2004 * XV * 1

Kalev, S., Narits, L.    
  Ilmastiku mõju erinevat tüüpi põldhernesortide saagile ja saagi kvaliteedile 3
Weather effects on yield and quality of yield of different field pea types. The trials of different types of field pea varieties were carried out in 2001–2003 at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute in Estonia. Influence of weather conditions (data for Jõgeva Meteorological Station) to yield and quality were tested. Total yield and its distribution into five different fractions were investigated. The following yield fractions were measured: quality fraction, damaged by Laspeyresia sp., by Ascochyta sp., sprouted and broken kernels. Protein content was measured by Kjeldahl method.

Eight leafed type varieties and breeds and eight semileafless type varieties and breeds were used in the trial. All the varieties, except ‘Rahel’, belong to the Estonian Variety List.

The trial results show that weather conditions had credible influence on yield and yield quality.

In the years when weather conditions favoured vegetative growth leafed types gave higher yield and better quality than semileafless varieties.

In the year of unfavourable weather conditions the situation was opposite. The leafed varieties had the biggest share of damaged yield factions.

The semileafless varieties are more sensitive to diseases when they have lodged and their pods have open and seeds sprout more quickly than the leafed types.

Keywords: field pea, leafed peatype, semileafless peatype, yield, quality, weather

Kärt, O., Ots, M., Jaakson, H., Ling, K.  
  Jõusööda tärklise- ja proteiiniallika mõju uuslüpsiperioodil lüpsvate lehmade toodangule, toitainetega varustatusele ja mõningatele vere biokeemilistele näitajatele 12
Effects of starch and protein sources of concentrate on the production, nutrient supply and some blood biochemical parameters of the cows in early lactation. An experiment was arranged using 4×4 Latin square design in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 4 Estonian Holstein cows in early lactaton. Red clover rich silage (Ps,) barley meal (O), maize meal (M), rapeseed cake (R), or soybean meal (S) were fed. Milk production, fat, protein, lactose and urea content were analysed. Nitrogen, urea-N, allantoin, uric acid excretion and microbial protein synthesis were estimated, also the content of protein, glucose, urea and ketobodies in the blood plasma were analysed.

Starch or protein sources had no effect on the dry matter, protein or metabolizable energy intake, also on milk production, but had influence on milk composition. Milk fat content was higher when maize meal fed (P<0.05) and protein content was higher when rapeseed cake was fed (P<0.01). Nitrogen excretion via urine was influenced by the protein source, ruminal microbial protein synthesis in the rumen by the starch source. The results suggest that feeding cows red clover rich silage with highly degradable protein, it is recommendable to make concentrate with barley meal and rapeseed cake. At the beginning of lactation, barley starch may be partly replaced by mayze starch to reduce body energy use.

Keywords: dairy cows, purine derivatives, microbial protein

Leming, R., Lember, A., Kukk, T.  
  Erinevate glükosinolaatide sisaldus Eestis toodetud rapsiseemnetes ja -koogis 21
The content of individual glucosinolates in rapeseed and rapeseed cake produced in Estonia. The aim of the study was to investigate the content of individual glucosinolates in rapeseed and rapeseed cake produced in Estonia. Two commercial rapeseed samples and seven rapeseed cake samples were collected from three different batches and analysed for glucosinolate content in different laboratories. Rapeseed cake was produced and samples were taken from AS Werol Tehased crushing plant in year 2000 and 2003. Rapeseed was crushed, heated in the cooker for 20–25 minutes and oil was extracted by mechanical screwpress. Total glucosinolate content in rapeseed cake analysed in 2000 varied from 11,4 µmol/g (in dry matter basis) to 19,8 µmol/g having an average content of 15,8 µmol/g. The most common glucosinolates in rapeseed cake were progoitrin (6,2 µmol/g), 4-hydroxy-glucobrassicin (4,5 µmol/g) and gluconapin (3,5 µmol/g). Similarly, glucosinolate content in rapeseed and rapeseed cake analysed later in 2000 indicated that progoitrin, 4-hydroxy-glucobrassicin, gluconapin and sinalbin constituted about 90% of all detected glucosinolates. Glucosinolate content in samples analysed in 2003 was found similar to the results from previous analyses. Heat treatment negatively affected the content of glucosinolates. In average the content of total glucosinolates decreased by 47%. Glucobrassicin and 4-hydroxy-glucobrassicin were the most thermolabile glucosinolates.

