2021 * XXXII * 2

SISUKORD

OTSELINK
https://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/contents/2021_2_sisukord.pdf

ACCELERATED BIOTHERMAL COMPOSTING OF MANURE-COMPOST MIXTURE
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ACCELERATED BIOTHERMAL COMPOSTING OF MANURE-COMPOST MIXTURE
ORCID logo Elchyn Aliiev1, ORCID logo Sergey Pavlenko2, ORCID logo Olga Aliieva1, ORCID logo Olesia Morhun3
1Institute of Oilseed Crops of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Institutskaya St, v. Sonyachne, 69093 Zaporozhye region
2National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 11 Heroyiv Oborony St, 03041 Kyiv
3National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 9 Mikhail Omelyanovich-Pavlenko St, 01010 Kyiv
The aim of the research was to observe the technological processes of accelerated biothermal composting of manure-compost mixture and to determine the dynamics of its temperature regime. Because of experimental research of conditions of biothermal processes of composting of manure-compost mix the mathematical laws describing dynamics of change of a temperature field in the composting pad of a different configuration for various mechanized conditions are received. It is established that mechanized composting of raw materials provides growth of internal temperatures to the maximum temperature of 65–71 °С (at height of the composting pad of 1.5 m) for 2–3 days after laying of the composting pad. In 15–17 days, the temperature is up to 50 °С, which does not correspond to the thermophilic mode of bacterial activity and the processes gradually pass into the mesophilic mode – up to 40 °С. As a result of experimental studies of biothermal processes of composting manure, it was found that during the fermentation of raw materials in the composting pad without treatment (36 days) the weight of the composting pad (at the composting pad height of 1.5 m) decreased by 20% (raw material moisture decreased by 5%). In the composting pad with mechanical treatment and addition of water, the weight of the composting pad varied from the amount of water introduced, which led to an increase in the moisture content of the raw material. There was a significant decrease in organic matter from 47–50 to 32–35% in the raw material against 50–52 to 40–41%.
Keywords: composting, manure-compost mixture, composting pad, mechanical aeration, parameters.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):169–181
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.30

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VIITAMINE
Aliiev, E., Pavlenko, S., Aliieva, O., Morhun, O. 2021. Accelerated biothermal composting of manure-compost mixture. Agraarteadus, 32(2):169–181. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.30.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Institute of Oilseed Crops of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Institutskaya St, v. Sonyachne, 69093 Zaporozhye region
2National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 11 Heroyiv Oborony St, 03041 Kyiv
3National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 9 Mikhail Omelyanovich-Pavlenko St, 01010 Kyiv


 
Highlights: 
  • Because of experimental research of conditions of biothermal processes of composting of manure-com-post mix the mathematical laws describing dynamics of change of a temperature field in the composting pad of a different configuration for various mechanized conditions are received.
  • It was established that mechanized composting of raw materials provides growth of internal temperatures to the maximum temperature of 65–71 °С (at height of the composting pad of 1.5 m) for 2–3 days after laying of the composting pad.
  • As a result of experimental studies of biothermal processes of composting manure, it was found that during the fermentation of raw materials in the composting pad without treatment (36 days) the weight of the composting pad (at the composting pad height of 1.5 m) decreased by 20% (raw material moisture decreased by 5%).

THE OUTLET DESIGN OF FLAT FAN NOZZLE VARIES THE APPLICATION TIME OF DAY EFFECT ON NICOSULFURON ACTIVITY
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THE OUTLET DESIGN OF FLAT FAN NOZZLE VARIES THE APPLICATION TIME OF DAY EFFECT ON NICOSULFURON ACTIVITY
ORCID logo Akbar Aliverdi1, ORCID logo Abolfazl Aliverdi2, ORCID logo Jason Connor Ferguson3
1Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Shahid Mostafa Ahmadi Roshan St., Hamedan, 6516738695, Islamic Republic of Iran
2Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Shahid Mostafa Ahmadi Roshan St., Hamedan, 6516738695, Islamic Republic of Iran
3Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Mississippi State University, 32 Creelman St, Mississippi State, MS 39762, United States of America
On two container-grown species, johnsongrass and velvet­leaf, nicosulfuron was sprayed with the Anti-Drift Single, Dual, and Triplet Flat-Fan nozzles (AD/S, AD/D, AD/T nozzles, respectively) at 05:00 to 21:00, with a two-hour interval. At 5:00 to 11:00, nicosulfuron activity on both species was greatest with the AD/T followed by the AD/D and finally, the AD/S nozzle. At 15:00 to 19:00, however, nicosulfuron activity on johnsongrass was greatest with the AD/D, followed by the AD/T and finally, the AD/S nozzle, and nicosulfuron activity on velvetleaf was greatest with the AD/D followed by the AD/S and the AD/T nozzle had the lowest control. Nicosulfuron applied with the AD/T nozzle in the early morning caused the highest desiccation (70%) in both species. The best time to apply nicosulfuron was in the early morning. However, velvetleaf undergoes foliar nyctinasty depending on daylight, which made effective control achieved by only the AD/D and AD/T nozzles
Keywords: desiccation, foliar nyctinasty, johnsongrass, velvetleaf.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):182–187
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.40

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VIITAMINE
Aliverdi, A., Aliverdi, A., Ferguson, J. C. 2021. The outlet design of flat fan nozzle varies the application time of day effect on nicosulfuron activity. Agraarteadus, 32(2):182–187. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.40.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Shahid Mostafa Ahmadi Roshan St., Hamedan, 6516738695, Islamic Republic of Iran
2Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Shahid Mostafa Ahmadi Roshan St., Hamedan, 6516738695, Islamic Republic of Iran
3Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Mississippi State University, 32 Creelman St, Mississippi State, MS 39762, United States of America


 
Highlights: 
  • The best time of day for applying nicosulfuron to control johnsongrass and velvetleaf was in the early morning.
  • The outlet design of flat fan nozzle varies the application time of day effect on nicosulfuron activity.
  • High air temperature and low relative humidity cause reduced activity of nicosulfuron.
    The leaf nyctinasty in velvetleaf makes it irrational to apply nicosulfuron with the AD/S nozzle before sunrise.
  • Nicosulfuron application before sunrise is rational if the AD/D and AD/T nozzles are used.

Mohammad Salman Kareem Al-Zubaidi1, ORCID logo Basem Rahem Bader2, ORCID logo Mohammed Ali Abood2, ORCID logo Ghassan Jaafar Hamdi3, Hassan Rashid Jassim Al-Afraji2
EFFECT OF SOLID AND LIQUID CHELATED IRON ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF BROAD BEAN
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EFFECT OF SOLID AND LIQUID CHELATED IRON ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF BROAD BEAN
Mohammad Salman Kareem Al-Zubaidi1, ORCID logo Basem Rahem Bader2, ORCID logo Mohammed Ali Abood2, ORCID logo Ghassan Jaafar Hamdi3, Hassan Rashid Jassim Al-Afraji2
1Ministry of Education, Directorate of Education, Diyala, Baqubah, Iraq
2Department of Soil Science and Water Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Diyala, 32001, Baqubah, Iraq
3Department of Horticulture and Gardening Engineering, College of Agriculture, University of Diyala, 32001, Baqubah, Iraq
A field experiment was carried out within the randomized complete block design in the agricultural season 2020–2021. The experiment included two factors, the first factor was solid chelated iron (S0, S1, and S2 at concentrations 0, 100, and 200 ppm, respectively), which was added to the soil. The second factor was liquid chelated iron (L0, L1, and L2 at concentrations 0, 2, and 4 ml L–1 respectively), which was spraying on the plants. The results showed that the stem diameter, number of pods, and total yield were significantly affected by adding the 100 ppm iron solid chelated treatment (18.36 mm, 25.74 pod plant–1, 5.01 Mg ha–1 respectively). While 200 ppm treatment had the highest plant height (30.10 cm, yield (771.35 g plant–1), seeds (6.18 per pod). The treatment of 4 ml L–1 liquid chelated iron treatment had the highest plant height (128.55 cm), biggest stem diameter (18.63 mm), highest pods per plant (25.45), yield (755.98 g plant–1), total yield (4.80 Mg ha–1), pod length (24.87 cm), pod weight (28.14 g) and the number of seeds per pod (7.88). The use of the interaction between solid and liquid chelated iron improves the vegetative growth and yield of broad beans.
Keywords: Vicia faba, chelated iron, foliar nutrition.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):188–194
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.42

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VIITAMINE
Al-Zubaidi, M.S.K., Bader, B.R., Abood, M.A., Hamdi, G.J., Al-Afraji, H.R.J. 2021. The effect of adding solid and chelated liquid iron on the growth and yield of broad bean. Agraarteadus, 32(2):188–194. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.42.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Ministry of Education, Directorate of Education, Diyala, Baqubah, Iraq
2Department of Soil Science and Water Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Diyala, 32001, Baqubah, Iraq
3Department of Horticulture and Gardening Engineering, College of Agriculture, University of Diyala, 32001, Baqubah, Iraq


 
Highlights: 
  • Iron is essential for many plant metabolic activities. In fact, iron is so important to photosynthesis that the stark iron deficiency symptom is light green colour (chlorosis) in young vegetative growth.
  • Iron in agricultural soils has many direct and indirect effects on broad bean production
  • Chelated iron application elevated the yield and total yield for broad bean.

