCESS
In Press
Abstract
CASE STUDY: DYNAMICS OF SUNFLOWER SEED MOVEMENT IN THE VIBRATING TRAY OF THE INFRARED DRYER AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE DRYING PROCESS
ORCID logoValentyna Bandura1, ORCID logoLeonid Yaroshenko2, ORCID logoLarisa Fialkovska3, ORCID logoDmytro Kondratyuk2, ORCID logoVladyslav Palamarchuk3, ORCID logoYurij Paladiichuk2
1National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 19 Henerala Rodimtseva St, 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
2Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3 Sonyachna St, 21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
3Vinnytsia Institute of Trade and Economics of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics, 87 Soborna St, 21050 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
Analysis of researches on the study of the material particle movement on the vibrating surface of the container machine intended for seed drying in the infrared field is carried out. Comparison of traditional devices for dehydration of raw materials with energy supply of infrared irradiation is performed. It is shown that current tendencies of the development of heat and mass transfer equipment are connected with the use of electromagnetic generators of infrared energy. The purpose of the work is to study the process of movement of sunflower seeds on a vibrating tray dryer. To achieve this goal, a dynamic scheme of the vibrating tray has been proposed and theoretical and experimental studies of the process of grain movement have been carried out. It has been established that when the speed of drive electric motors increases from 950 to 970 rotations per minute, the speed of vibro-transportation increases as well, but when reaching a certain value of speed, under a further increase in speed, the speed of vibro-transportation decreases. Experimental studies have allowed to specify the design parameters of vibrating trays and select rational parameters of the technological process of drying, namely the oscillation frequency of the vibrating tray, which is f = 100 s–1.
Keywords: vibration, dynamics of movement, sunflower seeds, infrared drying.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):In Press
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.24

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VIITAMINE
Bandura, V., Yaroshenko, L. Fialkovska, L., Kondratyuk, D., Palamarchuk, V., Paladiichuk, Y.  2021. Case Study: Dynamics of sunflower seed movement in the vibrating tray of the infrared dryer and its influence on the drying process. Agraarteadus, 32(2):In Press. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.24.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 19 Henerala Rodimtseva St, 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
2Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3 Sonyachna St, 21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
3Vinnytsia Institute of Trade and Economics of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics, 87 Soborna St, 21050 Vinnytsia, Ukraine

 
Highlights: 
  • Analysis of researches on the movement of a material point on a working surface of the vibrating machine which is intended for seed drying using infrared radiation is carried out.
  • To study the process of movement of sunflower seeds on a vibrating tray dryer, a dynamic scheme of the study of the vibrating tray was proposed; theoretical and experimental studies of the process of grain movement were carried out.
  • As a result of experimental researches, it was established that the highest speed of soil seed transportation will be achieved when the frequency of rotation of driving electric motors is 950–970 rotations per minute.
  • At this speed of rotation there begins vibro-transportation of grain with the separation from the tray surface, which contributes to the rotation of the seeds and their uniform irradiation at all sides.
  • The conducted experimental researches have also allowed to specify constructive parameters of vibrating trays of the dryer and to choose rational parameters of the technological process of drying.

STORABILITY OF SWEET POTATO GENOTYPES UNDER ORDINARY AMBIENT STORAGE CONDITIONS
In Press
Abstract
STORABILITY OF SWEET POTATO GENOTYPES UNDER ORDINARY AMBIENT STORAGE CONDITIONS
ORCID logoPrakash Bhattarai1, ORCID logoKalyani Mishra Tripathi2, ORCID logoDurga Mani Gautam2, ORCID logoArjun Kumar Shrestha2
1Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Potato Research Programme, Khumaltar15, Lalitpur Metropolitan City, 44700, Nepal
2Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan, Bharatpur 15, Bharatpur Metropolitan City, 44209 Nepal
The study was carried out to evaluate the storage performance of sweet potatoes in different conditions under ordinary ambient temperature (10.11–17.49 °C) at Khumaltar, Lalitpur (1350 masl) district of Nepal from December, 20 to March, 13 during the years 2018/19 and 2019/20. The experiment was laid out in Factorial Completely Randomized Design with three replications. Tuberous roots of three sweet potato genotypes ('CIP 440015', 'CIP 440267', and 'Local White') harvested at 4-month maturity were stored inside an ordinary room in dry sand, sawdust, thin jute sack, natural mud pot, and open crates (control). Data were taken on the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th weeks of storage. The pooled results showed a significant effect of storage conditions on physiological loss in weight and rotting (%) of sweet potato genotypes. With the progression of the storage period, physiological weight loss (PLW) and rotting (%) were significantly increased in all treatments. At the 12th week of storage, the highest PLW was recorded in the tubers stored in open crates (70.2%) followed by natural mud pot (65.2%) whereas the lowest PLW was observed in tubers stored inside the dry sand (50.2%). Genotype 'CIP 440015' showed good storability with minimum PLW. No weevil infestation and sprouting were observed during the experimental period. The lowest percentage of tuber rotting was recorded in the genotype 'CIP 440015' (55.3%) and inside dry sand (48.7%) at the 12th week of storage while it was the highest up to 85.9% in 'CIP 440267'. The highest rotting 76.7%) was recorded in thin jute bags which is statistically at par with natural mud pot (76.5%). The interaction effect of storage conditions and genotypes was found not significant. The results showed an increment in dry matter and reducing sugar content while the reduction in ß-carotene and starch content of tubers after 3 months of storage inside dry sand. There was positive and strong correlation of storage duration with dry matter (r = 0.750) and reducing sugar (r = 0.658) whereas, negative correlation with starch (r = –0.918) and ß-carotene (r = –0.352) content of sweet potato genotypes. The study concluded that sweet potato tuber can be kept for 8 to 10 weeks in dry sand with minimum postharvest loss in ordinary room condition and the genotype 'CIP 440015' has good storability among the tested genotypes in similar conditions.
Keywords: ambient storage, biochemical changes, rotting, storage, sweet potato, weight loss.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):In Press
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.20