Keywords: rapeseed, rapeseed cake, glucosinolates, heat treatment

Mänd, M., Martin, A.-J., Viiralt, R., Geherman, V., Karise, R., Koskor, E.  
  Kimalaste toiduressursid ökoloogilise ja konventsionaalse maaviljelusega taludes Eestis 28
Bumble bee food resources in organic and conventional farms in Estonia. The agricultural interest has begun to shift away from chemical management toward environmentally friendly practices. The aim of this study was to assess the heterogeneity of the plant species composition used by the bumble bee species comparatively on the ecological and conventional farms. For these purposes five pairs of farms were selected in different areas of Estonia. The transects passed through fields of leguminous crops, field boundaries and wasteland in correlation with the land use of each farm. We found no significant difference between the numbers of flowering plants in the grasslands of two farm types. However, ecological farms provide the most heterogeneous food plants suitable for bumble bees compared with conventional ones. The short-tongued Bombus lucorum, B. lapidarius and the middle-tongued B. pascuorum were able to use very different plant species as food resources. Long-tongued bumble bees are most vulnerable to their restricted diet.

Keywords: organic farming, conventional farming, nonparasitic bumble bees, flowering plants, bumble bee food plants.

Smolkina, Z., Karus, A.  
  IGF-1 ja mõne housekeeping geeni kandidaadi ekspressiooni uurimine veistel reaalaja RT-PCR-ga 38
Gene expression analysis is increasingly important in biological research, while real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) is becoming the method of choice for high-throughput and accurate expression profiling of selected genes. The present work is meant to contribute to solving problems related to IGF-1 expression measurements in cattle. The first aim of this paper is study of IGF-1 expression in different bovine tissues. The second aim of this study is measuring two housekeeping gene candidates (β2M and G6PDH) expression level for future research as housekeeping gene for IGF-1 relative quantification. To compensate of variations in input RNA amounts and efficiency of reverse transcription, different endogenous housekeeping genes have been quantified. However, there are still no completely satisfactory results. We measured the IGF-1 expression in different cattle tissues with ready-to-use kits from Roche. For the experiments the real-time RTPCR LightCycler technology was used. The IGF-1 expression determination with SYBR Green I was performed with good linearity (R=0.98) and with average mean squared error (Error=0.319) over three orders of magnitude of target molecules. The highest IGF-1 gene expression was observed in cattle liver. G6PDH is a suitable candidate for finding a good housekeeping gene for IGF-1 in bovine tissues.

Abbreviations used: β2M – β2-microglobulin, G6PDH – glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, IGF-1 – insulin like growth factor 1, RT-PCR – reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

Särekanno, M., Vasar, V., Ojarand, A., Talvoja, P., Kotkas, K.  
  Fungitsiidid kartuli-lehemädaniku tõrjel 47
The fungicides in control of potato late blight (Phythophtora infestans). In collaboration with Aventis CropScience demonstrational trials were set up in test field of EVIKA, Saku, Estonia, in 2001 and 2002. The aim was to study the effect of fungicides in control of late blight (P. infestans) on stems and tubers and its subsequent influence on yield. There were 3 varieties tested in the trials: ‘Berber’, ‘Varajane kollane’ and ‘Piret’. In 2001 fungicides Acrobat MZ, Tattoo and Dithane M45 were compared, in 2002 fungicides Tattoo, Glory and Sereno separately and Tattoo and Glory in spraying program with Sereno were tested. The most effective protection of stems, foliage and tubers as well as yield increase was obtained by using fungicide Tattoo in trials 2001. Results showed that under conditions that favour the late blight development the higher efficacy against the disease is expressed by fungicides containing relatively higher concentration of systemic active ingredient than that of contact ingredient. Under the conditions that are unfavourable for late blight, there is a higher risk for early blight development. The applied intensive disease control program prevented the late blight infections but early blight started to develop instead.

Keywords: disease control, contact, systemic fungicides, combined influence

Veinla, V., Piir, T., Siitas, M.  
  Puidujäätmete kihi alla pressimise takistus 57
The pressing resistance of the waste wood in the layer. Pressing waste wood under the layer. The purposes of the research were the following: 1) to find out the working ability of a pressing equipment using the manure pressure for pressing waste wood, 2) to measure pressing resistance using waste wood (plane chips, sawdust) with different characteristics, 3) to measure variability of bulk density during the pressing process, 4) to determine the friction coefficient of waste wood.

The tests were carried out in a laboratory where the testing bench was built. The material properties (bulk density, moisture, friction coefficient), material compactness during pressing process, the pressing resistance essentially on the moistness and the height of the layer of the material in the pit were measured. The presspipes resistance and layers resistance were estimated.

The density of plane chips (W=14%) increased during the pressing process by 1,4–2,5 times on an average. The volume mass of the material in the experimental chambers were uneven. The total resistance of pressing plane chips (W=14%) were insignificant depending on the height of the layer. The pressure of pressing below the layer is 4–5 times bigger than that of dragging the material. The resistance of pressing below the layer was 80% of the total resistance. The resistance of pressing moistened materials (plane chips, sawdust) is significantly dependent on the height of the layer. The resistance of pressing below the layer was 82–90% of the total resistance. Pressing of the moistened materials in a layer is energetically inefficient.

Keywords: waste wood, pressing below the layer, pressing resistance, material properties, density of material