Nonye Lilian Azodo1, ORCID logo Peter-Damian Chukwunomso Jiwuba1, Nchedo Thecla Mbah2, Franscisca Chinwendu Ezeoke3
EFFECT OF FEEDING BROILERS WITH PHYTOGENIC FEED ADDITIVES CONTAINING DIETS ON BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL AND HAEMATOLOGICAL CONSTITUENTS
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EFFECT OF FEEDING BROILERS WITH PHYTOGENIC FEED ADDITIVES CONTAINING DIETS ON BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL AND HAEMATOLOGICAL CONSTITUENTS
Nonye Lilian Azodo1, ORCID logo Peter-Damian Chukwunomso Jiwuba1, Nchedo Thecla Mbah2, Franscisca Chinwendu Ezeoke3
1Department of Animal Production Technology, Federal College of Agriculture, P.M.B.7008, Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
2National Root Crop Research Institute, P.M.B 7006, Igbariam Sub-station Anambra State, Nigeria
3Department of Animal Science, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, P.M.B. 6059, Igbariam Campus, Nigeria
The intense pressure on the poultry sector to promote safe chicken meat and egg has sparked interest in the use of natural and consumer-accepted phytogenic feed additives. The majority of literature on the benefits of turmeric (Curcuma longa) and Negro pepper (Xylopia aethiopica) is focused on layers and there is no evidence of turmeric and Negro pepper interactive effects. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of turmeric and Negro pepper mixture on serum biochemical and haematological constituents of broiler chicks fed for 48 days. A total of 96 one-day-old Arbor acres chicks of mixed sexes were used for the experiment. The birds were randomly assigned to four treatment groups and replicated three times in a completely randomized design. The milled turmeric and Negro pepper were mixed in the ratio of 50:50 (50%) and used in the formulation of turmeric and Negro pepper mixture (TNPM) diets. The four experimental diets were formulated to contain 0.00, 0.50, 1.00, and 1.50% dietary levels of inclusion of TNPM at the starter phase and 0.00, 1.50, 3.00, and 4.50% inclusion levels at the finishing phase respectively. Blood samples were collected from the brachial wing vein on the 24th and 48th days of the experiment and were evaluated for serum biochemical and haematological constituents. At the starter phase, red blood cells (RBC) was significantly (P <0.05) improved at a 1.50% dietary level of TNPM. Haemoglobin (Hb) was better (P <0.05) in 0.50 and 1.50% inclusion levels. Mean cell haemo-globin concentration (MCHC) and White blood cells were enhanced (P <0.05) among the treatment groups compared to the control. Total protein, albumin, uric acid and cholesterol concentrations were reduced significantly (P <0.05) in 1.50% inclusion. Alkaline phosphatase value was significantly (P <0.05) lower in birds fed 1.00% TNPM. At the finishing phase, packed cell volume was significantly (P <0.05) higher in 1.50 and 3.00%. RBC was significantly (P <0.05) higher in birds fed 1.50 and 4.50% TNPM. Hb and mean cell volume values were significantly (P <0.05) higher in 1.50% when compared to 0.00%. MCHC was better (P <0.05) among birds fed 1.50% in comparison with those fed 0.00 and 4.50%. WBC was generally improved (P <0.05) among the treatment groups. Total protein and cholesterol values were higher (P <0.05) in the control. Albumin was higher (P <0.05) in 0.00 and 1.50%. Globulin produced a significantly (P <0.05) lower value in 1.50%. Aspartate amino-transferase produced significantly (P <0.05) higher value in T2. It was concluded that up to 1.50 and 4.50% of TNPM could be included in starting and finishing broiler diets without any detrimental effect on serum biochemical and haematological constituents.
Keywords: turmeric, Negro pepper, phytogenics, blood, poultry, broilers.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):195–203
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.39

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VIITAMINE
Azodo1, N.L., Jiwuba1, P.-D. C., Mbah, N.T., Ezeoke, F.C. 2021. Effect of feeding broilers with phytogenic feed additives containing diets on blood biochemical and haematological constituents. Agraarteadus, 32(2):195–203. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.39.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Department of Animal Production Technology, Federal College of Agriculture, P.M.B.7008, Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
2National Root Crop Research Institute, P.M.B 7006, Igbariam Sub-station Anambra State, Nigeria
3Department of Animal Science, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, P.M.B. 6059, Igbariam Campus, Nigeria

;
 
Highlights: 
  • The effects of supplementing broiler diets with phytogenic feed additives on blood biochemical and haematological constituents.
  • Turmeric and Negro pepper meal showed high dry matter, energy, mineral values with relative moderate protein content.
  • At the starter and finishing phases the phytogenic feed additive containing diets produced better performance for all the heamatological indices, lower cholesterol and urea values.
  • The phytogenic feed additives maintained the health status of the bird by producing better white blood cell, AST, red blood cells and reduced cholesterol levels.

CASE STUDY: DYNAMICS OF SUNFLOWER SEED MOVEMENT IN THE VIBRATING TRAY OF THE INFRARED DRYER AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE DRYING PROCESS
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CASE STUDY: DYNAMICS OF SUNFLOWER SEED MOVEMENT IN THE VIBRATING TRAY OF THE INFRARED DRYER AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE DRYING PROCESS
ORCID logo Valentyna Bandura1, ORCID logo Leonid Yaroshenko2, ORCID logo Larisa Fialkovska3, ORCID logo Dmytro Kondratyuk2, ORCID logo Vladyslav Palamarchuk3, ORCID logo Yurij Paladiichuk2
1National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 19 Henerala Rodimtseva St, 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
2Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3 Sonyachna St, 21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
3Vinnytsia Institute of Trade and Economics of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics, 87 Soborna St, 21050 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
Analysis of researches on the study of the material particle movement on the vibrating surface of the container machine intended for seed drying in the infrared field is carried out. Comparison of traditional devices for dehydration of raw materials with energy supply of infrared irradiation is performed. It is shown that current tendencies of the development of heat and mass transfer equipment are connected with the use of electromagnetic generators of infrared energy. The purpose of the work is to study the process of movement of sunflower seeds on a vibrating tray dryer. To achieve this goal, a dynamic scheme of the vibrating tray has been proposed and theoretical and experimental studies of the process of grain movement have been carried out. It has been established that when the speed of drive electric motors increases from 950 to 970 rotations per minute, the speed of vibro-transportation increases as well, but when reaching a certain value of speed, under a further increase in speed, the speed of vibro-transportation decreases. Experimental studies have allowed to specify the design parameters of vibrating trays and select rational parameters of the technological process of drying, namely the oscillation frequency of the vibrating tray, which is f = 100 s–1.
Keywords: vibration, dynamics of movement, sunflower seeds, infrared drying.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):204–213
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.24

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VIITAMINE
Bandura, V., Yaroshenko, L. Fialkovska, L., Kondratyuk, D., Palamarchuk, V., Paladiichuk, Y.  2021. Case Study: Dynamics of sunflower seed movement in the vibrating tray of the infrared dryer and its influence on the drying process. Agraarteadus, 32(2):204–213. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.24.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 19 Henerala Rodimtseva St, 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
2Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3 Sonyachna St, 21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
3Vinnytsia Institute of Trade and Economics of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics, 87 Soborna St, 21050 Vinnytsia, Ukraine

 
Highlights: 
  • Analysis of researches on the movement of a material point on a working surface of the vibrating machine which is intended for seed drying using infrared radiation is carried out.
  • To study the process of movement of sunflower seeds on a vibrating tray dryer, a dynamic scheme of the study of the vibrating tray was proposed; theoretical and experimental studies of the process of grain movement were carried out.
  • As a result of experimental researches, it was established that the highest speed of soil seed transportation will be achieved when the frequency of rotation of driving electric motors is 950–970 rotations per minute.
  • At this speed of rotation there begins vibro-transportation of grain with the separation from the tray surface, which contributes to the rotation of the seeds and their uniform irradiation at all sides.
  • The conducted experimental researches have also allowed to specify constructive parameters of vibrating trays of the dryer and to choose rational parameters of the technological process of drying.

STORABILITY OF SWEET POTATO GENOTYPES UNDER ORDINARY AMBIENT STORAGE CONDITIONS
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STORABILITY OF SWEET POTATO GENOTYPES UNDER ORDINARY AMBIENT STORAGE CONDITIONS
ORCID logo Prakash Bhattarai1, ORCID logo Kalyani Mishra Tripathi2, ORCID logo Durga Mani Gautam2, ORCID logo Arjun Kumar Shrestha2
1Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Potato Research Programme, Khumaltar15, Lalitpur Metropolitan City, 44700, Nepal
2Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan, Bharatpur 15, Bharatpur Metropolitan City, 44209, Nepal
The study was carried out to evaluate the storage performance of sweet potatoes in different conditions under ordinary ambient temperature (10.11–17.49 °C) at Khumaltar, Lalitpur (1350 masl) district of Nepal from December, 20 to March, 13 during the years 2018/19 and 2019/20. The experiment was laid out in Factorial Completely Randomized Design with three replications. Tuberous roots of three sweet potato genotypes ('CIP 440015', 'CIP 440267', and 'Local White') harvested at 4-month maturity were stored inside an ordinary room in dry sand, sawdust, thin jute sack, natural mud pot, and open crates (control). Data were taken on the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th weeks of storage. The pooled results showed a significant effect of storage conditions on physiological loss in weight and rotting (%) of sweet potato genotypes. With the progression of the storage period, physiological weight loss (PLW) and rotting (%) were significantly increased in all treatments. At the 12th week of storage, the highest PLW was recorded in the tubers stored in open crates (70.2%) followed by natural mud pot (65.2%) whereas the lowest PLW was observed in tubers stored inside the dry sand (50.2%). Genotype 'CIP 440015' showed good storability with minimum PLW. No weevil infestation and sprouting were observed during the experimental period. The lowest percentage of tuber rotting was recorded in the genotype 'CIP 440015' (55.3%) and inside dry sand (48.7%) at the 12th week of storage while it was the highest up to 85.9% in 'CIP 440267'. The highest rotting 76.7%) was recorded in thin jute bags which is statistically at par with natural mud pot (76.5%). The interaction effect of storage conditions and genotypes was found not significant. The results showed an increment in dry matter and reducing sugar content while the reduction in ß-carotene and starch content of tubers after 3 months of storage inside dry sand. There was positive and strong correlation of storage duration with dry matter (r = 0.750) and reducing sugar (r = 0.658) whereas, negative correlation with starch (r = –0.918) and ß-carotene (r = –0.352) content of sweet potato genotypes. The study concluded that sweet potato tuber can be kept for 8 to 10 weeks in dry sand with minimum postharvest loss in ordinary room condition and the genotype 'CIP 440015' has good storability among the tested genotypes in similar conditions.
Keywords: ambient storage, biochemical changes, rotting, storage, sweet potato, weight loss.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):214–224
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.20

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VIITAMINE
Bhattarai, P., Tripathi, K.M., Gautam, D.M., Shrestha, A.K. 2021. Storability of sweet potato genotypes under ordinary ambient storage conditions. Agraarteadus, 32(2):214–224. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.20.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Potato Research Programme, Khumaltar15, Lalitpur Metropolitan City, 44700, Nepal
2Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan, Bharatpur 15, Bharatpur Metropolitan City, 44209, Nepal




 
Highlights: 
  • The health of sweet potato tubers remained good up to 8–10 weeks storage at ambient temperature.
  • Storage of sweet potato tubers in dry sand and sawdust was found good with minimum post-harvest losses at room temperature
  • Sweet potato genotype 'CIP 440015' performed best with good storability at ambient temperature.