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Bhattarai, P., Tripathi, K.M., Gautam, D.M., Shrestha, A.K. 2021. Storability of sweet potato genotypes under ordinary ambient storage conditions. Agraarteadus, 32(2):In Press. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.20.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Potato Research Programme, Khumaltar15, Lalitpur Metropolitan City, 44700, Nepal
2Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan, Bharatpur 15, Bharatpur Metropolitan City, 44209 Nepal




 
Highlights: 
  • The health of sweet potato tubers remained good up to 8–10 weeks storage at ambient temperature.
  • Storage of sweet potato tubers in dry sand and sawdust was found good with minimum post-harvest losses at room temperature
  • Sweet potato genotype 'CIP 440015' performed best with good storability at ambient temperature.

THE FORECASTING OF POLYPHENOLIC SUBSTANCES IN SWEET CHERRY FRUITS UNDER THE IMPACT OF WEATHER FACTORS
In Press
Abstract
THE FORECASTING OF POLYPHENOLIC SUBSTANCES IN SWEET CHERRY FRUITS UNDER THE IMPACT OF WEATHER FACTORS
ORCID logoІryna Ivanova1, ORCID logoМarina Serdyuk1, ORCID logoVira Malkina1, ORCID logoTetiana Tymoshchuk2, ORCID logoAnna Kotelnytska2, ORCID logoVira Moisiienko2
1Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B Khmelnytsky Ave, UA72312 Melitopol, Zaporizhzhia region, Ukraine
2Polissia National University, 7 Staryi Blvd, UA10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
It has been proved that during the period of research the weather factors had dominating effects on the formation of phenolic substances fund for the fruits of early and late groups of cultivars. The cultivar features affected the accumulation of the phenolic substances in the fruits of a group of cultivars of a medium-term ripening. It has been established that the fruits of 'Kazka' cultivar (203.17 mg 100 g–1) were selected from among the cultivars of an early-term ripening according to the average phenol substances content. The fruits of 'Rubinova Rannia' (175.27 mg 100 g–1) are characterized by the optimal variation indices as well as by the average content of polyphenolic substances. From the technological point of view, the most perspective from among the cultivars of medium- and late-terms of ripening was: 'Uliublenytsia Turovtseva' (226.85 mg 100 g–1), 'Udivitelna' (288.55 mg 100 g–1). The results of experimental analysis for the fruits of early- and late-terms of ripening as well as their dispersion analysis allow us to forecast the content of the phenolic substances by the average indices but not separately for every pomological cultivar. Based on designed regression models, the analysis of the degree of impact of each weather factor on the rate of the phenolic substance has been made. The humidity index (the average monthly amount of rainfalls in May) had maximal effects on the accumulation of phenolic substances fund for the cherry fruits of three terms of ripening. The humidity indices of the last months of fruits formation (May and June) had the greatest effects on the accumulation of phenolic substances for a test group of plants of all terms of ripening.
Keywords: P-active substances of phenolic nature, variation, weather conditions, correlation, connection.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):In Press
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.27

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Ivanova, I., Serdyuk, M., Malkina, V., Tymoshchuk, T., Kotelnytska, A., Moisiienko, V.  2021. The forecasting of polyphenolic substances in sweet cherry fruits under the impact of weather factors. Agraarteadus, 32(2):In Press. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.27.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B Khmelnytsky Ave, UA72312 Melitopol, Zaporizhzhia region, Ukraine
2Polissia National University, 7 Staryi Blvd, UA10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine


 
Highlights: 
  • The average content of phenolic substances in sweet cherry fruits of the early-, medium-, and late-terms of ripening equalled 205.86 mg 100 g–1 in rutin equivalent.
  • The weather factors had dominating effects on the formation of phenolic substances fund for the fruits of an early and late group of cultivars.
  • The cultivar features affected the accumulation of the phenolic substance in the fruits of a group of cultivars of a medium-term ripening.
  • The model of dependence of the accumulation of phenolic substances fund on the impact of weather factors for the groups of cultivar of early, medium- and late-terms of ripening designed.

