2002 * XIII * 3

A. Kaarma, E. Mägi.  
  Mäletsejaliste eimerioosid Eestis 137
Ruminant Eimeria spp. infections in Estonia. Eimeria spp. infections of cattle and sheep have worldwide distribution. Acute form of the disease is characterized by diarrhea, depression, loss of live weight and the presence of faecal oocysts. Eimeria spp. population biology was investigated in Estonian conditions in several sheep flocks of various districts. According to our results, dynamics of infection depend on sheep age groups and local keeping conditions on farms. Flotation method of coprological investigations was used to estimate the extent of invasion and all sheep allowed to clinical observations. All the lambs in our observation groups have born in winter from December to February and the grazing period was 5 months: from May to October. The results of our trials show that lambs 1–4 months of age had high incidence of invasion: Eimeria spp. oocysts have been found in 50% of the investigated animals. According to our conclusions, clinical signs approximately in 5% of lambs and young sheep (4–7 months of age) have been registered. Despite the fact that ordinarily older sheep rarely develop the disease, they carry the parasites (chronic form of disease) and continuously excrete small number of oocysts. Extent of invasion in breeding ewes occurred to be relatively high: in mean up to 17.5–25% of investigated flocks. Parasite population dynamics appeared to be in dependence on several endogenous and exogenous factors in sheep flocks. Separate grazing of ewes and lambs born in winter period did not affect essentially the distribution level of invasion in pasture period.

Keywords: Eimeria spp. oocysts; population dynamics; extent of invasion; grazing period.

A. Kaasik, R. Leming, T. Remmel.  
  Lämmastiku emissioon loomapidamishoonetest (sigalad, veiselaudad) 142
Nitrogen emission in animal buildings (pig and cattle housing systems). Ammonia emission per year/per period in the stable for pigs and cattle was investigated. The measurements were carried out in the following animal categories: dairy cows, heifers, calves (tie-up housing system); young bulls (loose housing system); gestating sows, weaners, slaughter pigs (group pens) and lactating sows (individually). The intake of feed nitrogen was 135 kg (dairy cows 5000 kg milk per year), 170 kg (dairy cows 7000 kg milk per year), 50 kg (heifers) and 79 kg (bulls) per year; 12 kg (calves), 18 kg (gestation sows), 18 kg (lactating sows), 1.3 kg (weaners) and 6 kg (slaughter pigs) per period. Nitrogen content in excreta was 5.7 kg (dairy cows 5000 kg milk per year), 6,0 kg (dairy cows 7000 kg milk per year), 3.5 kg (heifers), 4.9 kg (bulls), 3.8 kg (calves), 12.5 kg (gestation sows) 12.9 kg (lactating sows), 10.9 kg (weaners) and 8.8 kg (slaughter pigs) per ton. In all animal categories sawdust was used as bedding, except young bulls where straw and peat mix were used. The amount of bedding material was 0.22 kg (dairy cows 5000 kg milk per year), 0.22 kg (dairy cows 7000 kg milk per year), 0.22 kg (heifers), 0.32 kg (bulls), 0.27 kg (calves), 0.24 kg (gestation sows), 0.46 kg (lactating sows), 0.14 kg (weaners) and 0.27 kg (slaughter pigs) per kg of excreta. The amount of emitted ammonia per animal and emission factor per year or per period was 2.8 kg and 4% (dairy cows 5000 kg milk per year), 3.5 kg and 4% (dairy cows 7000 kg milk per year), 1.0 kg and 3.5% (heifers), 3,9 kg and 5.1% (bulls), 0.3 kg and 3.5% (calves), 2.1 kg and 12.0% (gestation sows), 0.9kg and 6.8% (lactating sows), 0.1 kg and 18.6% (weaners), 0.7 kg and 18.6%(slaughter pigs) respectively. Ammonia emission was affected by the housing system, nitrogen content in excreta and amount of bedding material.

Keywords: nitrogen emission, cattle, pigs, housing systems.

S. Kalev.  
  Talvekindlate õlirikaste 00-tüüpi talirüpsi liinide võrdluskatsete ja valiku tulemused 1998.-2001. a 147
Results of field-testing and selection for high oil content, 00 type more winterhardy initial material of winter turnip rape in 1998–2001. Comparing with winter rape having been in cultivation already in Estonia, winter turnip rape has some advantages: more winterhardy, early ripening and has quicker develop-ment of plants after sprouting, it competes well with weeds and comes in to flowering before the pollen beetles (Meligethes aenus) appears. This all enable economical effects and at the same time is less risky to environment (less chemical treatment needed). Fatty acid content and oil quality of winter turnip rape is comparable to that of rapeseed. Considering different aspects winter turnip rape deserves to play bigger role in future Estonian oil seed production.