THE EFFECT OF A LATERAL AIRFLOW CREATED ON NOZZLE TIP ON THE SPRAY DROPLETS DEPOSITION
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THE EFFECT OF A LATERAL AIRFLOW CREATED ON NOZZLE TIP ON THE SPRAY DROPLETS DEPOSITION
ORCID logo Volodymyr Bulgakov1, ORCID logo Jüri Olt2, ORCID logo Simone Pascuzzi3, ORCID logo Jaroslav Gadzalo4, ORCID logo Semjons Ivanovs5, ORCID logo Valerii Adamchuk6, ORCID logo Volodymyr Panasyuk6, ORCID logo Yevhen Ihnatiev7
1National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony St, UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
2Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi St, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
3University of Bari Aldo Moro, Via Amendola, 165/A, IT 70125 Bari, Italy
4National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 9 Mykhailo Omelyanovych-Pavlenko St, UA 01010, Kyiv, Ukraine
5Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, 2 Liela St, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
6National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification, 11 Vokzalna St, Glevakcha 1, Vasylkiv District, UA 08631 Kyiv Region, Ukraine
7Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B Khmelnytsky Av, UA 72310 Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
Improved application efficacy of a plant protection products by using a pneumatic device to change the dispersion of spray droplets is depended on the intensity of crosswind. The laboratory investigations of the spraying process of plants by means of the nozzles of a pneumatic system determined the quality indicators of pressure in the injection process of 0.4 MPa – the droplet coating density of 19–46 pcs cm2 –1 for the weighted mean droplet diameters (WMD) in the other experimental variants was within 304–543 μm. These indicators were compared with those for the standard, anti-drift and air injection nozzle types in which the droplet coating density was 23–59 pcs cm2 –1 and the weighted mean droplet diameters (WMD) were in the range of 350 to 485 μm. An analytical dependence was obtained of the influence of the lateral airflow and air pressure in the pneumatic system upon the amount of the deposited spray liquid.
Keywords: air, drift, droplet, fluid, pesticides, pressure, spray dispersion.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):225–231
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.36

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VIITAMINE
Bulgakov, V., Olt, J., Pascuzzi, S., Gadzalo, J., Ivanovs, S., Adamchuk, V., Panasyuk, V., Ihnatiev, Y. 2021. The effect of a lateral airflow created on nozzle tip on the spray droplets deposition. Agraarteadus, 32(2):225–231. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.36.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony St, UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
2Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi St, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
3University of Bari Aldo Moro, Via Amendola, 165/A, IT 70125 Bari, Italy
4National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 9 Mykhailo Omelyanovych-Pavlenko St, UA 01010, Kyiv, Ukraine
5Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, 2 Liela St, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
6National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification, 11 Vokzalna St, Glevakcha 1, Vasylkiv District, UA 08631 Kyiv Region, Ukraine
7Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B Khmelnytsky Av, UA 72310 Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine


 
Oluline: 
  • Hüdropneumopihustid (Airjet) võimaldavad muuta pritsimise ajal piiskade läbimõõtu.
  • Piiskade läbimõõt oleneb suruõhu rõhust.
  • Suruõhu rõhu suurenemisega üle 0.12 MPa väheneb pihuse piiskade läbimõõt.
  • Suruõhu rõhu suurenemisel üle 0.25 MPa toimub piiskade pihustumine.
  • Hüdropneumopihustid võimaldavad operaatoril töötada laia tuule kiiruse diapasoonis (kuni 9 m s–1) ja pritsi suuremal liikumiskiirusel (kuni 25 km h–1).

ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF Camelina sativa GROWING WITH NUTRITION OPTIMIZATION UNDER CONDITIONS OF PRECARPATHIANS OF UKRAINE
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ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF Camelina sativa GROWING WITH NUTRITION OPTIMIZATION UNDER CONDITIONS OF PRECARPATHIANS OF UKRAINE
ORCID logo Yaroslava Hryhoriv1, ORCID logo Andrii Butenko2, ORCID logo Valentyna Nechyporenko2, ORCID logo Margarita Lyshenko2, ORCID logo Tetiana Ustik2, ORCID logo Vladyslav Zubko2, ORCID logo Nataliia Makarenko2, ORCID logo Valentyna Mushtai2
1Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, 57, Shevchenko St, UA7601841, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine
2Sumy National Agrarian University, 160 H. Kondratieva St, UA40021, Sumy, Ukraine
The aim of the research was to observe the technological processes of accelerated biothermal composting of manure-compost mixture and to determine the dynamics of its temperature regime. Because of experimental research of conditions of biothermal processes of composting of manure-compost mix the mathematical laws describing dynamics of change of a temperature field in the composting pad of a different configuration for various mechanized conditions are received. It is established that mechanized composting of raw materials provides growth of internal temperatures to the maximum temperature of 65–71 °С (at height of the composting pad of 1.5 m) for 2–3 days after laying of the composting pad. In 15–17 days, the temperature is up to 50 °С, which does not correspond to the thermophilic mode of bacterial activity and the processes gradually pass into the mesophilic mode – up to 40 °С. As a result of experimental studies of biothermal processes of composting manure, it was found that during the fermentation of raw materials in the composting pad without treatment (36 days) the weight of the composting pad (at the composting pad height of 1.5 m) decreased by 20% (raw material moisture decreased by 5%). In the composting pad with mechanical treatment and addition of water, the weight of the composting pad varied from the amount of water introduced, which led to an increase in the moisture content of the raw material. There was a significant decrease in organic matter from 47–50 to 32–35% in the raw material against 50–52 to 40–41%.
Keywords: Camelina sativa, oil-bearing crops, economic efficiency, mineral fertilizers, biological preparations.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):232–238
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.33

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VIITAMINE
Hryhoriv, Y., Butenko, A., Nechyporenko, V., Lyshenko, M., Ustik, T., Zubko, V., Makarenko, N., Mushtai, V. 2021. Economic efficiency of Camelina sativa growing with nutrition optimization under conditions of Precarpathians of Ukraine. Agraarteadus, 32(2):232–238. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.33.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, 57, Shevchenko St, UA7601841, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine
2Sumy National Agrarian University, 160 H. Kondratieva St, UA40021, Sumy, Ukraine


 
Highlights: 
  • It has been found that the application of mineral fertilizers had a significant impact on the productivity of Camelina sativa seeds and the cost index and profitability of Camelina sativa seeds, accordingly.
  • Depending on the studied elements in growing technology of little-known in Ukraine crop of Camelina sativa, the main indices of economic efficiency were determined.
  • It has been found that with optimization of plant nutrition, regardless of the increase in cultivation costs, conditionally net profit and profitability level increased.
  • This was facilitated by foliar fertilization with modern restrictive preparations or complex micro fertilizers in critical periods of crop vegetation.
  • The best indices of economic efficiency were obtained for growing Camelina and Linum usitatissimum: their profit was 688.38 and 624.26 € ha–1, respectively, and the level of profitability was 222 and 176%.
  • So, when applying nitrogen fertilizers in a dose of 90 kg ha–1 on the background of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (P45K45) there was a decrease in competitiveness coefficient (Кк), energy efficiency coefficient (КЕт) and increase of integral evaluation coefficient (J) compared to the basic technology.

THE FORECASTING OF POLYPHENOLIC SUBSTANCES IN SWEET CHERRY FRUITS UNDER THE IMPACT OF WEATHER FACTORS
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THE FORECASTING OF POLYPHENOLIC SUBSTANCES IN SWEET CHERRY FRUITS UNDER THE IMPACT OF WEATHER FACTORS
ORCID logo Іryna Ivanova1, ORCID logo Мarina Serdyuk1, ORCID logo Vira Malkina1, ORCID logo Tetiana Tymoshchuk2, ORCID logo Anna Kotelnytska2, ORCID logo Vira Moisiienko2
1Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B Khmelnytsky Ave, UA72312 Melitopol, Zaporizhzhia region, Ukraine
2Polissia National University, 7 Staryi Blvd, UA10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
It has been proved that during the period of research the weather factors had dominating effects on the formation of phenolic substances fund for the fruits of early and late groups of cultivars. The cultivar features affected the accumulation of the phenolic substances in the fruits of a group of cultivars of a medium-term ripening. It has been established that the fruits of 'Kazka' cultivar (203.17 mg 100 g–1) were selected from among the cultivars of an early-term ripening according to the average phenol substances content. The fruits of 'Rubinova Rannia' (175.27 mg 100 g–1) are characterized by the optimal variation indices as well as by the average content of polyphenolic substances. From the technological point of view, the most perspective from among the cultivars of medium- and late-terms of ripening was: 'Uliublenytsia Turovtseva' (226.85 mg 100 g–1), 'Udivitelna' (288.55 mg 100 g–1). The results of experimental analysis for the fruits of early- and late-terms of ripening as well as their dispersion analysis allow us to forecast the content of the phenolic substances by the average indices but not separately for every pomological cultivar. Based on designed regression models, the analysis of the degree of impact of each weather factor on the rate of the phenolic substance has been made. The humidity index (the average monthly amount of rainfalls in May) had maximal effects on the accumulation of phenolic substances fund for the cherry fruits of three terms of ripening. The humidity indices of the last months of fruits formation (May and June) had the greatest effects on the accumulation of phenolic substances for a test group of plants of all terms of ripening.
Keywords: P-active substances of phenolic nature, variation, weather conditions, correlation, connection.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):239–250
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.27

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VIITAMINE
Ivanova, I., Serdyuk, M., Malkina, V., Tymoshchuk, T., Kotelnytska, A., Moisiienko, V.  2021. The forecasting of polyphenolic substances in sweet cherry fruits under the impact of weather factors. Agraarteadus, 32(2):239–250. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.27.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B Khmelnytsky Ave, UA72312 Melitopol, Zaporizhzhia region, Ukraine
2Polissia National University, 7 Staryi Blvd, UA10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine


 
Highlights: 
  • The average content of phenolic substances in sweet cherry fruits of the early-, medium-, and late-terms of ripening equalled 205.86 mg 100 g–1 in rutin equivalent.
  • The weather factors had dominating effects on the formation of phenolic substances fund for the fruits of an early and late group of cultivars.
  • The cultivar features affected the accumulation of the phenolic substance in the fruits of a group of cultivars of a medium-term ripening.
  • The model of dependence of the accumulation of phenolic substances fund on the impact of weather factors for the groups of cultivar of early, medium- and late-terms of ripening designed.