DYNAMIC MODEL OF SEED GERMINATION ON THE EXAMPLE OF A GENUS Dracocephalum L. BASED ON LOGISTIC FUNCTION
In Press
Abstract
DYNAMIC MODEL OF SEED GERMINATION ON THE EXAMPLE OF A GENUS Dracocephalum L. BASED ON LOGISTIC FUNCTION
ORCID logoAndrei Komarov1, ORCID logoNadezhda Naida2, ORCID logoEdvin Nugis3
1Agrophysical Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky Prospect 14, Russia
2Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian University, Pushkin, Peterburgskoe shosse 2, Russia
3Estonian Crop Research Institute, J. Aamisepa 1, 48309 Jõgeva vald, Estonia
The aim of this paper is to present the use of mathematical model for an assessment of seed germination on the example of a genus Dracocephalum L. based on logistic function. An assessment of the quality of seeds and their species specificity was carried out. For this the method of a mathematical model of seed germination and the "Origin Pro" application package was used. The objects of research were samples of species Dracocephalum L. of different geographical origin from the collection of the I.N.Vavilov named All-Russian Crop Research Institute (VIR). Morphometric parameters of seeds of the studied species of the genus Dracocephalum L. were identified, which were divided into two groups. The first group with small seeds (2.7–3.0 mm long and 1.6–2.0 mm wide) included varieties of the species D. moldavica, and the second group – with very small seeds (2.0 mm in length and 1.0 mm wide) of D. multicaule and D. nutans. To assess the quality of seeds, we used both standard static indicators for germination, germination energy and seed vigour which are also assessed by both known the Grodzinsky bio test, and new ones based on dynamic parameters for evaluating seed germination. The dynamic model presented in the work reproduces changes in the initial phase of plant growth through the dynamics of seed germination. That is, the change in the state of a living object in motion in this model. When processing the results, a logistic function was applied that reflects the dynamics of change or accumulation of quantitative signs with the transition to new qualitative indicators. It was revealed that the shortest germination time of half of the maximum number of germinated seeds (intensity of germination) equal to 44.0 hours had the sample K-6 ('Aroma-2'). This indicates vigourous and friendly germination of the seeds of this variety. For sample K-7 ('Aroma-2'), this figure is 60 hours and, therefore, the germination rate is less than that for K-6. Similar in these parameters and the intensity of germination in the sample K-8 'Zeya' equal to 53 hours. Sample K-10 ('Arhat') was characterized by a relatively high germination rate, intensity of germination equal to 46 hours. Samples at 32 (D. nutans) and at 20 (D. multicaule) had approximately the same intensity of germination was equal to 61 and 54 hours, respectively. As a result, comparing the similarly different age characteristics of the seed material, a certain species and variety specificity in the dynamics of growth processes in the seeds of various types of snake head was revealed. The novelty of these studies was the search for new patterns and phenomena in assessing the quality of seeds and their species specificity.
Keywords: seed germination, assessment of the quality of seeds, seed vigour, morphometric parameters of seeds, dynamics of growth processes in the seeds.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):In Press
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.32

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VIITAMINE
Komarov, A., Naida, N., Nugis, E. 2021. Dynamic model of seed germination on the example of a genus Dracocephalum L. based on logistic function. Agraarteadus, 32(2):In Press. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.32.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Agrophysical Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky Prospect 14, Russia
2Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian University, Pushkin, Peterburgskoe shosse 2, Russia
3Estonian Crop Research Institute, J. Aamisepa 1, 48309 Jõgeva vald, Estonia


 
Oluline: 
  • Erineva geograafilise päritoluga liigi Dracocephalum seemnete, mis on I.N. Vavilovi nimelise VTKI kogust idanemise uurimine.
  • Hinnati nii Grodzinski tuntud bioteste kui ka standardseid staatilisi idanevusi, idanemisenergiat ja seemnete elujõulisuse näitajaid.
  • Võrreldes erinevat tüüpi maopea seemnete kasvuprotsesside dünaamikaga uuriti seemnematerjali  erinevaid vanuseomadusi, teatud liigi- ja sordispetsiifilisust.
  • Kirjeldati seemnete idanemise logistilist funktsiooni,  hinnati kvantitatiivsete näitajate muutumise või kuhjumise dünaamikat ja üleminekut uutele kvalitatiivsetele näitajatele.

LÜHIARTIKKEL: MULDKATTE TALITLEMISE PEDOÖKOLOOGILISED SEADUSPÄRASUSED
In Press
Abstract
SHORT COMMUNICATION: PEDOECOLOGICAL REGULARITIES OF SOIL COVER FUNCTIONING
ORCID logoRaimo Kõlli
Chair of Soil Science, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 5, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
The contradictory statements and opinions, which need by the mind of author additional explanation or disentangle are in the work followings: stages in the forming soil covers' humus status; additional carbon sequestration into the soil; discord between consumption and accumulation of soil organic matter; the influence of land use, land-use change and soil tillage on soil humus status; permanent and dynamic properties of soil; the role of agriculture in carbon turnover; degradation of soil fertility; the influence of different components of soil organic matter on soil functioning; pedoecological approach of peat soils; biodiversity and species richness of soils; weediness of agroecosystems; ethical statements concerning land use.
Keywords: soil cover, humus status, carbon sequestration, land use change, carbon turnover, biodiversity, peat soils.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):In Press
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.25