Winter turnip rape breeding started at Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute in 1993 in collaboration with Svalöf Weibull AB (Sweden).

The main goal of the project is to develop new turnip rape varieties adapted to the Estonian soil and climatic conditions.

Upon the results of the co-operative trials carried out by Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute and Svalöf Weibull AB during 1998–2001 6 lines were selected and included into the official trials in Estonia (four) and in Sweden (six). During collaborative breeding there have been listed in Sweden winter turnip rape ‘Credit’ (1999). By the agreement the varieties passed over to official trials after 1996 are joint varieties. From lines, passed from 1997 the joint winter turnip rape variety ‘Prisma’ was listed in Estonia, and ‘Largo’ in Sweden.

Good looking, healthy plants were selected from the observation trials for sib crossings and isolated with special bags for breeding high yielding, more winter hardy and with high quality winter turnip rape varieties for Estonian conditions and other countries. Development of new varieties in the frames of the co-operative program will continue on that basis.

Keywords: winter turnip rape, yield, winter hardiness, new varieties.

M. Kleemann.  
  Valgust selekteeriva filtri mõju kasvuhoones kasvanud lehtsalati taimede kvaliteedile 156
Effect of photoselective plastics on the quality of greenhouse grown lettuce. The aim of the experiments was to assess the effect of far-red filter on the quality of lettuce plants. The experiments with lettuce were carried out in the greenhouses of University of Tartu, Institute of Plant Physiology in 2000 and 2001. The colour of plants grown under far-red filter was beautiful light green compared to plants grown in control, which were yellowish, darker green. Under far-red filter grown plants tasted less bitter compared to plants in control. Scattered radiation penetrated deeper inside of lettuce than direct beam. Therefore spectral filter affected also leaf orientation. Lettuce leaf position became more upright in control plants compared to plants grown under a far-red absorbing film. The incidence of tipburned leaves decreased under far-red filter. The yield was not significantly different. Calcium content was significantly higher under far-red filter. Plants grown under far-red filter contained less dry matter and chlorophyll.

Keywords: lettuce, tipburn, light quality, far-red filter, calcium content.

I. Kübarsepp, M. Henno, O. Kärt, T. Kaart.  
  Eesti veisetõugude piima kaltsiumi- ja fosforisisaldused ning neid mõjutavad faktorid 162
Milk calcium and phosphorus content of dairy cattle breeds raised in Estonia and factors influencing it. Purpose of this study was to compare milk calcium and phosphorus content of different breeds raised in Estonia. In Põlula research farm (RF) five trial groups were made up: Estonian Holstein breed (breeding value >115) (EHF-t), Estonian Holstein breed (breeding value 105…115) (EHF), Red-and-White Holstein breed (RHF), Estonian Red breed (EPK) and Estonian Native breed (EK). Milk samples were collected from five first lactating cows of each trial group twice a month and from five dairies and seven manufactured milks once a month during year 2001. Calcium and phosphorus contents were determined by using IDF methods 36A:1992 and 42B:1990 in Dairy Laboratory of the Institute of Animal Science.

The contents of calcium and phosphorus in milk were significantly influenced by a number of factors: individuality of the cow, breed, stage of lactation and protein content in milk. Phosphorus content in milk was additionally influenced by season of the year, milk yield and urea content. Influence of individuality of cow on content of calcium and phosphorus in milk was secondly large and caused comparably high variability of mean content of individual cows: [Ca]max=0.150%, [Ca]min=0.104% and [P]max=0.114% [P]min=0.079%. Mean contents of calcium and phosphorus in milk were higher in RHF and EPK groups. Milk calcium and phosphorus contents were higher in early and late lactation. The lowest calcium and phosphorus contents in milk were observed on third-fourth months after calving. Seasonal changes in milk mineral content were small and it was difficult to distinguish the effect of season from the effects influencing milk mineral content.

Keywords: milk calcium content, milk phosphorus content, milk minerals.