EFFECT OF SEED PRE-TREATMENT WITH PLANT GROWTH COMPOUND REGULATORS ON SEEDLING GROWTH UNDER DROUGHT STRESS
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EFFECT OF SEED PRE-TREATMENT WITH PLANT GROWTH COMPOUND REGULATORS ON SEEDLING GROWTH UNDER DROUGHT STRESS
ORCID logo Peipei Jia1,2, ORCID logo Andrii Melnyk2, ORCID logo Zhiyong Zhang1, ORCID logo Sergey Butenko2, ORCID logo Volodymyr Kolosok2
1School of Life Science and Technology, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, 90 Hualan St, 453003, Xinxiang, People’s Republic of China
2Department of Agronomy and Agricultural Technology, Sumy National Agrarian University, 160 Herasima Kondratieva St, 40021, Sumy, Ukraine
The experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of different compound regulators on the germination rate, seedling morphology of two mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivars ('Felicia' and 'Prima') under simulated drought stress with PEG-6000. The eight commercial growth compound regulators (ALBIT, VERMISTIMD, ANTISTRESS, AGRINOS, REGOPLAN, BIOFOGE, STIMULATE, and FAST START) were pretreated seeds at recommended doses. The application of growth regulators promoted the growth of seedlings under drought stress but had no obvious effect on the germination rate of the two varieties. The root fresh weight, total root length, leaf area, stem length, and stem volume in 'Felicia' significantly increased with ANTISTRESS treatment by 24.28, 3.30, 24.70, 19.40, and 30.90%. In addition, the number of lateral roots reached the maximum with AGRINOS and REGOPLAN treatment compared with plants without regulators under drought conditions, which were 135.55 and 121.20%, respectively. For 'Prima', the application of FAST START had a remarkable effect on root fresh weight, total root length, lateral root number and primary root length, root surface area, leaf area, and stem volume by 17.62, 18.12, 211.20, 53.75, 28.57, 15.90, and 32.30%, respectively.
Keywords: mustard, drought stress, plant growth compound regulators, seedling morphology.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):251–256
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.35

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VIITAMINE
Jia, P., Melnyk, A., Zhang, Z., Butenko, S., Kolosok, V. 2021. Effect of seed pre-treatment with plant growth compound regulators on seedling growth under drought stress. Agraarteadus, 32(2):251–256. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.35.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1School of Life Science and Technology, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, 90 Hualan St, 453003, Xinxiang, People’s Republic of China
2Department of Agronomy and Agricultural Technology, Sumy National Agrarian University, 160 Herasima Kondratieva St, 40021, Sumy, Ukraine


 
Highlights: 
  • The application of growth regulators promoted the growth of seedlings under drought stress but had no obvious effect on the germination rate of the two varieties.
  • The root fresh weight, total root length, leaf area, stem length, and stem volume in 'Felicia' significantly increased with ANTISTRESS treatment by 24.28, 3.3, 24.7, 19.4, and 30.9%. In addition, the number of lateral roots reached the maximum with AGRINOS and REGOPLAN treatment compared with plants without regulators under drought conditions, which were 135.55 and 121.20%, respectively.
  • For 'Prima', the application of FAST START had a remarkable effect on root fresh weight, total root length, lateral root number and primary root length, root surface area, leaf area, and stem volume by 17.62, 18.12, 211.20, 53.75, 28.57, 15.9, and 32.3%, respectively.
  • According to the morphological parameters of roots, 'Prima' was more sensitive to drought than 'Felicia'. The PGRs mitigated the effects of drought on seedlings to some extent, but there were differences between the two cultivars.
  • For drought-sensitive 'Prima', PGRs had a positive role against drought; on the contrary, for drought non-sensitive 'Felicia' the PGRs exhibited relatively poor effects against drought.

LÜHIARTIKKEL: MULDKATTE TALITLEMISE PEDOÖKOLOOGILISED SEADUSPÄRASUSED
257
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SHORT COMMUNICATION: PEDOECOLOGICAL REGULARITIES OF SOIL COVER FUNCTIONING
ORCID logo Raimo Kõlli
Chair of Soil Science, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 5, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
The contradictory statements and opinions, which need by the mind of author additional explanation or disentangle are in the work followings: stages in the forming soil covers' humus status; additional carbon sequestration into the soil; discord between consumption and accumulation of soil organic matter; the influence of land use, land-use change and soil tillage on soil humus status; permanent and dynamic properties of soil; the role of agriculture in carbon turnover; degradation of soil fertility; the influence of different components of soil organic matter on soil functioning; pedoecological approach of peat soils; biodiversity and species richness of soils; weediness of agroecosystems; ethical statements concerning land use.
Keywords: soil cover, humus status, carbon sequestration, land use change, carbon turnover, biodiversity, peat soils.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):257–262
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.25

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VIITAMINE
Kõlli, R.  2021. Lühiartikkel: Muldkatte talitlemise pedoökoloogilised seaduspärasused. Agraarteadus, 32(2):257–262. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.25.
Kõlli, R.  2021. Short Communication: Pedoecological regularities of soil cover functioning. Agraarteadus, 32(2):257–262. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.25.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
Eesti Maaülikool, põllumajandus- ja keskkonnainstituut, mullateaduse õppetool, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 5, 51006 Tartu

 
Oluline: 
  • Põhjalikumat uurimist väärib mulla orgaanilise aine (MOA) majandamise bioloogiline külg ja mullatüübipõhise liigirikkuse ökoloogia.
  • Oluline on saavutada tasakaal kahe vastandliku suuna, MOA kulutamise ja selle stabiilse huumusena säilitamise, vahel.
  • Mullaerimi MOA akumulatsioonivõime sõltub ennekõike tema ülesehitusest ja talitlemise iseloomust, mitte aga niivõrd maakasutuse viisist.
  • Põllukultuuride viljelemise kliimamõju objektiivse hinnangu saamiseks tuleks aluseks võtta süsiniku  akumulatsiooni ja emiteerimise hulgad ja vahekord.
  • Turvasmuldkattena tuleks käsitleda vaid turbalasundi pealmist 50 cm kihti, mille all asuv osa on mittefossiilne maavara.
  • Viljakad põlis-(pärand-)põllud vajavad ühiskonna jätkusuutliku isevarustatuse huvides riiklikku kaitset.

DYNAMIC MODEL OF SEED GERMINATION ON THE EXAMPLE OF A GENUS Dracocephalum L. BASED ON LOGISTIC FUNCTION
263
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DYNAMIC MODEL OF SEED GERMINATION ON THE EXAMPLE OF A GENUS Dracocephalum L. BASED ON LOGISTIC FUNCTION
ORCID logo Andrei Komarov1, ORCID logo Nadezhda Naida2, ORCID logo Edvin Nugis3
1Agrophysical Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky Prospect 14, Russia
2Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian University, Pushkin, Peterburgskoe shosse 2, Russia
3Estonian Crop Research Institute, J. Aamisepa 1, 48309 Jõgeva vald, Estonia
The aim of this paper is to present the use of mathematical model for an assessment of seed germination on the example of a genus Dracocephalum L. based on logistic function. An assessment of the quality of seeds and their species specificity was carried out. For this the method of a mathematical model of seed germination and the "Origin Pro" application package was used. The objects of research were samples of species Dracocephalum L. of different geographical origin from the collection of the I.N.Vavilov named All-Russian Crop Research Institute (VIR). Morphometric parameters of seeds of the studied species of the genus Dracocephalum L. were identified, which were divided into two groups. The first group with small seeds (2.7–3.0 mm long and 1.6–2.0 mm wide) included varieties of the species D. moldavica, and the second group – with very small seeds (2.0 mm in length and 1.0 mm wide) of D. multicaule and D. nutans. To assess the quality of seeds, we used both standard static indicators for germination, germination energy and seed vigour which are also assessed by both known the Grodzinsky bio test, and new ones based on dynamic parameters for evaluating seed germination. The dynamic model presented in the work reproduces changes in the initial phase of plant growth through the dynamics of seed germination. That is, the change in the state of a living object in motion in this model. When processing the results, a logistic function was applied that reflects the dynamics of change or accumulation of quantitative signs with the transition to new qualitative indicators. It was revealed that the shortest germination time of half of the maximum number of germinated seeds (intensity of germination) equal to 44.0 hours had the sample K-6 ('Aroma-2'). This indicates vigourous and friendly germination of the seeds of this variety. For sample K-7 ('Aroma-2'), this figure is 60 hours and, therefore, the germination rate is less than that for K-6. Similar in these parameters and the intensity of germination in the sample K-8 'Zeya' equal to 53 hours. Sample K-10 ('Arhat') was characterized by a relatively high germination rate, intensity of germination equal to 46 hours. Samples at 32 (D. nutans) and at 20 (D. multicaule) had approximately the same intensity of germination was equal to 61 and 54 hours, respectively. As a result, comparing the similarly different age characteristics of the seed material, a certain species and variety specificity in the dynamics of growth processes in the seeds of various types of snake head was revealed. The novelty of these studies was the search for new patterns and phenomena in assessing the quality of seeds and their species specificity.
Keywords: seed germination, assessment of the quality of seeds, seed vigour, morphometric parameters of seeds, dynamics of growth processes in the seeds.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):263–269
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.32

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VIITAMINE
Komarov, A., Naida, N., Nugis, E. 2021. Dynamic model of seed germination on the example of a genus Dracocephalum L. based on logistic function. Agraarteadus, 32(2):263–269. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.32.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Agrophysical Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Grazhdansky Prospect 14, Russia
2Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian University, Pushkin, Peterburgskoe shosse 2, Russia
3Estonian Crop Research Institute, J. Aamisepa 1, 48309 Jõgeva vald, Estonia


 
Oluline: 
  • Erineva geograafilise päritoluga liigi Dracocephalum seemnete, mis on I.N. Vavilovi nimelise VTKI kogust idanemise uurimine.
  • Hinnati nii Grodzinski tuntud bioteste kui ka standardseid staatilisi idanevusi, idanemisenergiat ja seemnete elujõulisuse näitajaid.
  • Võrreldes erinevat tüüpi maopea seemnete kasvuprotsesside dünaamikaga uuriti seemnematerjali  erinevaid vanuseomadusi, teatud liigi- ja sordispetsiifilisust.
  • Kirjeldati seemnete idanemise logistilist funktsiooni,  hinnati kvantitatiivsete näitajate muutumise või kuhjumise dünaamikat ja üleminekut uutele kvalitatiivsetele näitajatele.