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VIITAMINE
Kõlli, R.  2021. Lühiartikkel: Muldkatte talitlemise pedoökoloogilised seaduspärasused. Agraarteadus, 32(2):Avaldamisel. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.25.
Kõlli, R.  2021. Short Communication: Pedoecological regularities of soil cover functioning. Agraarteadus, 32(2):In Press. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.25.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
Eesti Maaülikool, põllumajandus- ja keskkonnainstituut, mullateaduse õppetool, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 5, 51006 Tartu

 
Oluline: 
  • Põhjalikumat uurimist väärib mulla orgaanilise aine (MOA) majandamise bioloogiline külg ja mullatüübipõhise liigirikkuse ökoloogia.
  • Oluline on saavutada tasakaal kahe vastandliku suuna, MOA kulutamise ja selle stabiilse huumusena säilitamise, vahel.
  • Mullaerimi MOA akumulatsioonivõime sõltub ennekõike tema ülesehitusest ja talitlemise iseloomust, mitte aga niivõrd maakasutuse viisist.
  • Põllukultuuride viljelemise kliimamõju objektiivse hinnangu saamiseks tuleks aluseks võtta süsiniku  akumulatsiooni ja emiteerimise hulgad ja vahekord.
  • Turvasmuldkattena tuleks käsitleda vaid turbalasundi pealmist 50 cm kihti, mille all asuv osa on mittefossiilne maavara.
  • Viljakad põlis-(pärand-)põllud vajavad ühiskonna jätkusuutliku isevarustatuse huvides riiklikku kaitset.

AGAR GEL PHENOTYPING OF ROOT TRAITS AS RAPID AND SENSITIVE ASSAY OF WHEAT SEEDLINGS RESPONSE TO EDAPHIC FACTORS: ON EXAMPLE OF CADMIUM
In Press
Abstract
AGAR GEL PHENOTYPING OF ROOT TRAITS AS RAPID AND SENSITIVE ASSAY OF WHEAT SEEDLINGS RESPONSE TO EDAPHIC FACTORS: ON EXAMPLE OF CADMIUM
ORCID logoTetiana Levenets1, ORCID logoOleksandr Smirnov1,2, ORCID logoMariia Kovalenko1, ORCID logoLiudmyla Mykhalska2, ORCID logoVictor Schwartau2ORCID logoNataliya Taran1 Educational and Scientific Centre "Institute of Biology and Medicine", Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13 Volodymyrska St, Kyiv, 01601, Ukraine
2Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 31/17 Vasylkivska St, Kyiv, 03022, Ukraine
The influence of different concentrations of cadmium on root elongation, exudative activity of roots and seminal root angle of two wheat genotypes: common bread wheat – Triticum aestivum L. (cv. 'Favorytka') and emmer wheat – Triticum dicoccum Schrank. (cv. 'Holikovska') have been studied in the germination stage. Rapid changes in morphofunctional traits upon first three days of exposure to cadmium on early stages of growth have been studied on phenotyping plates with 25, 50 and 100 µM addition to agar-acid/base indicator medium. Significant inhibition of root elongation, exudative root activity and changes in seminal root angle were observed. Exposure to the highest Cd concentration led to a decrease in primal root length by 50%, decrease in root exudative activity by 88% and decrease in seminal root angle by 24 degrees in T. aestivum compared to a decrease by 12%, 83% and 17 degrees in T. dicoccum. Unlike root growth retardation, a decrease in exudative activity was observed on all three Cd concentrations. The root growth performance at starting stage of seedlings ontogenesis proposed as an express and sensitive phenotyping test method for determining plant response to edaphic stressors by cadmium toxicity example.
Keywords: root phenotyping, seminal root angle, exudative activity, cadmium toxicity, Triticum aestivum, Triticum dicoccum.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):In Press
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.22

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Levenets, T., Smirnov, O., Kovalenko, M., Mykhalska, L., Schwartau, V., Taran, N.  2021. Agar gel phenotyping of root traits as rapid and sensitive assay of wheat seedlings response to edaphic factors: on example of cadmium. Agraarteadus, 32(2):In Press. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.22.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Educational and Scientific Centre "Institute of Biology and Medicine", Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13 Volodymyrska St, Kyiv, 01601, Ukraine
2Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 31/17 Vasylkivska St, Kyiv, 03022, Ukraine


 
Highlights: 
  • The influence of different concentrations of cadmium on root elongation, exudative activity of roots and seminal root angle of two wheat genotypes: common bread wheat – Triticum aestivum L. (cv. 'Favorytka') and emmer wheat – Triticum dicoccum Schrank. (cv. 'Holikovska') have been studied in the germination stage.
  • Rapid changes in morphofunctional traits upon first three days of exposure to cadmium on early stages of growth have been studied on phenotyping plates with 25, 50 and 100 µM addition to agar-acid/base indicator medium.
  • The root growth performance at starting stage of seedlings ontogenesis proposed as an express and sensitive phenotyping test method for determining plant response to edaphic stressors by cadmium toxicity example.
  • The test method proposes an opportunity for non-invasive monitoring of early stages of root development and rapid, real-time assessment of its response to edaphic stressors. All while being cheap, cost-effective in terms of labour and time, and flexible to modifications..