L. Leis, A. Lepik, T. Lepiku, A. Karus.  
  Mineraalelementide sisaldus õunapuu viljades ja lehtedes 176
Mineral content of apple fruits and leaves. Effect of mineral nutrient on fruit quality, including quality for storage and the development of physiological disorders (e.g. bitter pit), depends upon nutrient content and nutrient balance in the fruit. Concentration of mineral constituents was determined in apple fruits and leaves. Varieties had been studied were autumn cultivars Sügisjoonik and Liivi kuldrenett, and winter cultivars Talvenauding, Tellissaare and Lobo. Samples were collected from commercial apple orchard in South-Estonia. Mean soil pH(H2O) was 5.9–6.5 in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Soil humus class was medium, fertility class for N was good, K, P, B and Cu high, and Ca, Mg, Mn and Zn satisfactory. The mean fruit macronutrients content (% DM) was for N 0.16 and 0.31, P 0.13 and 0.09, K 1.00 and 0.39, Ca 0.03 and 0.02, Mg 0.04 and 0.02 in 1999 and 2000, respectively. In leaves the mean concentrations of macronutrients (% DM) were: N 2.1 and 2.3, P 0.4 and 0.2, K 2.0 and 1.1, Ca 1.2 and 1.4, Mg 0.4 and 0.3 in 1999 and 2000. In fruits concentration of N was in 2000 higher than in 1999, content of P, K, Ca and Mg was lower. Fruit macronutrient levels, except P, were lower or close to minimum values of published in literature data. Nutrient levels in the leaves were satisfactory, even high for P and K, in both years. Uptake of nutrients, except N, was in rainy and with low-sunlight vegetative season of 2000 lower. The mean ratio N/Ca was 4 and 22, K/Ca 41 and 25 in 1999 and 2000, respectively. The storage life of fruits was in 1999 when N/Ca << K/Ca longer than in 2000 with N/Ca ~ K/Ca. Incidence of bitter pit on fruits of Sügisjoonik with K/Ca ratio 26.5 had widely occured in 1999.

Keywords: apple fruit, mineral nutrient content, fruit quality, calcium, storability.

E. Orgmets, O. Saveli, M. Voore.  
  Põlula katselehmade piimajõudlus ja kehaehitus 182
The milk performance and body conformation of cows on Põlula Experimental Farm. The milk performance and body conformation of 1st lactation cows in Põlula Experimental Farm were analyzed. The cows were divided into 5 groups: 1) Estonian Native breed (EK), 2) Estonian Red breed (EPK), 3) Red-and-White Holstein breed (RHF), 4) Estonian Holstein breed (EHF) with average pedigree index (<112), 5) Estonian Holstein breed (EHFt) with higher pedigree index (>112).

The highest test-day milk production was obtained EHFt from and lowest from EK cows (35.9 kg and 24.6 kg, respectively). The 100 day milk performance was higher in both Estonian Holstein groups and lower in EK and EPK breeds.

There were no significant differences in fat content among groups. The protein content of the milk of EK and ER cows was 0.1% higher compared to other groups. There were not significant differences in 305 day milk production between EPK and RHF cows, whereas the protein production of RHF was considerably higher. Among the Estonian Holstein groups the higher milk production of EHFt cows was observed. The 100-day milk and fat production of RHF cows constituted 39% of 305–day production. In other groups that it was 33.3–37.3%. The lactation curve was considerably sharper in RHF group, medium in EPK and EHF groups and fluent in EHFt group.

The final score and majority of the linear type traits were better in cows of RHF and EHFt groups compared to the rest of groups. The high-producing cows were taller, with wider and deeper body, wide rump, higher rear udder, but with lower udder depth, weaker center ligament and deeper hooves than the cows with lower milk production. The body measurements and body weight of the cows of EHFt and RHF groups were not significantly different. However RHF cows had significantly larger body measurements than the cows in EPK and EHF groups. The larger cows had considerably higher milk production than smaller ones.

Keywords: cattle breed, milk performance, linear type traits, body measurements.

A. Viltrop, J. Alaots, M. Pärn, K. Must.  
  Mõnede VVD viiruse Eesti tüvede fenotüübiline iseloomustus 191
Phenotypic characterisation of some BVDV strains from Estonia. The antigenic variation of BVDV strains isolated from Estonian cattle was investigated using a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Other phenotypic characteristics of virus strains as cytopathogenic effect to cell cultures and the clinical manifestation of the infection were investigated. All virus strains isolated from serum of viraemic animals’ (14) appeared to be non-cytopathogenic. Only one strain isolated from lung of a dead calf appeared to be cytopathogenic. The clinical manifestation of the infection in different herds was ranging from non-apparent effect to abortions and malformations in newborn calves. Diarrhoea and poor growth rate of young stock were reported as herd health problems in some BVDV persistently infected herds.

The BVDV strains, isolated from 7 different herds, reveal high antigenic variation. The strains were clearly herd specific according to their reactivity pattern with monoclonal antibodies. All strains could be classified as type 1 BVDV strains, however in three strains an unusual reactivity with one type 2 BVDV specific monoclonal antibody was discovered.

Keywords: Bovine viral diarrhoea virus, BVDV, antigenic variation, monoclonal antibodies.