AGAR GEL PHENOTYPING OF ROOT TRAITS AS RAPID AND SENSITIVE ASSAY OF WHEAT SEEDLINGS RESPONSE TO EDAPHIC FACTORS: ON EXAMPLE OF CADMIUM
270
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AGAR GEL PHENOTYPING OF ROOT TRAITS AS RAPID AND SENSITIVE ASSAY OF WHEAT SEEDLINGS RESPONSE TO EDAPHIC FACTORS: ON EXAMPLE OF CADMIUM
ORCID logo Tetiana Levenets1, ORCID logo Oleksandr Smirnov1,2, ORCID logo Mariia Kovalenko1, ORCID logo Liudmyla Mykhalska2, ORCID logo Victor Schwartau2ORCID logo Nataliya Taran1 Educational and Scientific Centre "Institute of Biology and Medicine", Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13 Volodymyrska St, Kyiv, 01601, Ukraine
2Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 31/17 Vasylkivska St, Kyiv, 03022, Ukraine
The influence of different concentrations of cadmium on root elongation, exudative activity of roots and seminal root angle of two wheat genotypes: common bread wheat – Triticum aestivum L. (cv. 'Favorytka') and emmer wheat – Triticum dicoccum Schrank. (cv. 'Holikovska') have been studied in the germination stage. Rapid changes in morphofunctional traits upon first three days of exposure to cadmium on early stages of growth have been studied on phenotyping plates with 25, 50 and 100 µM addition to agar-acid/base indicator medium. Significant inhibition of root elongation, exudative root activity and changes in seminal root angle were observed. Exposure to the highest Cd concentration led to a decrease in primal root length by 50%, decrease in root exudative activity by 88% and decrease in seminal root angle by 24 degrees in T. aestivum compared to a decrease by 12%, 83% and 17 degrees in T. dicoccum. Unlike root growth retardation, a decrease in exudative activity was observed on all three Cd concentrations. The root growth performance at starting stage of seedlings ontogenesis proposed as an express and sensitive phenotyping test method for determining plant response to edaphic stressors by cadmium toxicity example.
Keywords: root phenotyping, seminal root angle, exudative activity, cadmium toxicity, Triticum aestivum, Triticum dicoccum.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):270–275
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.22

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VIITAMINE
Levenets, T., Smirnov, O., Kovalenko, M., Mykhalska, L., Schwartau, V., Taran, N.  2021. Agar gel phenotyping of root traits as rapid and sensitive assay of wheat seedlings response to edaphic factors: on example of cadmium. Agraarteadus, 32(2):270–275. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.22.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Educational and Scientific Centre "Institute of Biology and Medicine", Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13 Volodymyrska St, Kyiv, 01601, Ukraine
2Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 31/17 Vasylkivska St, Kyiv, 03022, Ukraine


 
Highlights: 
  • The influence of different concentrations of cadmium on root elongation, exudative activity of roots and seminal root angle of two wheat genotypes: common bread wheat – Triticum aestivum L. (cv. 'Favorytka') and emmer wheat – Triticum dicoccum Schrank. (cv. 'Holikovska') have been studied in the germination stage.
  • Rapid changes in morphofunctional traits upon first three days of exposure to cadmium on early stages of growth have been studied on phenotyping plates with 25, 50 and 100 µM addition to agar-acid/base indicator medium.
  • The root growth performance at starting stage of seedlings ontogenesis proposed as an express and sensitive phenotyping test method for determining plant response to edaphic stressors by cadmium toxicity example.
  • The test method proposes an opportunity for non-invasive monitoring of early stages of root development and rapid, real-time assessment of its response to edaphic stressors. All while being cheap, cost-effective in terms of labour and time, and flexible to modifications..

ECOLOGICAL SUITABILITY PEAS (Pisum sativum) VARIETIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN UKRAINE
276
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ECOLOGICAL SUITABILITY PEAS (Pisum sativum) VARIETIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN UKRAINE
ORCID logo Victor Mazur1, ORCID logo Oleksandr Tkachuk1, ORCID logo Hanna Pantsyreva1, ORCID logo Ihor Kupchuk1, ORCID logo Myroslava Mordvaniuk1, ORCID logo Oleksandr Chynchyk2
1Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3 Sonyachna St, Vinnytsia, 21008, Ukraine
2State Agrarian and Engineering University, 13 Shevchenko St, Kamianets-Podilskyi, 32300, Ukraine
The varieties of peas can realize about 50% of their productive potential. One of the main reasons for this is the wrong choice of variety for specific ecological growing conditions. Therefore, the purpose and task of our research are to analyze the current range of peas, included in the State Register of plant varieties suitable for cultivation in Ukraine in terms of their real productivity and resistance to drought and disease in the context of climate change in the direction of drought and temperature rise. Assessment of agroecological stability of pea varieties was carried out by elaboration of the State Register of Plant Varieties Suitable for Distribution in Ukraine for 2020, 2010 and Official Descriptions of Plant Varieties and Suitability Indicators submitted in the official bulletins "Protection of Plant Variety Rights" published in Information and reference system "Variety". The most resistant to disease in Ukraine are varieties of peas 'Verbal', 'Prystan', 'Есо', 'Atanas', 'Haiduk'. Varieties are marked by the highest drought resistance 'Verbal', 'Album', 'Alssas', 'Kampus'. The most productive varieties were peas 'Kosmai', 'Album', 'Haiduk', 'Trendy'. The increase in the average annual air temperature in Ukraine during 2001–2020 by 19.3% (8.2–9.9 °C) led to a decrease in the yield of peas by 13.7%, but an increase in the score of resistance of pea varieties to diseases by 25.0%, the score of drought resistance – by 18.8%. Comparison of indicators of disease resistance, drought resistance and productivity of pea varieties for 2020 and 2010 showed that the score of resistance of pea varieties sown to diseases in the period from 2010 to 2020 increased from 6.3 to 8.4 points, i.e. by 25.0%. Drought resistance of pea varieties in 2020 compared to 2010 increased from 6.5 to 8.0 points, which is 18.8%. At the same time, the grain productivity of pea varieties in 2020 compared to 2010 decreased from 3.57 t ha–1 to 3.08 t ha–1, which is 13.7%.
Keywords: Pisum sativum, variety, meteorological conditions, agroecological sustainability.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):276–283
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.26

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VIITAMINE
Mazur, V., Tkachuk, O., Pantsyreva, H., Kupchuk, I., Mordvaniuk, M., Chynchyk, O.  2021. Ecological suitability peas (Pisum sativum) varieties to climate change in Ukraine. Agraarteadus, 32(2):276–283. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.26.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3 Sonyachna St, Vinnytsia, 21008, Ukraine
2State Agrarian and Engineering University, 13 Shevchenko St, Kamianets-Podilskyi, 32300, Ukraine


 
Highlights: 
  • The most productive in Ukraine are varieties of peas 'Kosmai', 'Album', 'Haiduk', 'Trendy’ with a yield of 3.75-4.70 t ha–1.
  • The most resistant to disease in Ukraine are varieties of peas 'Verbal', 'Prystan', 'Есо', 'Atanas', 'Haiduk' with the 8.7–8.8 points out of 9 maximum possible.
  • The highest drought resistance was noted by 'Verbal' – 8.8 points, 'Album', 'Alssas' – 8.7 points, 'Kampus' – 8.6 points out of 9 maximum possible.

Abdulraheem. A. Obaid1,3, Hassan H. Al-Alawy2, Kadhum Daley Hassan1, ORCID logo Ghassan Jaafar Hamdi3
EFFECT OF SHADING NET, PLANTING METHODS AND BIO-EXTRACT ON PRODUCTION OF MUSKMELON
284
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EFFECT OF SHADING NET, PLANTING METHODS AND BIO-EXTRACT ON PRODUCTION OF MUSKMELON
Abdulraheem. A. Obaid1,3, Hassan H. Al-Alawy2, Kadhum Daley Hassan1, ORCID logo Ghassan Jaafar Hamdi3
1Department of Horticulture and Landscape Gardening, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, 10071, Baghdad, Iraq
2Department of Soil Science and Water Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Diyala, 32001, Baqubah, Iraq
3Department of Horticulture and Landscape Gardening, College of Agriculture, University of Diyala, 32001, Baqubah, Iraq
Growing vegetable transplants under shade nets are currently becoming more popular to protect high intensities of light and high temperature. This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of shading net at 30% shading and an unshaded control, methods of the planting, direct sowing, transplanting, and foliar application of a biozyme fertilizer at 0 and 0.5 ml L–1 production, and quality of muskmelon. These treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and were arranged in a split‑split plot with three replications. Results showed that 30% shading treatment produced the highest leaf chlorophyll content (57.07 SPAD) and TSS (13.05%). Direct sowing gives a higher value for fruit weight (3583 g), most yield per plant (3772 g) and most total yield (3772 g). Transplanting produced the highest fruit per plant (1.58 fruit). The 0.5 ml L–1 fertilizer treatment had the least time to maturity (92.08 days). The interaction between shading treatment, establishment methods and biozyme fertilizer improve the fruit quality and yield of muskmelon. 
Keywords: grain yield, growth, hybrids, maize, nitrogen.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):284–288
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.38

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VIITAMINE
Obaid, A.A., Al-Alawy, H.H., Hassan, K.D., Hamdi, G.J. 2021. Effect of shading net, planting methods and bio-extract on production of muskmelon. Agraarteadus, 32(2):284–288. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.38.
 
AUTOR KONTAKT
1Department of Horticulture and Landscape Gardening, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, 10071, Baghdad, Iraq
2Department of Soil Science and Water Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Diyala, 32001, Baqubah, Iraq
3Department of Horticulture and Landscape Gardening, College of Agriculture, University of Diyala, 32001, Baqubah, Iraq


 
Highlights: 
  • Shading decrease radiation, air velocity and ventilation rate of shading crops.
  • The leaf chlorophyll content and TSS of muskmelon fruits increased when covering with the at 30% shading.
  • Direct sowing gave better results than transplanting in fruit weight, most yield per plant and total yield.
  • Foliar application of biozyme had least time to maturity.
  • The growth and production of muskmelon were positive affected by treatments.