ECOLOGICAL SUITABILITY PEAS (Pisum sativum) VARIETIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN UKRAINE
In Press
Abstract
ECOLOGICAL SUITABILITY PEAS (Pisum sativum) VARIETIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN UKRAINE
ORCID logoVictor Mazur1, ORCID logoOleksandr Tkachuk1, ORCID logoHanna Pantsyreva1, ORCID logoIhor Kupchuk1, ORCID logoMyroslava Mordvaniuk1, ORCID logoOleksandr Chynchyk2
1Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3 Sonyachna St, Vinnytsia, 21008, Ukraine
2State Agrarian and Engineering University, 13 Shevchenko St, Kamianets-Podilskyi, 32300, Ukraine
The varieties of peas can realize about 50% of their productive potential. One of the main reasons for this is the wrong choice of variety for specific ecological growing conditions. Therefore, the purpose and task of our research are to analyze the current range of peas, included in the State Register of plant varieties suitable for cultivation in Ukraine in terms of their real productivity and resistance to drought and disease in the context of climate change in the direction of drought and temperature rise. Assessment of agroecological stability of pea varieties was carried out by elaboration of the State Register of Plant Varieties Suitable for Distribution in Ukraine for 2020, 2010 and Official Descriptions of Plant Varieties and Suitability Indicators submitted in the official bulletins "Protection of Plant Variety Rights" published in Information and reference system "Variety". The most resistant to disease in Ukraine are varieties of peas 'Verbal', 'Prystan', 'Есо', 'Atanas', 'Haiduk'. Varieties are marked by the highest drought resistance 'Verbal', 'Album', 'Alssas', 'Kampus'. The most productive varieties were peas 'Kosmai', 'Album', 'Haiduk', 'Trendy'. The increase in the average annual air temperature in Ukraine during 2001–2020 by 19.3% (8.2–9.9 °C) led to a decrease in the yield of peas by 13.7%, but an increase in the score of resistance of pea varieties to diseases by 25.0%, the score of drought resistance – by 18.8%. Comparison of indicators of disease resistance, drought resistance and productivity of pea varieties for 2020 and 2010 showed that the score of resistance of pea varieties sown to diseases in the period from 2010 to 2020 increased from 6.3 to 8.4 points, i.e. by 25.0%. Drought resistance of pea varieties in 2020 compared to 2010 increased from 6.5 to 8.0 points, which is 18.8%. At the same time, the grain productivity of pea varieties in 2020 compared to 2010 decreased from 3.57 t ha–1 to 3.08 t ha–1, which is 13.7%.
Keywords: Pisum sativum, variety, meteorological conditions, agroecological sustainability.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):In Press
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.26

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Mazur, V., Tkachuk, O., Pantsyreva, H., Kupchuk, I., Mordvaniuk, M., Chynchyk, O.  2021. Ecological suitability peas (Pisum sativum) varieties to climate change in Ukraine. Agraarteadus, 32(2):In Press. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.26.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3 Sonyachna St, Vinnytsia, 21008, Ukraine
2State Agrarian and Engineering University, 13 Shevchenko St, Kamianets-Podilskyi, 32300, Ukraine


 
Highlights: 
  • The most productive in Ukraine are varieties of peas 'Kosmai', 'Album', 'Haiduk', 'Trendy’ with a yield of 3.75-4.70 t ha–1.
  • The most resistant to disease in Ukraine are varieties of peas 'Verbal', 'Prystan', 'Есо', 'Atanas', 'Haiduk' with the 8.7–8.8 points out of 9 maximum possible.
  • The highest drought resistance was noted by 'Verbal' – 8.8 points, 'Album', 'Alssas' – 8.7 points, 'Kampus' – 8.6 points out of 9 maximum possible.

EFFECT OF PROBIOTIC SUPPLEMENT ON NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY AND PRODUCTION TRAITS ON BROILER CHICKEN
In Press
Abstract
EFFECT OF PROBIOTIC SUPPLEMENT ON NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY AND PRODUCTION TRAITS ON BROILER CHICKEN
ORCID logoJulia Poberezhets, ORCID logoRoman Chudak, ORCID logoIhor Kupchuk, ORCID logoVitalii Yaropud, ORCID logoVolodymyr Rutkevych
Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3, Sonyachna St., UA 21008, Vinnytsia, Ukraine
The aim of the research was to investigate feed nutrient digestion and slaughter indicators of broiler chickens fed a probiotic supplement based on lactic acid bacteria. The experiment lasted for 42 days. Four groups of one-day-old broiler chickens of the Ross-308 cross were selected by the method of analogous groups, each group contained 50 birds. Broilers were kept in group cages considering all zoohygienic requirements. The control group consumed a basic diet (BD), i.e., a complete feed. The experimental groups were additionally fed different doses of a probiotic supplement (by percentage mass of feed). The broiler chickens fed the probiotic supplement had increased digestibility of dry matter, protein, fibre and nitrogen-free extractives (NFE) compared with the control group. The application of probiotic supplement in broiler feeding increases the availability of essential amino acids, i.e. lysine, histidine, arginine, threonine, valine, methionine, isoleucine compared with the control. The absorption of Ca, P, Mg, and Mn increased with the probiotic supplement. The probiotic supplement application in the diet of broiler chickens increased the pre-slaughter live weight by 16.7%, the un-gutted body weight by 15.0% and gutted body weight by 17.3%. Probiotic supplement had a positive effect on the digestibility of feed nutrients, increased the absorption of amino acids and minerals in the body broiler chickens.
Keywords: broiler chickens, probiotic, digestibility, amino acids, mineral elements, slaughter qualities.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):In Press
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.28

