2004 * XV * 4

A. Kaasik, R. Leming, T. Remmel.  
  Säilitusviisi mõju tahke veisesõnniku toiteelementide (lämmastik, fosfor, kaalium) sisaldusele 193
The influence of storing method on the nutrient content (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) in solid cattle manure. The aim of the trials was to investigate nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) losses of solid cattle manure from different storage types during spring/summer and autumn/winter period. The experiments were carried out in year 2002 (March–September) and 2003 (November–May) during six months long storage periods. Different types of storages – covered non-leaking, opened non-leaking and opened leaking manure storages were investigated. During spring/summer period the average air temperature was 12,1 ºC and total precipitation at the experimental plot was 233 mm. During autumn/winter period the average air temperature was –1 ºC, precipitation was not recorded. During spring/summer period the nitrogen content in solid cattle manure decreased as follows: covered non-leaking storage – 15,4% (0,4 kg/t), opened non-leaking storage – 29,6% (0,8 kg/t) and opened leaking storage – 32,3% (1,0 kg/t). During spring/summer period the nitrogen losses were 14,3% (0,4 kg/t), 17,2% (0,5 kg/t) and 14,3% (0,4 kg/t), respectively. The main source for nitrogen loss was ammonia emission. There were no losses of potassium and phosphorus found in non-leaking storages. However, in opened leaking storage during spring/summer period the content of phosphorus and potassium decreased by 22,2% (0,2 kg/t) and 26,9% (0,7 kg/t), and during autumn/winter period by 20,0% (0,1 kg/t) and 11,5% (0,3 kg/t), respectively.

Keywords: solid cattle manure, storage, nutrient losses.

R. Lindjärv, T. Schattschneider, J. Kumar, T. Saar, E. Klaassen, M. Kuus.  
  Farmi-spetsiifiline Staphylococcus aureus’e bakteriin lehmadele. 1. Staphylococcus aureus’e kasvutiheduse ja alfa-hemolüsiini moodustumise optimeerimine komplekssöötmes 199
A farmspecific Staphylococcus aureus' bacterin against mastitis of cows. 1. Optimizing of the growth rate and alpha-hemolysin formation by S. aureus in complex medium. For the elaboration of the farmspecific bacterins production against S. aureus mastitis of cows, the growth medium for S. aureus was optimized. Three similar experiments with four different medium in 1000 ml Erlenmeyer flasks were performed. The volume of cultivating medium was 500 ml and volume of inoculum was 25 ml OD 0.9 by 650 nm. The basic medium was similar to Feist medium (Arch. Exp. Vet. Med., 1976, 30, 49–57), which was used for cultivating of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. In experiments two intensively alpha-hemolytic strains of S. aureus were used.

The results indicated that the modification of Feist medium had good growth density and alpha-hemolysin formation of S. aureus. In the optimized complex medium percentage of peptone was increased up to 2 and the supplement of microelements Fe-Mg-Mn sulphates were added. During 24 h at 37 ºC, OD 2.98 (1.79×109 CFU) by aerobic growth was achieved.

The alpha-toxin content of culture supernatant was estimated by the method of Bernheimer (1988). The culture supernatant tested with sheep erythrocytes and the best result was 12.13±1.85 Hu/ml.

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, growth, bacterin medium, alpha-hemolysin formation.

V. Loide, M. Nõges, J. Rebane.  
  Väetistarbe hindamisest Mehlich 3 väljatõmbest 206
Assessment of the fertiliser requirement using the extraction solution Mehlich 3. To determine the requirement of macro- and microelements, seven extraction solutions have been employed in Estonian practice. Double lactate (DL) extraction has been used for determination of the phosphorus and potassium requirement, ammonium lactate (AL) extraction for determination of the calcium and magnesium requirement, and five more different extractions have been used for determination of microelements. Hence the need for a more appropriate extraction solution was due to the large number of the extraction solutions used until now, which made determination of the fertiliser requirement less efficient; also in some cases use of some extraction solution did not yield reliable results in the case of particular plants. It was found in this study that the extraction solution Mehlich 3 is suitable for determining the fertiliser requirement of the soils of Estonia, considering their diverse agrochemical properties, while it allows to reduce the number of the extraction solutions.

Keywords: fertiliser requirement, available phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, manganese, double lactate extraction, ammonium lactate extraction, 1 N HCl extraction, 1 N (NH4)2SO4 extraction, Mehlich 3 extraction.

E. Nahkur, V. Andrianov, E. Ernits, M. Jalakas, E. Järv.  
  Emaspõtrade luulise vaagna ealised muutused 216
Age-related changes in the osseous pelvis of female elks. The osseous pelvis of 18 variously aged female elks were studied by preparation, pelvimetry, X-rays, and biological maceration. The teeth served as the indicator of the age of the animals. The pelvises were divided into five groups: calves (0.5 y), mating-aged heifers (1.5 y), primiparae (2.5 y), adults (5.5 y) and old animals (10 y and older).