GENOTYPE AND NITROGEN EFFECTS ON GRAIN YIELD AND YIELD-RELATED TRAITS OF MAIZE (Zea mays L.) HYBRIDS
289
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GENOTYPE AND NITROGEN EFFECTS ON GRAIN YIELD AND YIELD-RELATED TRAITS OF MAIZE (Zea mays L.) HYBRIDS
ORCID logo Ganga Paudel1, ORCID logo Maya Bhatta1, ORCID logo Mohan Mahato2, ORCID logo Darbin Joshi2, ORCID logo Jiban Shrestha3
1Prithu Technical College, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuvan University, Bangaun, Ward No. 3, Lamahi Municipality, Dang, 22414, Nepal
2International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Khumaltar, Ward No. 15, Lalitpur Metropolitan City, Lalitpur, 44700, Nepal
3Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Plant Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Khumaltar, Ward No. 15, Lalitpur Metropolitan City, Lalitpur, 44700, Nepal
Genotype and nitrogen application are important determinants of grain yield in maize. This experiment was carried out in split-plot design with two factors (maize hybrids as the main factor and nitrogen rates as the sub factor) arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The maize hybrids including Rampur Hybrid-2, Rampur Hybrid-4 and Rampur Hybrid-6 were main plots, and four nitrogen rates of 0, 140,160, and 180 kg N ha–1 were sub-plot. Results revealed that hybrids had significant effects on the days to 50% tasselling, cob circumference, number of kernel rows per cob and grain yield. Similarly, nitrogen rates had significant effects on all parameters except on the days to 50% tasselling and silking. The highest values of cob length (18.31 cm), no of kernel rows per cob (13.22), no of kernels per cob (33.36), cob circumference (13.90 cm) was recorded from the plot fertilized with 180 kg N ha–1. Rampur Hybrid-2 produced the highest yield (6.19 t ha–1), whereas the lowest yield was found in Rampur Hybrid-6. Similarly, 180 kg N ha–1 produced a significantly higher yield (7.06 t ha–1) which was followed by 160 kg ha–1 (6.71 t ha–1), 140 kg ha–1 (6.30 t ha–1) and the lowest yield (3.93 t ha–1) with 0 kg N ha–1. Therefore, among the hybrids evaluated, Rampur Hybrid-2 could be an appropriate hybrid variety for the cultivation at Dang district and similar conditions in Nepal. This study suggests that maize production can be maximized by cultivating Rampur Hybrid-2 with the use of 180 kg N ha–1 in the inner Terai region of Nepal.
Keywords: grain yield, growth, hybrids, maize, nitrogen.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):289–295
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.37

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VIITAMINE
Paudel, G., Bhatta, M., Mahato, M., Joshi, D., Shrestha, J. 2021. Genotype and nitrogen effects on grain yield and yield-related traits of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids. Agraarteadus, 32(2):289–295. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.37.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Prithu Technical College, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuvan University, Bangaun, Ward No. 3, Lamahi Municipality, Dang, 22414, Nepal
2International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Khumaltar, Ward No. 15, Lalitpur Metropolitan City, Lalitpur, 44700, Nepal
3Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Plant Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Khumaltar, Ward No. 15, Lalitpur Metropolitan City, Lalitpur, 44700, Nepal


 
Highlights: 
  • Application of nitrogen rates (0, 140,160, and 180 kg N ha–1) significantly affected grain yield and yield-related traits (cob length, cob circumference, No. of kernel rows per cob and no. of kernels per row of maize hybrids (Rampur Hybrid-2, Rampur Hybrid-4 and Rampur Hybrid-6).
  • Rampur Hybrid-2 produced the highest yield (6.19 t ha–1). Similarly, the application of 180 kg N ha–1 produced the highest yield (7.06 t ha–1).
  • Maize production can be maximized by cultivating Rampur Hybrid-2 with the use of 180 kg N ha–1 in the inner Terai region of Nepal.

EFFECT OF PROBIOTIC SUPPLEMENT ON NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY AND PRODUCTION TRAITS ON BROILER CHICKEN
296
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EFFECT OF PROBIOTIC SUPPLEMENT ON NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY AND PRODUCTION TRAITS ON BROILER CHICKEN
ORCID logo Julia Poberezhets, ORCID logo Roman Chudak, ORCID logo Ihor Kupchuk, ORCID logo Vitalii Yaropud, ORCID logo Volodymyr Rutkevych
Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3, Sonyachna St., UA 21008, Vinnytsia, Ukraine
The aim of the research was to investigate feed nutrient digestion and slaughter indicators of broiler chickens fed a probiotic supplement based on lactic acid bacteria. The experiment lasted for 42 days. Four groups of one-day-old broiler chickens of the Ross-308 cross were selected by the method of analogous groups, each group contained 50 birds. Broilers were kept in group cages considering all zoohygienic requirements. The control group consumed a basic diet (BD), i.e., a complete feed. The experimental groups were additionally fed different doses of a probiotic supplement (by percentage mass of feed). The broiler chickens fed the probiotic supplement had increased digestibility of dry matter, protein, fibre and nitrogen-free extractives (NFE) compared with the control group. The application of probiotic supplement in broiler feeding increases the availability of essential amino acids, i.e. lysine, histidine, arginine, threonine, valine, methionine, isoleucine compared with the control. The absorption of Ca, P, Mg, and Mn increased with the probiotic supplement. The probiotic supplement application in the diet of broiler chickens increased the pre-slaughter live weight by 16.7%, the un-gutted body weight by 15.0% and gutted body weight by 17.3%. Probiotic supplement had a positive effect on the digestibility of feed nutrients, increased the absorption of amino acids and minerals in the body broiler chickens.
Keywords: broiler chickens, probiotic, digestibility, amino acids, mineral elements, slaughter qualities.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):296–302
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.28

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VIITAMINE
Poberezhets, J., Chudak, R., Kupchuk, I., Yaropud, V., Rutkevych, V. 2021. Effect of probiotic supplement on nutrient digestibility and production traits on broiler chicken. Agraarteadus, 32(2):296–302. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.28.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3, Sonyachna St., UA 21008, Vinnytsia, Ukraine

 
Highlights: 
  • It was found that the probiotic supplement based on lactic acid bacteria had a positive effect on the feed nutrients digestibility and slaughter characteristics of broiler chickens.
    As a result of an experiment, it was established that the broiler chickens fed the probiotic supplement had the highest digestibility of dry matter, protein, fibre and nitrogen-free extractives (NFE).
  • According to research, the application of probiotic supplement in broiler feeding increases the availability of essential amino acids, i.e. lysine, histidine, arginine, threonine, valine, methionine, isoleucine and absorption of Ca, P, Mg, Mn.
  • The probiotic supplement application in the diet of broiler chickens increased the pre-slaughter live weight by 16.7%, the un-gutted body weight by 15.0% and gutted body weight by 17.3% relative to control.

CASE STUDY: INFLUENCE OF PROBIOTICS-BASED PRODUCTS ON PHYTOPATHOGENIC BACTERIA AND FUNGI IN AGROCENOSIS
303
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CASE STUDY: INFLUENCE OF PROBIOTICS-BASED PRODUCTS ON PHYTOPATHOGENIC BACTERIA AND FUNGI IN AGROCENOSIS
ORCID logo Pavlo Pysarenko, ORCID logo Maryna Samoilik, ORCID logo Anna Taranenko, ORCID logo Yurii Tsova, ORCID logo Maksym Sereda
Department of Agrotechnology and Ecology, Poltava State Agrarian University, 1/3 Skovorody St, Poltava 36003, Ukraine
In recent years bacterial diseases of agricultural plants have reached a new level of epiphytoty and they appear as an essential factor that influences crop yield. It is important to use products, which provide the eradication of pathogenic agents and the prevention of their development and propagation. The objective of our study is to define the effect of probiotics, based on Bacillus subtillis, on bactericidal and fungicidal activities, and to develop the recommendations for probiotics application in a biological system of plant protection. The results show that studied solutions Sviteco-PPW, Sviteco-OPL and Sviteco-Agrobiotic-01 affect phytopathogenic bacteria. Sviteco-Agrobiotic-01 either is the most active product, in its native state or diluted. It has demonstrated high antagonizing activity against all studied phyto­pathogenic bacteria. Hence, Sviteco-Agrobiotic-01 has the best potential to be used in the biological protection system of grain crops, grain legu­mes, vegetables from the most dangerous and widely spread pathogenic bacteria. Research results don't show a significant effect of studied probiotics on phytopathogenic fungicidal activity.
Keywords: probiotics, agrophytocenosis, phytopathogenic bacteria, Bacillus subtillis.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):303–306
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.41

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VIITAMINE
Pysarenko, P., Samoilik, M., Taranenko, A., Tsova, Y., Sereda, M. 2021. Influence of probiotics-based products on phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi in agrocenosis. Agraarteadus, 32(2):303–306. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.41.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
Department of Agrotechnology and Ecology, Poltava State Agrarian University, 1/3 Skovorody St, Poltava 36003, Ukraine

Phone: +380 953 388 252
 
Highlights: 
  • Application of probiotics based products is a new and perspective way of disease prevention and crop yield increase.
  • Probiotics based products Sviteco-PPW, Sviteco-OPL and Sviteco-Agrobiotic-01 affect phytopathogenic bacteria.
  • Sviteco-Agrobiotic-01 is the most active product, in its native state or diluted.
  • Probiotics based products has potential to be used in the biological protection system of grain crops, grain legumes, vegetables from the most dangerous and widely spread pathogenic bacteria.
  • Studied products haven’t fungicidal activity against fungal test cultures: Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria sp.

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF CHERNOZEMS TYPICAL OF DIFFERENT FARMING PRACTICES
307
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BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF CHERNOZEMS TYPICAL OF DIFFERENT FARMING PRACTICES
ORCID logo Serhii Rieznik1, ORCID logo Dmytro Havva1, ORCID logo Andrii Butenko2, ORCID logo Konstantin Novosad1
1Department of Soil Science, State Biotechnological University, Dokuchaevske Vill, Kharkiv Dist, Kharkiv Reg, Ukraine
2Sumy National Agrarian University, 160 H. Kondratieva St, UA40021, Sumy, Ukraine
The study aimed to determine the impact of different farming practices (organic and intensive) on the dynamics of potential biological activity of typical chernozem (mollisol). Comparative-profile-genetic, microbiological and mathematical-statistical methods were used for the research. The data obtained during the study of soil biological activity for 2018–2020 were analyzed. The highest popu­lation density of Collembola was observed in the variant of fallow soil in the layer of 10–20 cm (111 indiv. dm3 –1) with the lowest amount of Oribatida (32 indiv. dm3 –1). Under conditions of agrogenic use of soils, the predominance of Oribatida over Collembola was recorded. When using green manure in a soil layer of 0–10 cm, the number of Oribatida is 125 indiv. dm3 –1, while Collembola – 50 indiv. dm3 –1. Agrogenic use of chernozems reduces the number of microscopic fungi. The intensive farming system is the reason for the decrease in the number of all ecological and trophic groups of microorganisms in the 0–10 cm layer while increasing their number in the layer of 20–30 cm. Variants of the organic system of agriculture, especially with the use of green manure, contribute to the increase in the number of actinomycetes and amylolytic microbiota, as well as a short-term sharp increase in the number of oligonitrophilic microbiota. Agricultural use of soils reduces the activity of enzymes such as invertase, protease, dehydrogenase and cellulase. However, the activity of urease and catalase – increases in the soils of the organic system of agriculture. Discriminant analysis of biological activity identified three groups of soils, corresponding to different farming systems. This confirms the possibility of using the studied indicators for soil biodiagnostics.
Keywords: chernozem, organic crop farming, soil microarthropods, soil microorganisms, enzymatic activity.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):307–313
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.34