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VIITAMINE
Poberezhets, J., Chudak, R., Kupchuk, I., Yaropud, V., Rutkevych, V. 2021. Effect of probiotic supplement on nutrient digestibility and production traits on broiler chicken. Agraarteadus, 32(2):In Press. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.28.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3, Sonyachna St., UA 21008, Vinnytsia, Ukraine

 
Highlights: 
  • It was found that the probiotic supplement based on lactic acid bacteria had a positive effect on the feed nutrients digestibility and slaughter characteristics of broiler chickens.
    As a result of an experiment, it was established that the broiler chickens fed the probiotic supplement had the highest digestibility of dry matter, protein, fibre and nitrogen-free extractives (NFE).
  • According to research, the application of probiotic supplement in broiler feeding increases the availability of essential amino acids, i.e. lysine, histidine, arginine, threonine, valine, methionine, isoleucine and absorption of Ca, P, Mg, Mn.
  • The probiotic supplement application in the diet of broiler chickens increased the pre-slaughter live weight by 16.7%, the un-gutted body weight by 15.0% and gutted body weight by 17.3% relative to control.

IS ESTONIAN BARLEY READY TO TACKLE CLIMATE CHANGE-INDUCED WATER REGIMES?
In Press
Abstract
IS ESTONIAN BARLEY READY TO TACKLE CLIMATE CHANGE-INDUCED WATER REGIMES?
ORCID logoSiim Samuel Sepp1, ORCID logoÜlle Tamm1, ORCID logoEvelin Loit2
1Estonian Crop Research Institute, 1 J. Aamisepa St, 48309 Jõgeva, Estonia
2Estonian University of Life Sciences, Chair of Crop Science and Plant Biology, 1 Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi St, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
The objective was to examine the effect of drought and flood on barley plants' biomass and growth rate in early vegetative development while comparing the stress adaption of different varieties. A greenhouse trial was conducted in the Estonian Crop Research Institute (ECRI) in 2021, where five Estonian grown spring barley varieties were grown in optimal, drought and flood treatments for six weeks to measure plants' projected leaf area (PA) and relative growth rate (RGR) through phenotyping. Both drought and flooding stress have a strong negative impact on plant biomass in early vegetative growth phases, causing PA at the end of the trial to decrease 26% and 49% respectively. Meanwhile, RGR throughout the trial decreased 6% in drought treatment and 16% in flood treatment. This indicates the greater impact of flood stress on plant's growth compared to drought stress. Genetic variation related to adaption to extreme water regimes in varieties is rather low, especially in drought stress conditions. In drought treatment, the variation coefficient (CV) was 14%, and in flood treatment 25%. Even as most varieties' PA and RGR varied between treatments, the difference between varieties in specific stress treatments was minimal. Estonian grown spring barley varieties are susceptible to extreme water regime related stress caused by potential climate change. This indicates the importance of assessing water-related stress tolerance in breeding material, adapting more accurate innovative evaluation approaches, and integrating climate-resilient genetic material into breeding programs, to hedge the risk caused by unfavourable growth environments in Estonian barley production.
Keywords: abiotic stress, biomass, drought, flood, vegetative growth.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):In Press
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.29

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VIITAMINE
Sepp, S.S., Tamm, Ü., Loit, E.  2021. Is Estonian barley ready to tackle climate change-induced water regimes? Agraarteadus, 32(2):In Press. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.29.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Estonian Crop Research Institute, 1 J. Aamisepa St, 48309 Jõgeva, Estonia
2Estonian University of Life Sciences, Chair of Crop Science and Plant Biology, 1 Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi St, 51006 Tartu, Estonia


 
Oluline: 
  • Nädalapikkune üleujutus ja kahe nädala pikkune põud vähendasid noorte odrataimede projekteeritud võrse pindala (PA) vastavalt 26% ja 49%.
  • Nii põua kui üleujutuse katsevariandis ilmnes stressi usutav negatiivne mõju taimede suhtelisele kasvukiirusele (RGR) vaid stressi kestel ja sellele järgneval nädalal.
  • Põuatingimused ei avaldanud usutavat mõju sortide 'Tuuli' and 'Maali' PA-le.
  • Üleujutusest tingitud stress vähendas kõikide sortide PA-d alates teisest stressijärgsest nädalast kuni katse lõpuni, tuues sellega kaasa sortide 41–67% väiksema PA katse lõpuks.
  • Sortide madal variatsioonikoefitsent ja valdav usutava erinevuse puudumine RGR ja PA puhul kinnitavad suhteliselt kitsast geneetilist variatsiooni, vastuseks ekstreemsest veerežiimist tingitud stressile.
  • Eestis kasvatatavad odrasordid on vastuvõtlikud kliimamuutustest tulenevate potensiaalsete ekstreemsete veerežiimide poolt tekitatud stressile.