An elk pelvis reaches its long and slim shape by sexual maturity. The ratio of the pre-acetabulum to the post- acetabulum is 3:2. Both the cranial and the caudal pelvic apertures are cranioventrocaudally oval. The transverse diameter of the cranial pelvic aperture reaches its maximum in the third year of life; the diameter of the caudal aperture, however, increases little by little and reaches the diameter of the cranial aperture by the sixth year of life. Also, the vertical measurement of the pelvic cavity from the sacral apex increases to a considerable degree with age. The widening of the part of pelvis behind the acetabulum with age is also indicated by increased distances between the opposite ischial spines, acetabula, and lesser sciatic notches. A half-year-old calf has no interischial bone, but it is already forming in a year-and-a-half-old heifer. By the tenth year the interischial bone has already become fully bilaterally attached to the ischia. In addition to to the interischial bone a year-and-a-half-year-old female heifer has apophyseal ossified nodes also on coxal, ischial, and sacral tubers. The ossification of the pelvic symphysis begins from the caudal part of the ischial symphysis, followed by the ossification of the cranial part of the pubic symphysis, and finally the region of the caudal rami of the pubes. The dorsal pubic tubercle that is reduced with age has the shape of a crest and protrudes cranially in calves and heifers but is barely noticeable by age six. The anterior of the pubic pecten becomes concave in the caudal direction, and a furrow that runs parallel to the edge of the pecten has formed between the iliopubic eminences. By contrast, according to our data, after the first parturition the sacral curve and the diameter of the acetabulum is not related to age.

Keywords: elk, pelvis, morphogenesis, age-releated changes.

P. Padrik, Ü. Jaakma.  
  Eesti holsteini tõugu sugupullide sügavkülmutatud/sulatatud spermide liikumiskarakteristikud ja nende seos emasloomade tiinestumisega 225
Sperm motility characteristics of Estonian Holstein dairy bulls and their relations to fertility. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the influence of Estonian Holstein AI bulls' age and season of semen collection on sperm motility characteristics estimated by CASA, and to determine the correlations between frozen/thawed sperm motility characteristics and bulls' in vivo fertility expressed as non-return rates (NRR) of the dairy cows and heifers.

The results of the study showed that the increase in bulls' age from 1…2 to 3…4 years was accompanied by the increase in the proportions of motile and progressively motile spermatozoa in frozen/thawed semen. An opposite tendency, decrease in sperm progressive motility was recorded from 3…4 to 5…7 years of age.

The mean overall and progressive sperm motility in frozen/thawed samples varied between the seasons. The results of the study showed that the proportion of progressively motile sperms was the highest in winter, from December to February (P<0.05).

The positive correlation was detected between the frozen/thawed sperm motility and the results of the hypo-osmotic tests carried through in fresh semen (r=0.69; P<0.005).

The significant positive correlations were recorded between the mean percentage of motile spermatozoa in frozen/thawed semen both on ejaculate and bull level and 60-days NRR (r=0.69 and r=0.68, respectively; P<0.005).

Keywords: dairy AI bull, sperm motility, age, season, fertility.

A. Raal, E. Arak, A. Orav.  
  Koriandriviljade eeterliku õli keemiline koostis ja vastavus Euroopa farmakopöa nõuetele 234
Chemical composition of coriander seed essential oil and their conformity with EP standards.The oil from coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seeds from different geographical sources of Europe were isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by capillary gas chromatography. Thirty-seven components were identified representing over 95% from total oil. The major constituent in the oils was linalool (58.0–80.3%). The other characteristic compounds presenting in the oils were γ-terpinene (0.3–11.2%), α-pinene (0.2–10.9%), p-cymene (0.1–8.1%), camphor (3.0–5.1%) and geranyl acetate (0.2–5.4%). The content of linalool as alifatic terpene shows high correlations with the content of cyclic terpenes in essential oils. The chemotypes of coriander are not determined in investigated samples. The concentration of linalool and other characteristic compounds in the coriander oils grown in Estonia from seeds of different sources varied in the same range as the concentrations of this compounds in the oils of seeds obtained from other European countries. Investigated samples usually confirm to the EP standard by the content of essential oil, loss of drying and total ash.

Keywords: Coriandrum sativum L., coriander seeds, essential oil, linalool, γ-terpinene, α-pinene, camphor, p-cymene, geranyl acetate, limonene, geraniol, EP standards.

Ü. Tamm, H. Küüts.  
  Õlleodra nõuetele vastavatest uutest sortidest 240
About new varieties meeting the malting barley requirements. In breeding of new varieties great importance is placed on the following quality parameters: disease resistance, good lodging resistance, high grain yield, good kernel shape and distribution, low nitrogen content, high germination energy, high enzyme forming potential, ability to modify well etc. The trial of malting barley varieties were carried out in 2001–2003 at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute (PBI) in Estonia. The objective of the study was to estimate the grain yield and quality of European malting barley varieties. 15 malting barley varieties of Northen region of European Brewery Convention (EBC) were included in the trial. The German malting barley variety ‘Scarlett’ was used as a standard.