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VIITAMINE
Rieznik, S., Havva, D., Butenko, A., Novosad, K. 2021. Biological activity of chernozems typical of different farming practices. Agraarteadus, 32(2):307–313. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.34.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Department of Soil Science, State Biotechnological University, Dokuchaevske Vill, Kharkiv Dist, Kharkiv Reg, Ukraine
2Sumy National Agrarian University, 160 H. Kondratieva St, UA40021, Sumy, Ukraine


 
Highlights: 
  • Agrogenic use of chernozems reduces the number of microscopic fungi. Variants of the organic system of agriculture, especially with the use of green manure, contribute to the increase in the number of actinomycetes and amylolytic microbiota, as well as a short-term sharp increase in the number of oligonitrophilic microbiota.
  • Discriminant analysis of biological activity identified three groups of soils, corresponding to different farming systems. This confirms the possibility of using the studied indicators for soil biodiagnostics.
  • Soils in the conditions of the intensive system of agri culture are characterized by a decrease in the activity of soil enzymes in comparison with a fallow.
  • Whereas the organic farming system helps to increase the activity of urease and catalase, even in comparison with fallow land.

IS ESTONIAN BARLEY READY TO TACKLE CLIMATE CHANGE-INDUCED WATER REGIMES?
314
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IS ESTONIAN BARLEY READY TO TACKLE CLIMATE CHANGE-INDUCED WATER REGIMES?
ORCID logo Siim Samuel Sepp1, ORCID logo Ülle Tamm1, ORCID logo Evelin Loit2
1Estonian Crop Research Institute, 1 J. Aamisepa St, 48309 Jõgeva, Estonia
2Estonian University of Life Sciences, Chair of Crop Science and Plant Biology, 1 Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi St, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
The objective was to examine the effect of drought and flood on barley plants' biomass and growth rate in early vegetative development while comparing the stress adaption of different varieties. A greenhouse trial was conducted in the Estonian Crop Research Institute (ECRI) in 2021, where five Estonian grown spring barley varieties were grown in optimal, drought and flood treatments for six weeks to measure plants' projected leaf area (PA) and relative growth rate (RGR) through phenotyping. Both drought and flooding stress have a strong negative impact on plant biomass in early vegetative growth phases, causing PA at the end of the trial to decrease 26% and 49% respectively. Meanwhile, RGR throughout the trial decreased 6% in drought treatment and 16% in flood treatment. This indicates the greater impact of flood stress on plant's growth compared to drought stress. Genetic variation related to adaption to extreme water regimes in varieties is rather low, especially in drought stress conditions. In drought treatment, the variation coefficient (CV) was 14%, and in flood treatment 25%. Even as most varieties' PA and RGR varied between treatments, the difference between varieties in specific stress treatments was minimal. Estonian grown spring barley varieties are susceptible to extreme water regime related stress caused by potential climate change. This indicates the importance of assessing water-related stress tolerance in breeding material, adapting more accurate innovative evaluation approaches, and integrating climate-resilient genetic material into breeding programs, to hedge the risk caused by unfavourable growth environments in Estonian barley production.
Keywords: abiotic stress, biomass, drought, flood, vegetative growth.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):314–318
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.29

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VIITAMINE
Sepp, S.S., Tamm, Ü., Loit, E.  2021. Is Estonian barley ready to tackle climate change-induced water regimes? Agraarteadus, 32(2):314–318. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.29.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Estonian Crop Research Institute, 1 J. Aamisepa St, 48309 Jõgeva, Estonia
2Estonian University of Life Sciences, Chair of Crop Science and Plant Biology, 1 Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi St, 51006 Tartu, Estonia


 
Oluline: 
  • Nädalapikkune üleujutus ja kahe nädala pikkune põud vähendasid noorte odrataimede projekteeritud võrse pindala (PA) vastavalt 26% ja 49%.
  • Nii põua kui üleujutuse katsevariandis ilmnes stressi usutav negatiivne mõju taimede suhtelisele kasvukiirusele (RGR) vaid stressi kestel ja sellele järgneval nädalal.
  • Põuatingimused ei avaldanud usutavat mõju sortide 'Tuuli' and 'Maali' PA-le.
  • Üleujutusest tingitud stress vähendas kõikide sortide PA-d alates teisest stressijärgsest nädalast kuni katse lõpuni, tuues sellega kaasa sortide 41–67% väiksema PA katse lõpuks.
  • Sortide madal variatsioonikoefitsent ja valdav usutava erinevuse puudumine RGR ja PA puhul kinnitavad suhteliselt kitsast geneetilist variatsiooni, vastuseks ekstreemsest veerežiimist tingitud stressile.
  • Eestis kasvatatavad odrasordid on vastuvõtlikud kliimamuutustest tulenevate potensiaalsete ekstreemsete veerežiimide poolt tekitatud stressile.

ORCID logo Jiban Shrestha, ORCID logo Sudeep Subedi, Ramesh Acharya, Shiva Sharma, ORCID logo Mahesh Subedi
VARIABILITY FOR GROWTH AND YIELD TRAITS IN SINGLE CROSS HYBRIDS OF MAIZE (Zea mays L.)
319
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VARIABILITY FOR GROWTH AND YIELD TRAITS IN SINGLE CROSS HYBRIDS OF MAIZE (Zea mays L.)
ORCID logo Jiban Shrestha, ORCID logo Sudeep Subedi, Ramesh Acharya, Shiva Sharma, ORCID logo Mahesh Subedi
Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Plant Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Khumaltar, 15 Lalitpur Metropolitan City, 44700, Nepal
Sixteen single-cross hybrids of maize were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications to investigate genetic variability and correlation among growth and yield traits at Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal from March 13 to September 05, 2021. The hybrids were grouped into four clusters using Euclidean Average Linkage method. The cluster analysis showed the presence of genetic variability in the evaluated hybrids. The maximum distance between cluster centroids (194.28) was found between cluster 2 and cluster 4, indicating genetic dissimilarity. Grain yield had the maximum values of phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) (35.02%), followed by ear height (17.82%) and plant height (12.22%). Similarly, grain yield had the maximum values of genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) (26.24%) followed by the number of kernel rows/cob (8.77%) and days to 50% silking (8.72%). Days to 50% silking and days to 50% tasseling had the highest values of heritability (86%) followed by cob diameter (84%) and no. of kernel rows in cob (68%). The leaf area per plant had the maximum values of genetic advance (GA) (74.87 cm2), followed by plant height (27.80 cm) and days to 50% silking (9.66 days). Similarly, the maximum values of genetic advance as percent of the mean (GAM) was found for grain yield (40.50%) followed by days to 50% silking (16.70%) and days to 50% tasseling (16.17%). The hybrids namely KWM-91 × KWM-93 produced the maximum values of grain yield (9.99 t ha–1) followed by KWM-93 × KWM-91 (9.63 t ha–1) and KWM-92 × KWM-93 (9.40 t ha–1). Grain yield showed positive and significant phenotypic correlation with days to 50% silking (r = 0.41), days to 50% tasseling (r = 0.39), plant height (r = 0.37), cob diameter (r = 0.49) and the number of kernel rows in cob (r = 0.38). Therefore, utilization of present genetic variability along with indirect selection for traits having significant association with grain yield, high heritability and GAM could aid in the improvement of maize productivity.
Keywords: correlation, GCV, genetic advance, heritability, maize, PCV.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):319–327
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.31

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VIITAMINE
Shrestha, J., Subedi, S., Acharya, R., Sharma, S., Subedi, M. 2021. Variability for growth and yield traits in single cross hybrids of maize (Zea mays L.). Agraarteadus, 32(2):319–327. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.31.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Plant Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Khumaltar, 15 Lalitpur Metropolitan City, 44700, Nepal





 
Highlights: 
  • The sixteen single-cross hybrids of maize showed the variability for plant height, ear height, days to 50% silking, days to 50% tasseling, leaf area per plant, cob length, cob diameter, number of kernel rows in cob and grain yield.
  • For all growth and yield traits, the phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was bigger than the genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV), indicating that there was an environmental influence.
  • Days to 50% silking, days to 50% tasseling, plant height, cob diameter and the number of kernel rows in cob were found to have a maximum correlation with grain yield; these traits may boost grain yield.

EVALUATION OF COMMON BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) GENOTYPES AGAINST ANTHRACNOSE (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Sacc. and Magn.)
328
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EVALUATION OF COMMON BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) GENOTYPES AGAINST ANTHRACNOSE (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Sacc. and Magn.)
ORCID logo Sujata K.C.1, ORCID logo Hira Kaji Manandhar2, ORCID logo Sundar Man Shrestha2, ORCID logo Basistha Acharya3, ORCID logo Jiban Shrestha4
1National Wheat Research Program, Bhairahawa, Ward No. 2, Omsatiya Rural Municipality, Rupandehi, Lumbini Province, 32900, Nepal
2Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan, Bharatpur 15, Bharatpur Metropolitan City, 44209, Nepal
3Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Directorate of Agricultural Research, Khajura, Ward No. 4, Janaki Rural Municipality, Banke, Nepal
4Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Plant Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Khumaltar, Ward No. 15, Lalitpur Metropolitan City, Lalitpur, 44700, Nepal
Twelve genotypes of common bean were evaluated against anthracnose under natural epiphytotic conditions. This study was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the research field of Agriculture Research Station (ARS), Vijaynagar, Jumla, Nepal from June to September 2018. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) and disease severity were calculated. In laboratory conditions, artificial inoculation was carried out on detached leaves of twelve geno­types using a pure culture suspension of Colletotrichum lindemuthia­num (1.2× 106 conidia ml–1) in a completely randomized design with three replications. The results showed that bean genotypes varied significantly for disease severity both in the field and laboratory conditions. In the field, bean genotypes showed resistance to highly susceptible reactions. Their AUDPC value ranged from 120.55 to 502.31. The lowest mean AUDPC value was recorded in KBL-1 (120.55) followed by KBL-3 (123.79) and KBL-2 (124.44). Similarly, the lowest severity value was recorded with KBL-1 (0.51), KBL-2 (0.52) and KBL-3 (0.53). Detached leaf assay in laboratory experiment showed that the lowest mean AUDPC was found in KBL-2 (16.67) and KBL-3 (16.67). Therefore, KBL-2 and KBL-3 could be utilized as resistant varieties to anthracnose disease under Jumla and similar field conditions.
Keywords: AUDPC, common bean, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, resistance.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):328–334
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.43