ORCID logoJiban Shrestha, ORCID logoSudeep Subedi, Ramesh Acharya, Shiva Sharma, ORCID logoMahesh Subedi
VARIABILITY FOR GROWTH AND YIELD TRAITS IN SINGLE CROSS HYBRIDS OF MAIZE (Zea mays L.)
In Press
Abstract
VARIABILITY FOR GROWTH AND YIELD TRAITS IN SINGLE CROSS HYBRIDS OF MAIZE (Zea mays L.)
ORCID logoJiban Shrestha, ORCID logoSudeep Subedi, Ramesh Acharya, Shiva Sharma, ORCID logoMahesh Subedi
Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Plant Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Khumaltar, 15 Lalitpur Metropolitan City, 44700, Nepal
Sixteen single-cross hybrids of maize were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications to investigate genetic variability and correlation among growth and yield traits at Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal from March 13 to September 05, 2021. The hybrids were grouped into four clusters using Euclidean Average Linkage method. The cluster analysis showed the presence of genetic variability in the evaluated hybrids. The maximum distance between cluster centroids (194.28) was found between cluster 2 and cluster 4, indicating genetic dissimilarity. Grain yield had the maximum values of phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) (35.02%), followed by ear height (17.82%) and plant height (12.22%). Similarly, grain yield had the maximum values of genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) (26.24%) followed by the number of kernel rows/cob (8.77%) and days to 50% silking (8.72%). Days to 50% silking and days to 50% tasseling had the highest values of heritability (86%) followed by cob diameter (84%) and no. of kernel rows in cob (68%). The leaf area per plant had the maximum values of genetic advance (GA) (74.87 cm2), followed by plant height (27.80 cm) and days to 50% silking (9.66 days). Similarly, the maximum values of genetic advance as percent of the mean (GAM) was found for grain yield (40.50%) followed by days to 50% silking (16.70%) and days to 50% tasseling (16.17%). The hybrids namely KWM-91 × KWM-93 produced the maximum values of grain yield (9.99 t ha–1) followed by KWM-93 × KWM-91 (9.63 t ha–1) and KWM-92 × KWM-93 (9.40 t ha–1). Grain yield showed positive and significant phenotypic correlation with days to 50% silking (r = 0.41), days to 50% tasseling (r = 0.39), plant height (r = 0.37), cob diameter (r = 0.49) and the number of kernel rows in cob (r = 0.38). Therefore, utilization of present genetic variability along with indirect selection for traits having significant association with grain yield, high heritability and GAM could aid in the improvement of maize productivity.
Keywords: correlation, GCV, genetic advance, heritability, maize, PCV.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):In Press
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.31

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VIITAMINE
Shrestha, J., Subedi, S., Acharya, R., Sharma, S., Subedi, M. 2021. Variability for growth and yield traits in single cross hybrids of maize (Zea mays L.). Agraarteadus, 32(2):In Press. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.31.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Plant Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Khumaltar, 15 Lalitpur Metropolitan City, 44700, Nepal





 
Highlights: 
  • The sixteen single-cross hybrids of maize showed the variability for plant height, ear height, days to 50% silking, days to 50% tasseling, leaf area per plant, cob length, cob diameter, number of kernel rows in cob and grain yield.
  • For all growth and yield traits, the phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was bigger than the genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV), indicating that there was an environmental influence.
  • Days to 50% silking, days to 50% tasseling, plant height, cob diameter and the number of kernel rows in cob were found to have a maximum correlation with grain yield; these traits may boost grain yield.

SHORT COMMUNICATION: EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN AND FARMYARD MANURE ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF SPINACH (Spinacia oleracea L.)
In Press
Abstract
SHORT COMMUNICATION: EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN AND FARMYARD MANURE ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF SPINACH (Spinacia oleracea L.)
ORCID logoParbati Thapa1, ORCID logoRam Kumar Shrestha1, ORCID logoKishor Kafle1, ORCID logoJiban Shrestha2
1Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Lamjung Campus, Sundarbazar 07, Sundarbazar Municipality, 33600, Nepal
2Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Plant Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Khumaltar15, Lalitpur Metropolitan City, 44700, Nepal.
The application of nitrogen (N) and farmyard manure (FYM) greatly affects the growth and production of spinach. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of various levels of nitrogen and farmyard manure on the growth and yield of spinach. This study was conducted in the research field of the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Lamjung, Sundarbazar, Lamjung, Nepal from November 2019 to January 2020. The treatments were: 0 kg N ha–1, 30 kg N ha–1, 60 kg N ha–1, 60 kg N ha–1 + 10 t FYM ha–1, 60 kg N ha–1 + 20 t FYM ha–1, 90 kg N ha–1 and 120 kg N ha–1. These treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The results showed that higher N levels gave better results for all parameters studied. The increasing N fertilization rates increased the vegetative characters and yield of spinach. The maximum plant height (22.68 cm), leaf width (6.69 cm), number of leaves (12.93), fresh weight of leaves (17.07 g) and leaf length (14.94 cm) were recorded with the application of the highest level of nitrogen (120 kg N ha–1). The spinach yield (3.2 t ha–1) was the highest with the application of 120 kg N ha–1. However, the growth and yield traits were not significantly differed with the application of 60 kg N ha–1 + 20 t FYM ha–1. Therefore, this study suggests that spinach production can be maximized by the application of 60 kg N ha–1+ 20 t FYM ha–1.
Keywords: spinach, growth, nitrogen, farmyard manure, yield, fertility.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):In Press
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.21

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VIITAMINE
Thapa, P., Shrestha, R.K., Kafle, K., Shrestha, J. 2021. Short communication: Effect of different levels of nitrogen and farmyard manure on the growth and yield of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Agraarteadus, 32(2):In Press. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.21.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Lamjung Campus, Sundarbazar 07, Sundarbazar Municipality, 33600, Nepal
2Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Plant Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Khumaltar15, Lalitpur Metropolitan City, 44700, Nepal.