The average grain yield in 2001 to 2003 of malting barley varieties ranged from 3480 to 5210 kg/ha. The varieties ‘Annabell’, ‘Laura’ and ‘Landora’ (Germany) excelled in high grain yield. Most of the tested varieties were of optimal plant height. All tested varieties had good or very good lodging resistance. The malting barley varieties were most infected by net blotch. There were no varieties resistant to net blotch and spot blotch in the trials. There were no favourable conditions for spreading of scald, barley stripe and powdery mildew in the trials. Only a few varieties were infected to a small degree. All tested varieties were infected by loose smut in 2003 year. The 1000 grain weights of tested varieties met the requirements of malting barley. Due to unfavourable weather conditions the grading (>2,5mm) of barley varieties remained low. ‘Scarlett’ (standard), ‘Jersey’ (the Netherlands) and ‘Annabell’ (Germany) excelled in high grading. There were great differences between varieties in germination energy as well as in germination. Protein content of all the tested varieties met the requirements in case of favourable meteorological conditions.

Keywords: malting barley varieties, grain quality, malting quality

H. Tikk, A. Lember.  
  ω-3-rasvhapete sisalduse suurendamine kanabroilerilihas 250
Increasing the content of the ω-3-fatty acids in the chicken meat. Broilers' (♀♀) diet at the age from 28 to 42 days contained 2% (I group) and 3% (II group) of linseed oil. The II group was supplemented with linseed oil diet (3%) up to their age of 56 days. Carcasses of slaughtered birds were analyzed, content of ω-3 fatty acids in intermuscular, abdominal and skin + subcutaneous fat, as well as in skin were estimated. It was concluded, that an average content of ω-3 fatty acids in the fat of different regions was not significantly different (P>0.05). Feeding the diet containing linseed oil increased the ω-3 fatty acid content in the broilers fat by 2.8 times (I group, 2% linseed oil in the diet) and by 4.8 times (II group, 3% linseed oil in the diet) compared with control group (without oil). Feeding the lineseed oil containing diets (3%) until to the age of 56 days increased the ω-3 fatty acids content by 5.6 times. Based on the trial data and ω-3 fatty acids consumption, and considering also an average human requirement (0.8 g a day), about 110–200 g of chicken meat should be consumed a day (in the 2nd and 1st group, respectively).

Keywords: broiler's meat, lineseed oil, ω-3-fatty acids.

A. Tsahkna.  
  Eesti sordilehe kartulisortide kulinaarsetest omadustest 258
Culinary traits of potato varieties of Estonian Official Variety List. Due to different conditions and requirements in various locations, many potato varieties exist all over the world. These varieties correspond to different purposes for which the crop is grown, with different tastes and preferences of people and with different environments in which the crops are grown. Some varieties can be grown in many places and have a wide range of usability; others are meant for very specific purposes or for specific environmental conditions.

This paper deals with the description of culinary traits of 36 listed varieties in 2002–2003 at Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, as potato growers lack the information about how foreign and local varieties behave in local conditions. The most important culinary characteristics like starch content, taste, crumbliness, mealyness and after cooking darkening of cooked potatoes and enzymatic darkening have been tested in this study.

Early varieties – the varieties ‘Maret’ and ‘Varajane kollane’ had the best taste, the varieties ‘Carlita’, ‘Anosta’ ja ‘Vineta’ had neither enzymatic darkening nor after cooking darkening.

Medium varieties – the varieties ‘Piret’ and ‘Sante’ had the best taste, there was no enzymatic darkening of the varieties ‘Milva’ and ‘Piret’, after cooking darkening was absent of the varieties ‘Piret’, ‘Sante’, ‘Victoria’ and ‘Milva’.

Late varieties – the varieties ’Juku’, ‘Vigri’, ‘Ando’, ‘Anti’ and ‘Ants’ had the best taste, there was little enzymatic darkening of the varieties ‘Vigri’ and ‘Sarme’, after cooking darkening was absent of the varieties ‘Juku’, ‘Anti’, ‘Remarka’ and ‘Asterix’. In 2003, none of the early and medium varieties as industrial potatoes on the variety list did not correspond to the required starch content (15%), of the late varieties only ‘Ando’, ‘Juku’, ‘Procura’ and ‘Saturna’ did.

In 2002, ‘Fresco’, ‘Maret’, ‘Courage’, ‘Folva’ and ‘Piret’ met the requirements and from late industrial potato varieties all except ’Agria’ met the requirements.

Keywords: Official Variety List, potato variety, starch content, taste, crumbliness, mealyness, enzymatic and after cooking darkening