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VIITAMINE
K.C, S., Manandhar, H. K., Shrestha, S. M., Acharya, B., Shrestha, J. 2021. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolous vulgaris L.) genotypes against anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Sacc. and Magn.). Agraarteadus, 32(2):328–334. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.43.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1National Wheat Research Program, Bhairahawa, Ward No. 2, Omsatiya Rural Municipality, Rupandehi, Lumbini Province, 32900, Nepal
2Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan, Bharatpur 15, Bharatpur Metropolitan City, 44209, Nepal
3Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Directorate of Agricultural Research, Khajura, Ward No. 4, Janaki Rural Municipality, Banke, Nepal
4Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Plant Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Khumaltar, Ward No. 15, Lalitpur Metropolitan City, Lalitpur, 44700, Nepal






 
Highlights: 
  • Twelve genotypes of common bean were evaluated against anthracnose under natural epiphytotic conditions at Vijaynagar, Jumla, Nepal from June to September 2018. The genotypes varied significantly for disease severity both in the field and in laboratory conditions.
  • Field screening showed the lowest mean AUDPC value in KBL-1 (120.55) followed by KBL-3 (123.79). The lowest disease severity value was observed in KBL-1 (0.51) followed by KBL-2 (0.52) and KBL-3 (0.53). Detached leaf assay in laboratory experiment showed the lowest mean AUDPC in KBL-2 (16.67) followed by KBL-3 (16.67).
  • The disease-resistant promising bean genotypes namely KBL-2 and KBL-3 can be recommended for Jumla and similar agro-environments for higher grain yield production.

SHORT COMMUNICATION: EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN AND FARMYARD MANURE ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF SPINACH (Spinacia oleracea L.)
335
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SHORT COMMUNICATION: EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN AND FARMYARD MANURE ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF SPINACH (Spinacia oleracea L.)
ORCID logo Parbati Thapa1, ORCID logo Ram Kumar Shrestha1, ORCID logo Kishor Kafle1, ORCID logo Jiban Shrestha2
1Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Lamjung Campus, Sundarbazar 07, Sundarbazar Municipality, 33600, Nepal
2Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Plant Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Khumaltar15, Lalitpur Metropolitan City, 44700, Nepal
The application of nitrogen (N) and farmyard manure (FYM) greatly affects the growth and production of spinach. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of various levels of nitrogen and farmyard manure on the growth and yield of spinach. This study was conducted in the research field of the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Lamjung, Sundarbazar, Lamjung, Nepal from November 2019 to January 2020. The treatments were: 0 kg N ha–1, 30 kg N ha–1, 60 kg N ha–1, 60 kg N ha–1 + 10 t FYM ha–1, 60 kg N ha–1 + 20 t FYM ha–1, 90 kg N ha–1 and 120 kg N ha–1. These treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The results showed that higher N levels gave better results for all parameters studied. The increasing N fertilization rates increased the vegetative characters and yield of spinach. The maximum plant height (22.68 cm), leaf width (6.69 cm), number of leaves (12.93), fresh weight of leaves (17.07 g) and leaf length (14.94 cm) were recorded with the application of the highest level of nitrogen (120 kg N ha–1). The spinach yield (3.2 t ha–1) was the highest with the application of 120 kg N ha–1. However, the growth and yield traits were not significantly differed with the application of 60 kg N ha–1 + 20 t FYM ha–1. Therefore, this study suggests that spinach production can be maximized by the application of 60 kg N ha–1+ 20 t FYM ha–1.
Keywords: spinach, growth, nitrogen, farmyard manure, yield, fertility.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):335–340
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.21

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VIITAMINE
Thapa, P., Shrestha, R.K., Kafle, K., Shrestha, J. 2021. Short communication: Effect of different levels of nitrogen and farmyard manure on the growth and yield of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Agraarteadus, 32(2):335–340. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.21.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Lamjung Campus, Sundarbazar 07, Sundarbazar Municipality, 33600, Nepal
2Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Plant Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Khumaltar15, Lalitpur Metropolitan City, 44700, Nepal




 
Highlights: 
  • The application of nitrogen (N) and farmyard manure (FYM) affected the growth and production of spinach. However, the growth and yield traits were not significantly differed with the application of 60 kg N ha–1+ 20 t FYM ha–1.
  • The maximum plant height (22.68 cm), leaf width (6.69 cm), number of leaves (12.93), fresh weight of leaves (17.07 g), leaf length (14.94 cm) and yield (3.2 t ha–1) were recorded with the application of the highest level of nitrogen (120 kg N ha–1), however, these traits were not significantly differed with the application of 60 kg N ha–1+ 20 t FYM ha–1.
  • Spinach production can be maximized by the application of 60 kg N ha–1+ 20 t FYM ha–1.

JUSTIFICATION OF THE MECHATRONIC SYSTEM FOR PIGSTY MICROCLIMATE MAINTENANCE
341
KOKKUVÕTE
JUSTIFICATION OF THE MECHATRONIC SYSTEM FOR PIGSTY MICROCLIMATE MAINTENANCE
ORCID logo Vitalii Yaropud1, ORCID logo Iryna Hunko1, ORCID logo Elchyn Aliiev2, ORCID logo Ihor Kupchuk1
1Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3 Sonyachna St., Vinnytsia, 21008, Ukraine
2Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, 25 Voroshylova St., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine
The main parameters of the microclimate of pig farms are regulated by the norms of technological design. Naturally, such micro­climate parameters at real energy prices require high costs, but these are the most favourable conditions for the life of suckling piglets. According to the presented analysis, the problem of research is the need to provide a micro­climate in the room for comfortable keeping of pigs, which is currently achieved through high energy. The purpose of the development is to increase the efficiency of the microclimate of pig farms by using a mechatronic control system, rational use of utilized air energy and soil thermal potential with reduced energy costs of the ventilation system. The problem is solved by creating such a mechatronic system to ensure the microclimate of pig farms, which can: switch the direction of airflow to ensure the operation of the system in winter and summer; to control the movement of air, which must be disposed of according to the parameters of its quality; to provide a local microclimate in each place where animals are kept; rational use of soil thermal energy as a source of alternative energy; to carry out automatic pumping of the water necessary for humidification of air, and its utilization. The article presents the results of research of parameters of the developed mechatronic system of providing microclimate of pig premises, which were carried out in three stages: research of heat exchanger of side-evaporating type; substantiation of the ventilation system of polluted air intake; substantiation of the ventilation system for injecting clean air taking into account it's geothermal heating/cooling. The advantage of the proposed mechatronic system of the microclimate of pig farms is that it allows increasing the efficiency of microclimate by rational use of energy of utilized air (due to the use of side-evaporator type heat exchanger based on Maisotsenko cycle) and soil heat potential (geothermal energy) at low operating costs of the ventilation system through the additional provision of mechatronic elements. The presented results of numerical simulation of the indirect evaporative heat exchanger allow us to state that the cooling effect obtained in indirect evaporative channels can be quite high in comparison with traditional air conditioning patterns. The presented heat exchanger based on the Maisotsenko cycle (M-cycle) of considered heat carrier flow scheme is characterized by its high cost-effectiveness, low specific cost, small operational costs and structural simplicity, which is confirmed in the works. The models obtained in the Star CCM +software package can be used for optimization analysis of air-cooling with variations in the Reynolds number, humidity, channel length and geometric dimensions of channels. Because of analytical investigations of the contaminated air intake ventilation system, the method was developed and on its basis – the algorithm was implemented for the determination of geometrical arrangement of holes in the air duct of the mechatronic system for pigsty microclimate maintenance.
Keywords: pigsty, microclimate, mechatronic system, ventilation, heat exchanger, geothermal energy.
Source: Agraarteadus, 2021, 32(2):341–351
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15159/jas.21.23

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VIITAMINE
Yaropud, V., Hunko, I., Aliiev, E., Kupchuk, I.  2021. Justification of the mechatronic system for pigsty microclimate maintenance. Agraarteadus, 32(2):341–351. DOI: 10.15159/jas.21.23.
 
AUTORI KONTAKT
1Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3 Sonyachna St., Vinnytsia, 21008, Ukraine
2Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, 25 Voroshylova St., Dnipro, 49027, Ukraine



 
Highlights: 
  • The developed mechatronic system can:
    • switch the direction of airflow to ensure the operation of the system in winter and summer;
    • control the movement of air, which can be disposed of according to the parameters of its quality;
    • provide a local microclimate in each place where animals are kept;
    • rational use of soil thermal energy as a source of alternative energy;
    • carry out automatic pumping of the water necessary for humidification of air and its utilization.
  • The method was developed and on its basis, the algorithm was implemented for the determination of the geometrical arrangement of holes in the air duct of the mechatronic system for pigsty microclimate maintenance..

KROONIKA

Anne Lüpsik
70 AASTAT EESTI PÕLLUMAJANDUSE AKADEEMIA MOODUSTAMISEST. ARENGUD ÕPPETEGEVUSES
352
OTSELINK
https://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/chronicle/2021_2_lupsik.pdf

Jaanus Männik
20 AASTAT EESTI MAAÜLIKOOLI VILISTLASKOGU
376
OTSELINK
https://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/chronicle/2021_2_mannik.pdf

JUUBELID

Ülle Jaakma
ANDRES VALDMANN – 60
378
OTSELINK
https://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/chronicle/2021_2_jaakma.pdf

Haldja Viinalass
TANEL KAART – 50
379
OTSELINK
https://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/chronicle/2021_2_viinalass.pdf

MÄLESTUSPÄEVAD

Toivo Univer
LAINE ILUS – 100
380
OTSELINK
https://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/chronicle/2021_2_univer1.pdf

Toivo Univer
EDGAR HAAK – 90
381
OTSELINK
https://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/chronicle/2021_2_univer2.pdf

Ants Bender
MART KUIV – 90
382
OTSELINK
https://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/chronicle/2021_2_bender.pdf

TEATED

DOKTORIKRAADI KAITSJAD EESTI MAAÜLIKOOLIS 2021. AASTAL
383
OTSELINK
https://agrt.emu.ee/pdf/chronicle/2021_2_teated.pdf

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Avaldatud 27-12-2021