 
Highlights: 
  • The application of nitrogen (N) and farmyard manure (FYM) affected the growth and production of spinach. However, the growth and yield traits were not significantly differed with the application of 60 kg N ha–1+ 20 t FYM ha–1.
  • The maximum plant height (22.68 cm), leaf width (6.69 cm), number of leaves (12.93), fresh weight of leaves (17.07 g), leaf length (14.94 cm) and yield (3.2 t ha–1) were recorded with the application of the highest level of nitrogen (120 kg N ha–1), however, these traits were not significantly differed with the application of 60 kg N ha–1+ 20 t FYM ha–1.
  • Spinach production can be maximized by the application of 60 kg N ha–1+ 20 t FYM ha–1.

JUSTIFICATION OF THE MECHATRONIC SYSTEM FOR PIGSTY MICROCLIMATE MAINTENANCE
In Press
Abstract
JUSTIFICATION OF THE MECHATRONIC SYSTEM FOR PIGSTY MICROCLIMATE MAINTENANCE
ORCID logoVitalii Yaropud1, ORCID logoIryna Hunko1, ORCID logoElchyn Aliiev2, ORCID logoIhor Kupchuk1
1Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3 Sonyachna St., Vinnytsia, 21008, Ukraine
2Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, 25 Voroshylova St., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
The main parameters of the microclimate of pig farms are regulated by the norms of technological design. Naturally, such micro­climate parameters at real energy prices require high costs, but these are the most favourable conditions for the life of suckling piglets. According to the presented analysis, the problem of research is the need to provide a micro­climate in the room for comfortable keeping of pigs, which is currently achieved through high energy. The purpose of the development is to increase the efficiency of the microclimate of pig farms by using a mechatronic control system, rational use of utilized air energy and soil thermal potential with reduced energy costs of the ventilation system. The problem is solved by creating such a mechatronic system to ensure the microclimate of pig farms, which can: switch the direction of airflow to ensure the operation of the system in winter and summer; to control the movement of air, which must be disposed of according to the parameters of its quality; to provide a local microclimate in each place where animals are kept; rational use of soil thermal energy as a source of alternative energy; to carry out automatic pumping of the water necessary for humidification of air, and its utilization. The article presents the results of research of parameters of the developed mechatronic system of providing microclimate of pig premises, which were carried out in three stages: research of heat exchanger of side-evaporating type; substantiation of the ventilation system of polluted air intake; substantiation of the ventilation system for injecting clean air taking into account it's geothermal heating/cooling. The advantage of the proposed mechatronic system of the microclimate of pig farms is that it allows increasing the efficiency of microclimate by rational use of energy of utilized air (due to the use of side-evaporator type heat exchanger based on Maisotsenko cycle) and soil heat potential (geothermal energy) at low operating costs of the ventilation system through the additional provision of mechatronic elements. The presented results of numerical simulation of the indirect evaporative heat exchanger allow us to state that the cooling effect obtained in indirect evaporative channels can be quite high in comparison with traditional air conditioning patterns. The presented heat exchanger based on the Maisotsenko cycle (M-cycle) of considered heat carrier flow scheme is characterized by its high cost-effectiveness, low specific cost, small operational costs and structural simplicity, which is confirmed in the works. The models obtained in the Star CCM +software package can be used for optimization analysis of air-cooling with variations in the Reynolds number, humidity, channel length and geometric dimensions of channels. Because of analytical investigations of the contaminated air intake ventilation system, the method was developed and on its basis – the algorithm was implemented for the determination of geometrical arrangement of holes in the air duct of the mechatronic system for pigsty microclimate maintenance.
Keywords: pigsty, microclimate, mechatronic system, ventilation, heat exchanger, geothermal energy.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):In Press
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.23

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VIITAMINE
Yaropud, V., Hunko, I., Aliiev, E., Kupchuk, I.  2021. Justification of the mechatronic system for pigsty microclimate maintenance. Agraarteadus, 32(2):In Press. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.23.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3 Sonyachna St., Vinnytsia, 21008, Ukraine
2Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, 25 Voroshylova St., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine



 
Highlights: 
  • The developed mechatronic system can:
    • switch the direction of airflow to ensure the operation of the system in winter and summer;
    • control the movement of air, which can be disposed of according to the parameters of its quality;
    • provide a local microclimate in each place where animals are kept;
    • rational use of soil thermal energy as a source of alternative energy;
    • carry out automatic pumping of the water necessary for humidification of air and its utilization.
  • The method was developed and on its basis, the algorithm was implemented for the determination of the geometrical arrangement of holes in the air duct of the mechatronic system for pigsty microclimate maintenance..

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